Herbs & Plants

Centranthus rubra

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Botanical Name :Centranthus rubra
Family:    Caprifoliaceae
Genus:    Centranthus
Species:C. ruber
Order:    Dipsacales

Synonyms: Pretty Betsy. Bouncing Bess. Delicate Bess. Drunken Sailor. Bovisand Soldier.

Common Names:  valerian or red valerian, Jupiter’s beard and spur valerian.

Habitat: Centranthus rubra is native to England, Scotland and the Mediterranean countries. It  usually grows on  rocky places at elevations below 200 m. It is often seen by roadsides or in urban wasteland. It can tolerate very alkaline soil conditions, and will grow freely in old walls despite the lime in their mortar.

Centranthus rubra is a perennial plant. It branches  very freely to enabling it to take a firm hold in the crevices in which it has once gained possession. The stems are stout, somewhat shrubby at the base, between 1 and 2 feet long, hollow and very smooth in texture. The leaves 2 to 4 inches long and pointed, opposite one another in pairs, are somewhat fleshy, their outlines generally quite entire.
The plant flowers profusely, and though the individual flowers are small (no more than 2 cm), the inflorescences are large and showy. The flowers are small in rounded clusters each with 5 fused petals and a spur. They are purplish red and sometimes (about 10% of individuals) white and occasionally lavender in color. Flowering takes place in early summer. They have a strong and somewhat rank scent. They are pollinated by both bees and butterflies and the plant is noted for attracting insects. It is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Angle Shades. Seeds have tufts similar to dandelions that allow wind dispersal, and as such can become self-seed and become invasive if not properly controlled.

Edible Uses;
Both leaves and roots can be eaten, the leaves either fresh in salads or lightly boiled, the roots boiled in soups. Opinions differ as to whether either make very good eating, however.

Medicinal Uses:
Although it is sometimes reported to have medicinal properties,perhaps there is no basis for this view, which is almost certainly due to confusion with true valerian, (Valeriana officinalis).

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Herbs & Plants

Greek Valerian

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Botanical Name: Polemonium reptans
Family: Polemoniaceae
Other Names: Abscess Root, Blue Bells, Jacob’s Ladder, Creeping Jacob’s Ladder, False Jacob’s Ladder, Greek Valerian, Onechte Jacobsladder, Polemonie Fausse, Sweatroot

Habitat: Greek Valerian is a Subshrub, grows in moist low or rocky woods, at the bases of bluffs and slopes, along wooded streams and in ravines and valleys. Jacob’s Ladder or Greek Valerian grows wild from New York to Minnesota, south to Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Oklahoma.

Description: Polemonium reptans has attractive leaves and clusters of beautiful small 1/2 inch wide pale blue bell shaped flowers.Each of the Greek valerian flowers has five petals that are united to form a bell-shaped corolla with flared lobes, and has five stamens and one pistil.


You may click to see more pictures of Greek Valerian
A perennial native herb found growing in rich woods, damp ground and along shady river banks in Eastern N. America from New York to Minnesota, south to Kansas and Georgia. Cultivation: Greek Valerian is easily cultivated from seed or root division, it prefers moist, well drained, sandy soil in a shady position. It has slender, creeping roots, and can multiply very quickly. The stems are multiple as many as 10 to one plant they are branched and grow to 12 inches high. Leaves form a rosette at the base, and grow in alternate pairs on the stem, they are pinnate with six to eight opposite pairs of leaflets. The nodding, blue to purple flowers grow in loose, terminal clusters. Greek Valerian flowers bloom from March to May. Gather roots in fall, whole plants in spring. Dry for later herb use. The flowers are edible, taste good in salad.

Medicinal Uses: Greek Valerian roots have been used for kidney troubles and as a diuretic. It is used in alternative medicine, the roots are alterative, astringent, diaphoretic, expectorant and pectoral, and can be taken as an infusion with water or as a medicinal tincture with alcohol, in the treatment of coughs, colds, bronchitis, laryngitis, tuberculosis, feverish and inflammatory diseases, including abscess and skin conditions. A decoction of the whole plant is used as a hair rinse. The plant is rarely used in herbalism today.

Valerian (Valeriana officinalis), a safe and effective natural sedative, calms both mind and body. Clinical research demonstrates that standardized Valerian extract effectively relieves anxiety-related insomnia and suggests that Valerian extract may be comparable to some prescription anti-anxiety drugs for relieving anxiety. Unlike many drugs, however, Valerian is not addictive or habit-forming when taken in recommended doses.

Formerly used internally in the treatment of a wide range of conditions ranging from headaches to fevers and epilepsy-Culpepper says of it:

‘It is under Mercury, and is alexipharmic, sudorific, and cephalic, and useful in malignant fevers and pestilential distempers; it helps in nervous complaints, headaches, trembling, palpitations of the heart, vapours, etc. It is good in hysteric cases, and epilepsies have been cured by the use of this herb.’
Because Greek Valerian has a smell that attracts cats it was believed by witch hunters to be planted only by witches for the pleasure of their familiars. It was also used for the bites of venomous snakes and insects.

Infusion: Add 1 tsp. dried root to 1 cup water steep for 10 min. take in tbls. doses throughout the day, for coughs, colds, congestion.


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Herbs & Plants

Rose Hip

rose hip 1Image by Gaby/Peter via Flickr

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The rose hip and rose haw, is the pomaceous fruit of the rose plant, that typically is red-to-orange, but might be dark purple-to-black in some species.


Rose hips of some species, especially Rosa canina (Dog Rose) and R. majalis, have been used as a source of Vitamin C. Rose hips are commonly used as an herbal tea, often blended with hibiscus and as an oil. They can also be used to make jam, jelly, marmalade and wine. Rose hip soup, “Nyponsoppa”, is especially popular in Sweden. Rhodomel, a type of mead, is made with rose hips.

Health Benefits:
*Particularly high in Vitamin C, with about 1700–2000 mg per 100 g in the dried product, one of the richest plant sources.

*Rose hips contain vitamins A, D and E, essential fatty acids and antioxidant flavonoids.

*Rose hip powder is a remedy for rheumatoid arthritis.

*As an herbal remedy, rose hips are attributed with the ability to prevent urinary bladder infections, and assist in treating dizziness and headaches. Rose hips are also commonly used externally in oil form to restore firmness to skin by nourishing and astringing tissue.

*Brewed into a decoction, can also be used to treat constipation.

*.Rose hips contain a lot of iron, so some women brew rose hip tea during menstruation to make up for the iron that they lose with menses.

Rose hips are the seed pod left after the rose petals fall off. Rose hip tea, recommended because it is so rich in Vitamin C. The oil from rose hips, often called rosa mosqueta, is very nutritious and consists of 80 percent essential fatty acids. It was a mainstay of the Incas, for example, for its nutritional qualities.

Rose hip oil is also renowned for its benefits for the skin. In fact, it has multiple benefits.
It is particularly famous for any scars, including acne scars.

Here are some of the healing aspects rose hip oil is credited with for helping the skin:

*Scars, including acne scars and old scars

*Dry eczema

*Skin burns, including sunburn

*Rehydrates dry skin

*Repair damaged skin cells of all sorts

*Reduce wrinkles

*Benefit for dry, mature, aging skin

There are some pure moisturizing creams on the market (Aubrey for one). If you have a specific problem, it would be beneficial to obtain pure rose hip oil and massage two to three drops of the oil into the affected area every day.

Rose hips are used for the creation of herbal tea, jam, jelly, syrup, beverages, pies, bread and marmalade, amongst others.

A few rose species are sometimes grown for the ornamental value of their hips; such as Rosa moyesii, which has prominent large red bottle-shaped fruits.

Rose hips have recently become popular as a healthy treat for pet chinchillas. Chinchillas are unable to manufacture their own Vitamin C, but lack the proper internal organs to process a variety of foods. Rose Hips provide a sugar free, safe way to increase the Vitamin C intake of chinchillas.

Rose hips may also be fed to horses. The dried and powdered form can be fed at a maximum of 1 tablespoon per day to help increase coat condition and help with new hoof growth.

The fine hairs found inside rose hips can be used as itching powder.

Roses may be propagated from hips by removing the seeds from the aril (the outer coating) and sowing just beneath the surface of the soil. Placed in a cold frame or a greenhouse, the seeds take at least three months to germinate.

By indigenous people:
Rose hips were used in many food preparations by the indigenous peoples of the Americas.

Rose hips are used for colds and influenza. The Latin binomial for this herb is Rosa laevigata.

You may click to see also:->
Rose hip seed oil
Rosa moschata
Rosa rubiginosa
Rose Hips Recipes
Roses – Medicine for the Heart and Body
Rosehip Tea

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


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Herbs & Plants


Botanical Name: Valeriana officinalis (LINN.)
Family: N.O. Valerianaceae
Genus: Valeriana
Species: V. officinalis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Dipsacales
Indian Name : Jalakan.

Synonyms: Phu (Galen). All-Heal. Great Wild Valerian. Amantilla. Setwall. Setewale Capon’s Tail.

Part Used-: Root.

Habitat: Europe and Northern Asia.

Two species of Valerian, Valeriana officinalis and V. dioica, are indigenous in Britain, while a third, V. pyrenaica, is naturalized in some parts. The genus comprises about 150 species, which are widely distributed in the temperate parts of the world.
In medicine, the root of V. officinalis is intended when Valerian is mentioned. It is supposed to be the Phu (an expression of aversion from its offensive odour) of Dioscorides and Galen, by whom it is extolled as an aromatic and diuretic.

It was afterwards found to be useful in certain kinds of epilepsy. The plant was in such esteem in mediaeval times as a remedy, that it received the name of All Heal, which is still given it in some parts of the country.

The plant is found throughout Europe and Northern Asia, and is common in England in marshy thickets and on the borders of ditches and rivers, where its tall stems may generally be seen in the summer towering above the usual herbage, the erect, sturdy growth of the plant, the rich, dark green of the leaves, their beautiful form, and the crowning masses of light-coloured flowers, making the plant conspicuous.

Description:It is a perenniel herb.Its lower leaves are long compared to the smaller upper leaves.The plant has small white flowers in small clusters and small and smooth fruits.The rhizomes and roots of the plant constitutes the drug. The roots tend to merge into a short, conical root-stock or erect rhizome, the development of which often proceeds for several years before a flowering stem is sent up, but slender horizontal branches which terminate in buds are given off earlier, and from these buds proceed aerial shoots or stolons, which produce fresh plants where they take root. Only one stem arises from the root, which attains a height of 3 or 4 feet. It is round, but grooved and hollow, more or less hairy, especially near the base. It terminates in two or more pairs of flowering stems, each pair being placed at right angles to those above and below it. The lower flowering stems lengthen so as to place their flowers nearly or often quite on a level with the flowers borne by the upper branches, forming a broad and flattened cluster at the summit, called a cyme. The leaves are arranged in pairs and are united at their bases. Each leaf is made up of a series of lance-shaped segments, more or less opposite to one another on each side of the leaf (pinnate). The leaflets vary very much in number, from six to ten pairs as a rule, and vary also in breadth, being broad when few in number and narrower when more numerous; they are usually 2 to 3 inches long. The margins are indented by a few coarsely-cut teeth. The upper surface is strongly veined, the under surface is paler and frequently more or less covered with short, soft hairs. The leaves on the stem are attached by short, broad sheaths, the radical leaves are larger and long-stemmed and the margins more toothed.

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The flowers are in bloom from June to September. They are small, tinged with pink and flesh colour, with a somewhat peculiar, but not exactly unpleasant smell. The corolla is tubular, and from the midst of its lobes rise the stamens, only three in number, though there are five lobes to the corolla. The limb of the calyx is remarkable for being at first inrolled and afterwards expanding in the form of a feathery pappus, which aids the dissemination of the fruit. The fruit is a capsule containing one oblong compressed seed. Apart from the flowers, the whole plant has a foetid smell, much accentuated when bruised.

Although more often growing in damp situations, Valerian is also met with on dry, elevated ground. It is found throughout Britain, but in the northern counties is more often found on higher and dryer ground – dry heaths and hilly pastures – than in the south, and then is usually smaller, not more than 2 feet high, with narrow leaves and hairy, and is often named sylvestris. The medicinal qualities of this form are considered to be especially strong.

Though none of the varieties differ greatly from the typical form, Valerian is more subject than many plants to deviations, which has caused several more or less permanent varieties to be named by various botanists. One of the chief is V. sambucifolia (Mikan), the name signifying ‘Elder-leaved,’ from the form of its foliage, the segments being fewer (only four to six pairs) and broader than in the type form, and having somewhat of the character of the elder.

V. celtica is supposed to be the Saliunca of ancient writers. It is used by Eastern nations to aromatize their baths. The roots are collected by the Styrian peasants, and are exported by way of Trieste to Turkey and Egypt, whence they are conveyed to India and Ethiopia. V. sitchensis, a native of northwestern America, is considered by the Russians the most powerful of all species.

Valerian is cultivated for the sake of the drug in England (in Derbyshire), but to a much greater extent in Prussia, Saxony (in the neighbourhood of Colleda, north of Weimar), in Holland and in the United States (Vermont, New Hampshire and New York). English roots have always commanded about four times the price of the imported. In Derbyshire, the cultivation of Valerian takes place in many villages near Chesterfield, the wild plants occurring in the neighbourhood not being sufficient to supply the demand. Derbyshire Valerian plants are of two varieties: V. Milkanii (Syme), on limestone, and V. sambucifolia (Mikan) on the coal measures. The former yields most of the cultivated Derbyshire rhizome.

The derivation of the name of this genus of plants is differently given. It is said by some authors to have been named after Valerius, who first used it in medicine; while others derive the name from the Latin word valere (to be in health), on account of its medicinal qualities. The word Valeriana is not found in the classical authors; we first meet with it in the ninth or tenth century, at which period and for long afterwards it was used as synonymous with Phu or Fu; Fu, id est valeriana, we find it described in ancient medical works of that period. The word Valerian occurs in the recipes of the AngloSaxon leeches (eleventh century). Valeriana, Amantilla and Fu are used as synonymous in the Alphita, a mediaeval vocabulary of the important medical school of Salernum. Saladinus of Ascoli (about 1450) directs the collection in the month of August of radices fu, id est Valerianae. Referring to the name Amantilla, by which it was known in the fourteenth century, Professor Henslow quotes a curious recipe of that period, a translation of which runs as follows: ‘Men who begin to fight and when you wish to stop them, give to them the juice of Amantilla id est Valeriana and peace will be made immediately.’ Theriacaria, Marinella, Genicularis and Terdina are other old names by which Valerian has been known in former days. Another old name met with in Chaucer and other old writers is ‘Setwall’ or ‘Setewale,’ the derivation of which is uncertain. Mediaeval herbalists also called the plant ‘Capon’s Tail,’ which has rather fantastically been explained as a reference to its spreading head of whitish flowers.

Drayton (Polyolbion) mentions the use of Valerian for cramp; and a tea was made from its roots.

-Cultivation: Valerian does well in all ordinary soils, but prefers rich, heavy loam, well supplied with moisture.

In Derbyshire, cultivation is from wild plants collected in local woods and transplanted to the prepared land. Preference is given in collecting to root offsets – daughter plants and young flowering plants, which develop towards the close of summer, at the end of slender runners given off by the perennial rhizomes of old plants. These should be set 1 foot apart in rows, 2 or 3 feet apart. The soil should first be treated with farmyard manure, and after planting it is well to give liquid manure from time to time, as well as plenty of water. The soil must be well manured to secure a good crop. Weeding requires considerable attention.

Propagation may also be by seed, either sown when ripe in cold frames, or in March in gentle heat, or in the open in April. In the first two cases, transplant in May to permanent quarters. But to ensure the best alkaloidal percentage, it is best to transplant and cultivate the daughter plants of the wild Valerian.

Other Species:
JAPANESE VALERIAN, or Kesso Root, was formerly believed to be the product of Patrinia scabiosaefolia (Link.), but is now known to be obtained from a Japanese variety of V. officinalis. It yields a volatile oil. By the absence of a well-marked, upright rhizome, it widely differs from true Valerian, though at first sight agrees to some extent with it. In colour and taste it is almost identical.

The roots of V. Mexicana (D.C.), MEXICAN VALERIAN, which occurs in Mexican commerce in slices, or fleshy disks, contain a large percentage of valerianic acid, which they yield readily and economically. As much as 3.3 per cent of oil has been extracted from the roots of this species.

V. pyrenaica (Linn.), the HEART-LEAVED VALERIAN, a native of the Pyrenees, is occasionally found in Great Britain naturalized in plantations. It is a large, coarse herb, the stem 2 to 4 feet high, the radical leaves sometimes very large, often a foot in diameter, heart-shaped, the upper ones smaller, with a few basal leaflets, the flowers much as in V. officinalis. It is not employed medicinally.

V. montana and V. angustifolia are Alpine varieties, but can be grown in this country with a little care. They are almost entirely grown for decorative purposes, flowering from May to August, and possessing none of the unpleasant smell of Valerian.

Culpepper describes a plant which he calls ‘Water Valerian’ (V. Aquatica), with ‘much larger’ flowers than the garden Valerian, which, however, they resemble, and of a ‘pale purple colour.’ He states it grows ‘promiscuously in marshy grounds and moist meadows’ and flowers in May.

Harvesting and Preparation for Market : The flowering tops must be cut off as they appear, thus enabling the better development of the rhizome. Many of the young plants do not flower in the first year, but produce a luxuriant crop of leaves, and yield rhizome of good quality in the autumn.

In September or early October, all the tops are cut off with a scythe and the rhizomes are harvested, the clinging character of the Derbyshire soil not allowing them to be left in the ground longer.

The drug as found in commerce consists usually of the entire or sliced erect rhizome, which is dark yellowish-brown externally, about 1 inch long and 1/2 inch thick, and gives off numerous slender brittle roots from 2 1/2 to 4 inches long, whilst short, slender, lateral branches (stolons) are also occasionally present. The root-stock, which is sometimes crowned with the remains of flowering stems and leaf-scales is usually firm, horny and whitish or yellowish internally, but old specimens may be hollow. A transverse section is irregular in outline and exhibits a comparatively narrow bark, separated by a dark line from an irregular circle of wood bundles of varying size.

The drug may also consist of small, undeveloped rhizomes about 1/4 inch long, crowned with the remains of leaves and bearing short slender roots, the young rhizome having been formed where the stolons given off from mature root-stocks have taken root and produced independent plants.

The roots of Valerian are of similar colour to the erect rhizome, about 1/10 inch thick, striated longitudinally and usually not shrivelled to any great extent; a transverse section shows a thick bark and small wood.

The drug has a camphoraceous, slightly bitter taste and a characteristic, powerful, disagreeable odour, which gradually develops during the process of drying, owing to a change which occurs in the composition of the volatile oil contained in the sub-epidermal layer of cells: the odour of the fresh root, though not very agreeable, is devoid of the unpleasant valerianaceous odour.

The colour and odour of Valerian rhizome distinguish it readily from other drugs. The rhizome somewhat resembles Serpentary rhizome (Aristolochia Serpentaria, Virginian Snakeroot), but may be distinguished therefrom by its odour, erect method of growth, and by the roots being thicker, shorter and less brittle.

Chemical Constituents:
The chief constituent of Valerian is a yellowish-green to brownish-yellow oil, which is present in the dried root to the extent of 0.5 to 2 per cent though an average yield rarely exceeds 0.8 per cent. This variation in quantity is partly explained by the influence of locality, a dry, stony soil, yielding a root richer in oil than one that is moist and fertile. The herb contains valerianic , formic and acetic acids, in addition to an essential oil , resin,strach and glucoside.

Lindley’s Treasury of Botany states: ‘What is known to chemists as volatile oil of Valerian seems not to exist naturally in the plant, but to be developed by the agency of water.’

The oil is contained in the sub-epidermal layer of cells in the root, not in isolated cells or glands. It is of complex composition, containing valerianic, formic and acetic acids, the alcohol known as borneol, and pinene. The valerianic acid present in the oil is not the normal acid, but isovalerianic acid, an oily liquid to which the characteristically unpleasant odour of Valerian is due. It is gradually liberated during the process of drying, being yielded by the decomposition of the chief constituent, bornyl-isovalerianate, by the ferment present. It is strongly acid, burning to the palate and with the odour of the plant. The oil is soluble in 30 parts of water and readily in alcohol and ether. It is found in nature in the oil of several plants, also in small proportion in train oil and the oil of Cetacea (whales, porpoises, etc.), which owe their smell to it. It is also one of the products of oxidation of animal matters and of fat oils, and is secreted in certain portions of animal bodies. Its salts are soluble and have a sweetish taste and fatty aspect.

The root also contains two alkaloids – Chatarine and Valerianine – which are still under investigation and concerning which little is known, except that they form crystalline salts. There are also a glucoside, alkaloid and resin all physiologically active, discovered in the fresh rhizome by Chevalier as recently as 1907. He claims that the fresh root is of greater medicinal value than the dry on this account.

On incineration, the drug, if free from adherent earthy matter, yields about 8 or 9 per cent of ash.

The chief preparation of the British Pharmacopoeia is the Tinctura Valerianae Ammoniata, containing Valerian, oil of Nutmeg, oil of Lemon and Ammonia: it is an extremely nauseous and offensive preparation. An etherial tincture and the volatile oil are official in some of the Continental Pharmacopceias, and a distilled water and syrup in the French Codex.

Valerianate of oxide of ethyl, or valerianic ether is a fragrant compound occurring in some vegetable products. The valerianic acid in use is not prepared from the root, but synthetically from amyl alcohol. Valerianic acid combines with various bases (the oxides of metals) to form salts called Valerianates. Valerianate of zinc, prepared by double decomposition, is used as an antispasmodic and is official in the British Pharmacopoeia

Medical Actions and Uses:
Valerian has long been used for sleep disorders and anxiety.
Valerian has also been used for other conditions, such as headaches, depression, irregular heartbeat, and trembling.
Valerian is a powerful nervine, stimulant, carminative and antispasmodic.

It has a remarkable influence on the cerebro-spinal system, and is used as a sedative to the higher nerve centres in conditions ofnervous unrest, St. Vitus’s dance, hypochrondriasis, neuralgic pains and the like.

The drug allays pain and promotes sleep. It is of especial use and benefit to those suffering from nervous overstrain, as it possesses none of the after-effects produced by narcotics.

During the recent War, when air-raids were a serious strain on the overwrought nerves of civilian men and women, Valerian, prescribed with other simple ingredients, taken in a single dose, or repeated according to the need, proved wonderfully efficacious, preventing or minimizing serious results.

Though in ordinary doses, it exerts an influence quieting and soothing in its nature upon the brain and nervous system, large doses, too often repeated, have a tendency to produce pain in the head, heaviness and stupor.

It is commonly administered as Tinctura Valerianae Ammoniata, and often in association with the alkali bromides, and is sometimes given in combination with quinine, the tonic powers of which it appreciably increases.

Oil of Valerian is employed to a considerable extent on the Continent as a popular remedy for cholera, in the form of cholera drops, and also to a certain extent in soap perfumery.

Ettmuller writes of its virtues in strengthening the eyesight, especially when this is weakened by want of energy in the optic nerve.

The juice of the fresh root, under the name of Energetene of Valerian, has of late been recommended as more certain in its effects, and of value as a narcotic in insomnia, and as an anti-convulsant in epilepsy. Having also some slight influence upon the circulation, slowing the heart and increasing its force, it has been used in the treatment of cardiac palpitations.

The drug is useful in treating cases of hysteria,restless and irritable conditions. The drug exercises depressant action on the overall central nervous system. It has also beneficial effects in epilepsy. It is considered useful chorea, a condition marked by incessant involuntary jerks.

Valerian was first brought to notice as a specific for epilepsy by Fabius Calumna in 1592, he having cured himself of the disease with it.

Foot notes:
Research suggests that valerian may be helpful for insomnia, but there is not enough evidence from well-designed studies to confirm this.
There is not enough scientific evidence to determine whether valerian works for anxiety or for other conditions, such as depression and headaches.
NCCAM is funding a study to look at the effects of valerian on sleep in healthy older adults and in people with Parkinson’s disease.

Click to read more about Valerian(Herb)

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Miracles of Herbs