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Health Problems & Solutions

Some Health Quaries & Answers

Touch the Grass


Q: I am 23 years old and have been reading a lot about exercising bare foot. I want to give it a try.

A: Barefoot running has really caught on. In fact, there is even a special barefoot shoe, which is similar to a glove. If you plan to run or walk long distances barefoot, make sure you do it on grass or soft soil. Tarred and cement roads or tracks with stones will hurt your feet. Also, make sure you acclimatise and harden your soles by doing short runs or walks at first. Running barefoot on the treadmill or skipping rope without shoes is, however, not a good idea.

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Pee pain

Q: My 9-month-old son strains to pass urine. His face turns red and he cries every time.

A: Check to see if his foreskin balloons out when he urinates. If that happens it means that the skin around the meatus (hole through which the urine comes out) is tight. You need to consult a paediatric surgeon. They can dilate it. Otherwise they might suggest a small operation called a circumcision.

Sometimes children may strain to urinate owing to posterior valves in the urinary bladder, which obstruct the free flow of urine. Both the conditions need evaluation, diagnosis and surgical correction. So consult your doctor immediately.

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Acne farewell

Q: I am being treated for acne and want to know if I can continue with the treatment after marriage.

A: Stop the treatment if you think that you might become pregnant soon after the marriage. Small quantities of products you apply on the skin can get absorbed and affect the foetus. Many common over-the-counter acne treatments contain benzoyl peroxide retinoids, minocycline and tetracyclines, all of which can potentially cause birth defects and need to be avoided during pregnancy.

Here are some safe, non medical ways to control acne:-

Wash your face using a wash cloth 3-4 times a day.

Do not apply talcum powder or greasy make up.

Shampoo your hair regularly.

Keep hair off the face.

Avoid picking and scratching acne

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Bow legs


Q: My daughter is three years old and bow-legged. It looks awkward and we are worried that the deformity will persist and cause problems when she is an adult.

A: Children are normally born bow-legged. It may be more obvious in some than in others. It usually gets corrected by the age of 5-6. If the legs are curved more than normal, it may be due to rickets (a consequence of vitamin D deficiency), or Blount’s disease. It is better to have your paediatrician evaluate the child.

Prostrate trouble


Q: My father gets up several times in the night to go to the loo, where he spends a lot of time as he says the urine does not flow freely.

A: Your father needs to be evaluated for an enlarged prostrate. It seems the likely diagnosis as he is complaining of “an obstructed feeling”. Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) or prostatic growth begins at approximately 30. Around 50 per cent of men have evidence of BPH by age 50 and 75 per cent by 80. It can usually be tackled with medication. However, you need to do scans and a blood test called PSA (prostate specific antigen) to rule out cancer. Appropriate treatment can be provided by a urologist.

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Leg ache


Q: I develop a shooting pain down the back of my leg when I move suddenly. The doctor said it is sciatica and that I need surgery.

A: Sciatica is a generic term that describes a set of symptoms like tingling, pain or numbness in one leg. It is due to compression of one or more of the nerves coming out of the spinal cord. This may be due to the collapse of the lumbar vertebrae or herniation of the discs in between the bones. It needs to be evaluated with a CT scan or an MRI. If the symptoms are mild and there is no actual muscle wasting, traction and exercise can be tried. If the herniation is severe, surgery may be required.

Milk allergy


Q: My 6-month-old son had such a bad bout of diarrhoea that he lost a kilo. The paediatrician said he is allergic to cow’s milk and asked me to give him soya milk. I tried but my son does not like the taste. Can I use Nan or Lactogen instead? I have no milk so he has been on cow’s milk since birth.

A: Nan, Lactogen and other baby formulae are made by processing cow’s milk. So if your son is allergic to cow’s milk, he will be allergic to these tinned products also. Since your son is six months old, in addition to soya milk, you can start giving him solid food. You can give khichdi, potatoes, carrots, idlies and bananas. The ready-to-serve weaning foods available in packets and tins often contain milk powder so they are better avoided. If you want to use them, check the packaging label.

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Source : The Telegraph ( Kolkata, India)

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News on Health & Science

If You’re in Pain, Think UTI

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Pain while passing urine, a desire to urinate every few minutes, an inability to pass urine despite the urge, high-coloured, cloudy urine, abdominal pain, high fever, shivering and vomiting — a few or all of these are symptoms of an infection somewhere along the urinary tract. In the elderly, the only symptom may be a change in mental status. In men, the pain may be felt in the rectal area. In children, after a period of dryness, bedwetting may recur. In babies, the temperature can fall instead of rise, and there may be jaundice. Almost 25 per cent of visits to a physician is due to this very common infection.
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Urinary tract infection (UTI) affects all age groups and both sexes. It is much more common in women, because of the shorter urethra, its proximity to the anus, pregnancy (when the uterus obstructs the free flow of urine) and minor trauma during sexual intercourse. Thirty five per cent of women have one episode of UTI before the age of 30. Men tend to develop UTI if their prostrate gland is enlarged as this obstructs the flow of urine. In both sexes kidney stones, structural abnormalities of the urinary tract, diabetes or lack of immunity (HIV, cancer medication) can increase susceptibility to infection. Pregnant women can develop asymptomatic UTI with bacteria detected in their urine on routine examination. This condition, called “asymptomatic bactinuria” of pregnancy, needs to be treated.
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Physicians suspect that UTI exists based on the symptoms. A routine urine examination shows abnormalities like pus cells or blood in the urine. A culture can be done to determine the organism responsible so that the appropriate antibiotic can be administered.

Untreated patients of UTI can sometimes recover spontaneously without treatment in a few months. But the infection can also enter the blood stream, causing potentially fatal septicaemia. The kidneys may become scarred, too. This leads to high blood pressure and kidney failure. During pregnancy, recurrent or chronic UTI or asymptomatic UTI compromises the placental blood supply. This affects the baby’s nutrition, leading to low birth weight and sometimes causing the mother to go into premature labour.

There are several regimens for treating UTI. Depending on the organism and antibiotic, in adult women a three-day course is usually sufficient for mild infection. In most cases and in the case of men, however, a 7-10 or 14-day course is required. Oral medication is usually sufficient. If the infection has affected the kidney, hospitalisation and intravenous medication may be required. It is important to follow the doctor’s instructions and complete the course of antibiotics even if you are symptomatically better. In women, if the symptoms do not respond and there is also white discharge, there may be an underlying pelvic infection. In men, non-responsiveness to treatment may be due to unrecognised prostatitis.

One of the ways to prevent UTI is to drink plenty of water. The urine becomes dilute and the bladder gets flushed regularly. An adult needs around 2.5 litres of water a day. In hot, humid climates and in people who exercise vigorously the requirement may go up to 4-6 litres a day. Also, drink a glass of water before going to bed. Empty the bladder before and after intercourse. Drink a glass of water after intercourse.

A few studies have shown that cranberry juice (available in India, Hindi name karaunda) and blueberry juice (not available) helps reduce the frequency and duration of UTI. This is because the juice contains vitamin C which acidifies the urine. It also contains natural chemicals that make the bladder wall slippery and prevent bacteria from sticking to it and initiating an infection. Other citrus juices and tablets of vitamin C are effective but not as efficient. A tablespoon of home-made curd taken on an empty stomach first thing in the morning naturally repopulates the intestines with “good lactobacillus”. This decreases the likelihood of the growth of disease-causing bacteria in the rectum, from where they can enter the urethra.

The pelvic muscles become lax after childbirth. This increases the possibility of the bladder and uterus descending downwards while straining. “Accidents” with leakage of urine and urgency can also occur.

All these increase the chances of infection. Keegles exercises should be done regularly soon after childbirth. Also while passing urine, consciously stop and start. This tones the pelvic muscles.

Women tend to lean forward while urinating. This position is inefficient as it increases the angle between the bladder and the urethra, creating an obstruction to the flow of urine. Women should consciously lean backwards. Also, when the area is being washed after urination or passing motion, wash from front to back. This decreases the likelihood of contamination of the urethra with rectal bacteria

Source: The Telegraph ( Kolkata, India)

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Health Alert

How To Recognize The Signs And Symptoms Of Prostate Problems

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It’s embarrassing. It’s annoying. It’s exasperating. And it’s controllable. We’re talking about the distressing inconvenience of the side effects associated with prostate problems. This often means midnight treks to the bathroom to pee, pain when you start and end urination and dribbling when you’re done. It can be frustrating when nothing you do seems to help, no matter how careful you try to be.

The key to controlling these symptoms is understanding what causes them, so you can learn how to cope and prevent them in the future.

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The walnut-sized prostate gland is situated at the base of the bladder. The urethra runs from the bladder through the prostate and through the penis. As the prostate gets bigger, it constricts the flow of fluid through the urethra, contributing to several unpleasant and annoying symptoms:

*A need to urinate frequently during the night
*Urinating more often during the day
*Urinary urgency—a strong and sudden urge to pee
*Slow-to-start urine stream
*Lack of force in the urinary stream
*A slight stinging at the beginning and end of urination
*Urine “dribbling” some time after urination ends
*The sensation that the bladder hasn’t been emptied entirely
*The need to urinate again only a few minutes later
For the most part, these symptoms by themselves don’t require medical attention. They can often be controlled by certain urination management techniques that you can practice on your own. If the symptoms are particularly bothersome to you, consult a healthcare professional for help. In particular, you should seek medical care if you experience these symptoms:

*Inability to urinate
*Painful urination
*Blood in the urine
*Discharges from the penis other than urine
*Continuous or severe urinary incontinence
More often than not, using self-help management techniques and natural supplements such as saw palmetto, pumpkin seed, lycopene, red clover and nettle can help manage your prostate health. It’s important to remember that frequent urination, stinging and dribbling are often not a threat to your health or your life, although they can be awkward and embarrassing.

You may click to see :Prostrate Problems Blog

Non-Cancerous Prostate Problems:-

The following are some of the most common non-cancerous prostate problems, their symptoms, and treatment options:

1. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

This problem occurs when the prostate gets enlarged. The prostate then blocks the urethra making it difficult to urinate. It causes a person to have a frequent urge to urinate and may cause urine to dribble. You need to see a doctor who will then conduct a rectal examination to diagnose the problem.

If your condition is not causing any problems, the doctor may advise annual checkups only. Treatment will be prescribed only if your situation gets worse later on. There are medications that can cause you prostate to shrink or can relax the muscles near the prostate. However, these medicines can cause side effects such as sexual problems, headaches, dizziness, or fatigue.

Surgery is usually advised only when the medications are not effective. Radio waves, Microwaves, and Lasers are used to treat BPH-related problems.

2. Acute Prostatitis

This condition is caused due to a bacterial infection of the prostate. It causes fever, chills, pain in the lower back, pain between legs, or pain while urinating. A host of medications are available to treat Prostatitis, but hey will be prescribed by your doctor. Do not take over the counter drugs.

3. Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis

This is a chronic condition caused by a bacterial infection. You may need to take antibiotics for a long time for the situation to improve. Even then, this infection may recur again and a recurrence is usually quite difficult to treat.

4. Chronic Abacterial Prostatitis

This condition is also known as Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CPPS). It causes pain in the lower back, at the tip of the penis, or between the legs. You may also have pain during sex or may need to urinate frequently. This situation is also hard to treat and may require more than one form of treatment.

Reources :

Better Health Research
Posts Tagged ‘Prostate

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Diagnonistic Test

Urinalysis

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Definition :
Urinalysis is the physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine. It involves a number of tests to detect and measure various compounds that pass through the urine.

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It is a routine examination of the urine for cells, tiny structures, bacteria, and chemicals that suggest various illnesses. A urine culture attempts to grow large numbers of bacteria from a urine sample to diagnose a bacterial urine infection.


How the Test is Performed

A urine sample is needed. Your health care provider will tell you what type of urine sample is needed. For information on how to collect a urine sample, see:

*24-hour urine collection
*Clean catch urine specimen

There are three basic steps to a complete urinalysis:

1. Physical color and appearance:

*What does the urine look like to the naked eye?
*Is it clear or cloudy?
*Is it pale or dark yellow or another color?

The urine specific gravity test reveals how concentrated or dilute the urine is.

2.Microscopic appearance:

The urine sample is examined under a microscope. This is done to look at cells, urine crystals, mucus, and other substances, and to identify any bacteria or other microorganisms that might be present.

3,Chemical appearance:

A special stick (“dipstick”) tests for various substances in the urine. The stick contains little pads of chemicals that change color when they come in contact with the substances of interest.

Click to See : Urine chemistry

How to Prepare for the Test:
For a regular urinalysis, you are asked to urinate briefly into a plastic cup. When urine is collected for a urine culture, you must provide a “clean catch” sample – one that is not contaminated by skin cells and skin bacteria. This is so the doctor can obtain a sample of urine from inside your bladder, where normally there should be no bacteria. In contrast, there are many bacteria on the skin of a penis or in a vagina. The trick (harder for a woman than a man) is to pee directly into a sterile container without having the stream of urine first touch your skin or the nonsterile tissues of the vagina.

To collect a clean catch sample, you are given a sterile plastic container and asked to wipe off the area around your urethra (where urine exits) with an antiseptic cloth. For women, it’s also helpful to hold the two labia (outer walls) of the vagina apart with one hand when you urinate, so that the stream of urine passes directly into the sterile container. Since the first flow of urine is most likely to be contaminated by bacteria from around the opening of the urethra, first urinate for a moment into the toilet and then use the cup to collect the “middle” portion of your urine stream.

Certain medicines change the color of urine, but this is not a sign of disease. Your doctor may tell you to stop taking any medicines that can affect test results.

Medicines that can change your urine color include:

*Chloroquine
*Iron supplements
*Levodopa
*Nitrofurantoin
*Phenazopyridine
*Phenothiazines
*Phenytoin
*Riboflavin
*Triamterene

Why the Test is Performed :-

A urinalysis may be done:

As part of a routine medical exam to screen for early signs of disease
If you have signs of diabetes or kidney disease, or to monitor you if you are being treated for these conditions
To check for blood in the urine
To diagnose a urinary tract infection
Additional conditions under which the test may be performed:

*Acute bilateral obstructive uropathy
*Acute nephritic syndrome
*Acute tubular necrosis
*Acute unilateral obstructive uropathy
*Alkalosis
*Alport syndrome
*Analgesic nephropathy
*Anorexia nervosa
*Atheroembolic renal disease
*Atrial myxoma
*Bladder stones
*Chronic bilateral obstructive uropathy
*Chronic glomerulonephritis
*Chronic or recurrent urinary tract infection
*Chronic renal failure
*Chronic unilateral obstructive uropathy
*Chronic urethritis
*Complicated UTI (pyelonephritis)
*Congenital nephrotic syndrome
*Cystinuria
*Delirium
*Dementia
*Dementia due to metabolic causes
*Diabetes insipidus — central
*Diabetic nephropathy/sclerosis
*Enuresis
*Epididymitis
*Failure to thrive
*Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
*Goodpasture’s syndrome
*Heart failure
*Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS)
*Henoch-Schonlein purpura
*Insulin-dependent diabetes (IDD)
*IgA nephropathy (Berger’s disease)
*Injury of the kidney and ureter
*Interstitial nephritis
*Irritable bladder
*Left-sided heart failure
*Lupus nephritis
*Malignant hypertension (arteriolar nephrosclerosis)
*Medullary cystic kidney disease
*Membranoproliferative GN I
*Membranoproliferative GN II
*Membranous nephropathy
*Myelomeningocele (children)
*Necrotizing vasculitis
*Nephrotic syndrome
*Noninsulin-dependent diabetes (NIDD)
*Orchitis
*Ovarian cancer
*Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)
*Polycystic kidney disease
*Post-streptococcal GN
*Prerenal azotemia
*Primary amyloid
*Prostate cancer
*Prostatitis, acute
*Prostatitis, chronic
*Prostatitis, non-bacterial
*Pyelonephritis; acute
*Rapidly progressive (crescentic) glomerulonephritis
*Reflux nephropathy
*Renal papillary necrosis
*Renal tubular acidosis; distal
*Renal tubular acidosis; proximal
*Renal vein thrombosis
*Retrograde ejaculation
*Rhabdomyolysis
*Right-sided heart failure
*Secondary systemic amyloid
*Stress incontinence
*Systemic lupus erythematosus
*Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma)
*Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
*Traumatic injury of the bladder and urethra
*Ureterocele
*Urethral stricture
*Urethritis
*Wegener’s granulomatosis
*Wilms’ tumor

RESULTS:

Normal Results
Normal urine may vary in color from almost colorless to dark yellow. Some foods (like beets and blackberries) may turn the urine a red color.

Usually, glucose, ketones, protein, bilirubin, are not detectable in urine. The following are not normally found in urine:

*Hemoglobin
*Nitrites
*Red blood cells
*White blood cells
Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.

What Abnormal Results Mean
For specific results, see the individual test article:

*Bilirubin – urine
*Glucose – urine
*Protein – urine
*Red blood cells in urine test
*Urine ketones
*Urine pH
*Urine protein
*Urine specific gravity

How long is it before the result of the test is known?
Your doctor might be able to do a urinalysis in his or her office and can give you the results within 10-15 minutes. If the urine is sent to a separate laboratory, it usually takes several hours to get results, so you may not hear from your doctor until the next day. A urine culture takes 24 to 72 hours to complete, so you may not hear results for several days.

Resources:
https://www.health.harvard.edu/fhg/diagnostics/urinalysis.shtml
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003579.htm

http://www.hallvet.com.au/services/urinalysis.html

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Diagnonistic Test

Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP)

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Definition:
An intravenous pyelogram (IVP) is an x-ray examination of the kidneys, ureters and urinary bladder that uses iodinated contrast material injected into veins.

You may click to see the pictures    :

An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging.

The dye is injected through an IV (intravenous) line. Since your body clears away the dye by moving all of it into your urine, the organs that make and hold urine show up very brightly on the x-rays. This test is useful for finding kidney stones, tumors, or blockages in the urinary tract.

Why it is done:
An intravenous pyelogram examination helps the physician assess abnormalities in the urinary system, as well as how quickly and efficiently the patient’s system is able to handle waste.

The exam is used to help diagnose symptoms such as blood in the urine or pain in the side or lower back.

The IVP exam can enable the radiologist to detect problems within the urinary tract resulting from:

*kidney stones
*enlarged prostate
*tumors in the kidney, ureters or urinary bladder.

How should you prepare for the test
Your doctor will give you detailed instructions on how to prepare for your IVP study.

You will likely be instructed not to eat or drink after midnight on the night before your exam. You may also be asked to take a mild laxative (in either pill or liquid form) the evening before the procedure.

You should inform your physician of any medications you are taking and if you have any allergies, especially to iodinated contrast materials. Also inform your doctor about recent illnesses or other medical conditions.

On the day before your test, you should drink plenty of fluids. This will help prepare your kidneys for the job of clearing out the dye the next day.

Your doctor will instruct you to eat a special diet the night before the test, so that you have less solid stool in your large intestine. (Large amounts of stool in the intestine can make it harder to interpret your x-rays.) Typical instructions might include using a laxative in the afternoon before your test and limiting your dinner the night before to clear liquids such as broth and juice.

You may be asked to remove some or all of your clothes and to wear a gown during the exam. You may also be asked to remove jewelry, eye glasses and any metal objects or clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images.

Women should always inform their physician or x-ray technologist if there is any possibility that they are pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to radiation. If an x-ray is necessary, precautions will be taken to minimize radiation exposure to the baby. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays.

What does the equipment look like?


The equipment typically used for this examination consists of a radiographic table, an x-ray tube and a television-like monitor that is located in the examining room or in a nearby room. When used for viewing images in real time (called fluoroscopy), the image intensifier (which converts x-rays into a video image) is suspended over a table on which the patient lies. When used for taking still pictures, the image is captured either electronically or on film.

How does the procedure work?
X-rays are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special digital image recording plate.

Fluoroscopy uses a continuous x-ray beam to create a sequence of images that are projected onto a fluorescent screen, or television-like monitor. When used with a contrast material, which clearly defines the area being examined by making it appear bright white, this special x-ray technique makes it possible for the physician to view internal organs in motion. Still images are also captured and stored either on film or electronically on a computer.

In the IVP exam, an iodine-containing contrast material is injected through a vein in the arm collects in the kidneys, ureters and bladder, giving these areas a bright white and sharply defined appearance on the x-ray images.

X-ray images are maintained as hard film copy (much like a photographic negative) or, more likely, as a digital image that is stored electronically. These stored images are easily accessible and are sometimes compared to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management.

How is the procedure performed?


This examination is usually done on an outpatient basis.

The patient is positioned on the table and still x-ray images are taken. The contrast material is then injected, usually in a vein in the patient’s arm, followed by additional still images.

You must hold very still and may be asked to keep from breathing for a few seconds while the x-ray picture is taken to reduce the possibility of a blurred image. The technologist will walk behind a wall or into the next room to activate the x-ray machine.

As the contrast material is processed by the kidneys a series of images is taken to determine the actual size of the kidneys and to capture the urinary tract in action as it begins to empty. The technologist may apply a compression band around the body to better visualize the urinary structures leading from the kidney.

When the examination is complete, you will be asked to wait until the radiologist determines that all the necessary images have been obtained.

An IVP study is usually completed within an hour. However, because some kidneys empty at a slower rate the exam may last up to four hours.

How you feel:
The IVP is usually a relatively comfortable procedure.

You will feel a minor sting as the contrast material is injected into your arm through a small needle. Some patients experience a flush of warmth, a mild itching sensation and a metallic taste in their mouth as it begins to circulate throughout their body. These common side effects usually disappear within a minute or two and are harmless. Rarely, some patients will experience an allergic reaction. Itching that persists or is accompanied by hives, can be easily treated with medication. In very rare cases, a patient may become short of breath or experience swelling in the throat or other parts of the body. These can be indications of a more serious reaction to the contrast material that should be treated promptly. Tell the radiologist immediately if you experience these symptoms.

During the imaging process, you may be asked to turn from side to side and to hold several different positions to enable the radiologist to capture views from several angles. Near the end of the exam, you may be asked to empty your bladder so that an additional x-ray can be taken of your urinary bladder after it empties.

The contrast material used for IVP studies will not discolor your urine or cause any discomfort when you urinate. If you experience such symptoms after your IVP exam, you should let your doctor know immediately.

Who interprets the results and how to get it
A radiologist, a physician specifically trained to supervise and interpret radiology examinations, will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician, who will discuss the results with you.

What are the benefits vs. risks?
Benefits:-
*Imaging of the urinary tract with IVP is a minimally invasive procedure.
*IVP images provide valuable, detailed information to assist physicians in diagnosing and treating urinary tract conditions from kidney stones to cancer.
*An IVP can often provide enough information about kidney stones and obstructions to direct treatment with medication and avoid more invasive surgical procedures.
*No radiation remains in a patient’s body after an x-ray examination.
X-rays usually have no side effects in the diagnostic range.


Risks
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*The dye used in the test can affect your kidneys, and sometimes they do not work as well after exposure to this dye. This effect is almost always temporary, but some people can have permanent damage. There is also a small chance of having an allergic reaction to the x-ray dye used in the test.

*There is always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk.
*The effective radiation dose from this procedure is about 1.6 mSv, which is about the same as the average person receives from background radiation in six months. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose.
*Contrast materials used in IVP studies can cause adverse allergic reactions in some people, sometimes requiring medical treatment.
*Women should always inform their physician or x-ray technologist if there is any possibility that they are pregnant. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays.

A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure
Special care is taken during x-ray examinations to use the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection councils continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals.

State-of-the-art x-ray systems have tightly controlled x-ray beams with significant filtration and dose control methods to minimize stray or scatter radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient’s body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure.

What are the limitations of IVP studies?
An IVP shows details of the inside of the urinary tract including the kidneys, ureters and bladder. Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may add valuable information about the functioning tissue of the kidneys and surrounding structures nearby the kidneys, ureters and bladder.

IVP studies are not usually indicated for pregnant women.

Resources:
https://www.health.harvard.edu/fhg/diagnostics/intravenous-pyelogram.shtml
http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=ivp

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