CLICK & SEE
Cooking with vegetable oils releases toxic chemicals linked to cancer and other diseases, according to leading scientists, who are now recommending food be fried in olive oil, coconut oil, butter or even lard.
The results of a series of experiments threaten to turn on its head official advice that oils rich in polyunsaturated fats – such as corn oil and sunflower oil – are better for the health than the saturated fats in animal products.
Scientists found that heating up vegetable oils led to the release of high concentrations of chemicals called aldehydes, which have been linked to illnesses including cancer, heart disease and dementia.
Habitat : Lupinus albus has a wide distribution in the Mediterranean region.It is widely spread as wild plants throughout the southern Balkans, the islands of Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia, and the Aegean Sea, as well as in Israel, Palestine and western Turkey. Occurs in meadows, pastures, and grassy slopes, predominantly on sandy and acid soils.
Lupinus albus is an annual plant growing to 1.2 m (4ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in). It is in flower from Jun to July, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.It can fix Nitrogen……..CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Seed– cooked. Used as a protein-rich vegetable or savoury dish in any of the ways that cooked beans are used, they can also be roasted or ground into a powder and mixed with cereal flours in making bread etc. If the seed is bitter this is due to the presence of toxic alkaloids and the seed should be thoroughly leached by soaking it and then discarding the soak water before cooking. Seeds contain 32 – 40% protein, 8 – 12% oil. The roasted seeds can be used as a snack in much the same way as peanuts. An edible oil is obtained from the seed. The roasted seed is used as a coffee substitute.
The seed contains up to 12% oil. This is used in making soap. A fibre obtained from the stems is used for making cloth etc. A cosmetic face-mask can be made from lupin flour, this is used to invigorate tired skin. A useful spring-sown green manure crop, especially on light soils. It is deep rooting, fairly fast growing, produces a good bulk and fixes atmospheric nitrogen
Known Hazards: The seed of many lupin species contain bitter-tasting toxic alkaloids, though there are often sweet varieties within that species that are completely wholesome. Taste is a very clear indicator. These toxic alkaloids can be leeched out of the seed by soaking it overnight and discarding the soak water. It may also be necessary to change the water once during cooking. Fungal toxins also readily invade the crushed seed and can cause chronic illness
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Botanical Name :Linum usitatissimum Family: Linaceae Genus: Linum Species: L. usitatissimum Kingdom: Plantae Order: Malpighiales
Synonyms:Linseed, flaxseed, common flax, lint bells, winterlien
Habitat: Common flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) was one of the first crops domesticated by man. Flax originated in India, and from its hardiness and usefulness, is generally diffused over the globe. Ancient centers of flax-growing are mountainous areas of India and China, In India flax was cultivated as a fiber crop earlier than cotton. As early as in the 4th or 5th millennium B.C. flax was cultivated for its fiber in Mesopotamia, Assyria and Egypt. Wild narrow-leaved flax and semi-cultured procumbent flaxes grow in Transcaucasia. Many monuments of Ancient Egypt reflect cultivation of flax and spinning and weaving of its fibers. In Russia flax has been cultivated since the birth of the Russian nation
Growing countries:The significant linseed producing countries are Canada ~34% and China ~25.5%, though there is also production in India ~9%, USA ~8%, and Ethiopia ~3.5% and throughout Europe.
Description:The flax plant is an annual herb, it grows erect to 3 feet with slender stems and entire leaves. The leaves are glaucous green, slender lanceolate, 20-40 mm long and 3 mm broad. The flowers are pure pale blue, 15-25 mm diameter, with five petals. The fruit is a round, dry capsule 5-9 mm diameter, containing several glossy brown seeds shaped like an apple pip, 4-7 mm long, which is indehiscent. Linum is an erect annual herb with a glabrous stem and few branches, growing about 60cm in height and cultivated in most temperate and tropical regions. The stem bears alternate, sessile, simple entire lanceolate to oblong leaves. Each branch produces one or two violet-blue five-petalled flowers in a terminal cluster from June to August, and a globular capsule containing about ten seeds.In addition to the plant itself, flax may refer to the unspun fibres of the flax plant.
Flax seeds come in two basic varieties: 1. brown; and 2. yellow or golden (also known as golden linseeds). Most types have similar nutritional characteristics and equal numbers of short-chain omega-3 fatty acids. The exception is a type of yellow flax called solin (trade name Linola), which has a completely different oil profile and is very low in omega-3 FAs. Flax seeds produce a vegetable oil known as flaxseed oil or linseed oil, which is one of the oldest commercial oils. It is an edible oil obtained by expeller pressing, sometimes followed by solvent extraction. Solvent-processed flax seed oil has been used for many centuries as a drying oil in painting and varnishing.
Although brown flax can be consumed as readily as yellow, and has been for thousands of years, its better-known uses are in paints, for fiber, and for cattle feed.
Parts used: ripe seeds and their expressed oil. Linseed oil, obtained from seed of the flax plant, is primarily used in industry; but some is used for edible purposes in eastern Europe.
Collection: when fully ripe in September.
Constituents: 30-40% fixed oil including linoleic, linolenic and oleic acids, mucilage (6%), protein (25%), the cyanogenic glycoside linamarine, bitter principle; the oil contains vitamins A, B, D and E, minerals and amino acids. The seeds contain around 35 to 44 percent of drying oil.
Use: Flax is grown both for its seed and for its fibres. Various parts of the plant have been used to make fabric, dye, paper, medicines, fishing nets and soap. It is also grown as an ornamental plant in gardens, as flax is one of the few plant species capable of producing truly blue flowers (most “blue” flowers are really shades of purple), although not all flax varieties produce blue flowers.
In eastern Europe, the seed is generally first cold pressed, the cold-press oil being used in foods. A later hot press yields additional industrial oil. In the U.S., oil extraction is generally hot press, followed by solvent extraction, and the oil is not used as food. The press cake from hot pressing is a valuable livestock feed. The flax seed contains a cyanogenic glucoside which forms hydrocyanic acid by enzyme action unless the enzyme is inactivated by heat. Flax seed for oil was grown in the U.S. on an average of about 2.7 million acres, 1964-66. Flax fibers
Flax fibers are amongst the oldest fibre crops in the world. The use of flax for the production of linen goes back 5000 years. Pictures on tombs and temple walls at Thebes depict flowering flax plants. The use of flax fibre in the manufacturing of cloth in northern Europe dates back to Neolithic times. In North America, flax was introduced by the Puritans. Currently most flax produced in the USA and Canada are seed flax types for the production of linseed oil or flaxseeds for human nutrition.
Flax stem cross-section, showing locations of underlying tissues. Ep = epidermis; C = cortex; BF = bast fibres; P = phloem; X = xylem; Pi = pithFlax fibre is extracted from the bast or skin of the stem of flax plant. Flax fibre is soft, lustrous and flexible. It is stronger than cotton fibre but less elastic. The best grades are used for linen fabrics such as damasks, lace and sheeting. Coarser grades are used for the manufacturing of twine and rope. Flax fibre is also a raw material for the high-quality paper industry for the use of printed banknotes and rolling paper for cigarettes.
Therapeutics and Pharmacology: Linum may be used in all pulmonary infections, particularly where there is much catarrh, as in bronchitis. It is often applied as a poultice in pleurisy and other pulmonary conditions. A poultice may also be applied to boils and carbuncles, shingles, psoriasis and burns. Linum is also used in chronic or acute, atonic or spastic constipation. Whilst not a true laxative, it acts as a bulking and lubricating agent causing no irritation. Linseed oil is an valuable source of essential fatty acids which can help prevent the build-up of fatty deposits in the tissues. The oil has also been used to help the passage of gallstones.
Combinations: As a poultice for the chest Linum combines well with Sinapsis alba. For boils, localised swellings and inflammations it may be combined with Lobelia, Althaea root and Ulmus as a poultice.
The health benefits associated with flaxseed include:
Protecting against cancer:
Consuming flaxseed may help protect against prostate, colon, and breast cancers. Flaxseed is thought to prevent the growth of cancerous cells because its omega-3 fatty acids disrupt malignant cells from clinging onto other body cells. In addition, the lignans in flaxseed have antiangiogenic properties – they stop tumors from forming new blood vessels.
One US study presented at the 43rd annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) revealed that consuming flaxseed can stop prostate cancer tumors from growing. Dr Wendy Demark-Wahnefried, lead investigator of the study said that the team was “excited that this study showed that flaxseed is safe and associated with a protective effect on prostate cancer.”
Researchers at the Iowa State University’s Nutrition and Wellness Research Center found that cholesterol levels lowered among men who included flaxseed in their diet. Suzanne Hendrich, lead author of the study, said that for “people who can’t take something like Lipitor, this could at least give you some of that cholesterol-lowering benefit.”
Preventing hot flashes:
A study published in the Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology suggests that a dietary intake of flaxseed can decrease the risk of hot flashes among postmenopausal women. “Not only does flaxseed seem to alleviate hot flashes, but it appears to have overall health and psychological benefits as well,” concluded Dr. Pruthi.
Improving blood sugar:
There is strong evidence to suggest that consuming flaxseed every day improves glycemic control in obese men and women with pre-diabetes4, according to a study published in Nutrition Research.
Protecting against radiation:
A diet of flaxseed may protect skin tissue from being damaged by radiation, revealed researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. The investigators concluded that their “study demonstrates that dietary flaxseed, already known for its strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, works as both a mitigator and protector against radiation pneumonopathy.”
Caution: Only the ripe seeds should be used; immature seeds can cause poisoning as they contain traces of prussic acid. Linseed oil deteriorates rapidly. It is important to stress to anyone taking linseed that at least two glasses of water should be taken at the same time to ensure proper swelling of the linseed in the stomach. In many cases where linseed appears to fail, the reason is that not enough fluid has been taken.
Side effects and precautions:
Even though research on the safety of taking flaxseed during pregnancy is scarce, pregnant women should stay on the safe side and avoid consuming flaxseed because of its estrogen-like properties which doctors believe may affect pregnancy outcome. In addition, people suffering from a bowel obstruction should avoid flaxseed too (because of its high level of fiber), according to the University of Maryland Medical Center.5
Side effects associated with the consumption of flaxseed, include:
Preparation and Dosage:
Regulatory status GSL
Crushed or entire seeds: 3-6g or by infusion
Oil: 5-30ml, in vehicle, as a purgative
Additional Comments: As the source of linen fibre, Linum has been cultivated since at least 5000 BC; today it is mainly grown for its oil. It was used by the Egyptians to make cloth in which to wrap their mummies, and the Bible contains many references to the plant. The medicinal properties of the seeds were known to the Greeks and Hippocrates recommended them for inflammations of the mucous membranes. In 8th century France, Charlemagne passed laws requiring the seeds to be consumed to keep his subjects healthy. Linseed oil is used as a purgative for sheep and horses. Flax is obtained from the stem fibres. The oil has a number of uses in the paint and other industries. It is also used in cooking and has been recommended to help leach toxic heavy metals such as aluminium from the body.
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
A stomach ulcer refers to an lesion in the inner lining of the stomach and the adjoining intestinal tract called the duodenum. The ulcer located in the stomach is known as a gastric ulcer, and that located in the duodenum is called a duodenal ulcer. Usually, both are grouped together and termed as stomach ulcer.
The stomach is an organ of the digestive system, located in the abdomen just below the ribs and on the left. Swallowed food is squeezed down the oesophagus and pushed through a sphincter (small muscle ring) into the stomach, where it is mixed with powerful gastric juices containing enzymes and hydrochloric acid. The stomach is a muscular bag, so it can churn the food and break it down mechanically as well as chemically. Once the food is the consistency of smooth paste, it is squeezed through a second sphincter into the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). The lining of the stomach – the mucosa or gastric epithelium – is layered with multiple folds. Ulcers occur in this lining.(as in the above picture)
A stomach ulcer or Gastric ulcer is a break in the tissue lining the stomach. The term ‘peptic ulcer’ refers to those that occur in either the stomach or the first part of the small intestine that leads out of the stomach, called the duodenum. It was once commonly thought that stress, smoking and diet were the principal causes of stomach ulcers. However, the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacterium is now known to be responsible for most duodenal ulcers and 60 per cent of stomach ulcers. The H. pylori bacterium also prompts many symptoms of dyspepsia, or indigestion. Treatment for stomach ulcers includes the use of antibiotics to kill the infection, and acid-suppressing drugs.
Some stomach ulcers are asymptomatic. The symptoms of a stomach ulcer can include:
Abdominal pain just below the ribcage
Loss of appetite
Altered blood present in the vomit or in the bowel motions (occasionally)
Symptoms of anaemia, such as light-headedness.
A variety of causes:
A stomach ulcer can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
*Helicobacter pylori – these bacteria is thought to be responsible for around 60 per cent of stomach ulcers and at least 90 per cent of duodenal ulcers. Certain medications – including aspirin, taken regularly to help prevent heart attack or stroke, and drugs for arthritis. Anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDS) are thought to cause around two fifths of stomach ulcers.
*Cancer – stomach cancer can present as an ulcer, particularly in older people.
Helicobacter pylori…..click & see
The Helicobacter pylori bacterium (H. pylori) is the main cause of peptic ulcers. The discovery of this micro-organism in 1983 revolutionised many aspects of gastroenterology, including the treatment of stomach ulcers. It is thought that about one in three people over the age of 40 years are infected with this strain of bacteria in Australia. The germs live in the lining of the stomach, and the chemicals they produce cause irritation and inflammation. H. pylori directly causes one third of stomach ulcers, and is a contributing factor in around three fifths of cases. Other disorders caused by this infection include inflammation of the stomach (gastritis) and dyspepsia (indigestion). Researchers believe the germ could also play a contributing role in the development of stomach cancers. The infection is more common among poor or institutionalised people. The mode of transmission is so far unknown, but is thought to include sharing food or utensils, coming into contact with infected vomit, and sharing of water (such as well water) in undeveloped populations.
Tobacco smoking, blood group, spices and other factors that were suspected to cause ulcers until late in the 20th century, are actually of relatively minor importance in the development of peptic ulcers.
A major causative factor (60% of gastric and 90% of duodenal ulcers) is chronic inflammation due to Helicobacter pylori that colonizes (i.e. settles there after entering the body) the antral mucosa. The immune system is unable to clear the infection, despite the appearance of antibodies. Thus, the bacterium can cause a chronic active gastritis (type B gastritis), resulting in a defect in the regulation of gastrin production by that part of the stomach, and gastrin secretion is increased. Gastrin, in turn, stimulates the production of gastric acid by parietal cells. The acid erodes the mucosa and causes the ulcer.
Another major cause is the use of NSAIDs (see above). The gastric mucosa protects itself from gastric acid with a layer of mucous, the secretion of which is stimulated by certain prostaglandins. NSAIDs block the function of cyclooxygenase 1 (cox-1), which is essential for the production of these prostaglandins. Newer NSAIDs (celecoxib, rofecoxib) only inhibit cox-2, which is less essential in the gastric mucosa, and roughly halve the risk of NSAID-related gastric ulceration.
Glucocorticoids lead to atrophy of all epithelial tissues. Their role in ulcerogenesis is relatively small.
There is debate as to whether Stress in the psychological sense can influence the development of peptic ulcers (see Stress and ulcers). Burns and head trauma, however, can lead to “stress ulcers”, and it is reported in many patients who are on mechanical ventilation.
Smoking leads to atherosclerosis and vascular spasms, causing vascular insufficiency and promoting the development of ulcers through ischemia.
Overuse of Laxatives are also known to cause peptic ulcers.
A family history is often present in duodenal ulcers, especially when blood group O is also present. Inheritance appears to be unimportant in gastric ulcers.
Gastrinomas (Zollinger Ellison syndrome), rare gastrin-secreting tumors, cause multiple and difficult to heal ulcers.
Stress and ulcers:
Despite the finding that a bacterial infection is the cause of ulcers in more than 75% of cases, bacterial infection does not appear to explain all ulcers and researchers continue to look at stress as a possible cause, or at least a complication in the development of ulcers.
An expert panel convened by the Academy of Behavioral Medicine research concluded that ulcers are not purely an infectious disease and that psychological factors do play a significant role. Researchers are examining how stress might promote H. pylori infection. For example, Helicobacter pylori thrives in an acidic environment, and stress has been demonstrated to cause the production of excess stomach acid.
The discovery that Helicobacter pylori is a cause of peptic ulcer has tempted many to conclude that psychological factors are unimportant. But this is dichotomised thinking. There is solid evidence that psychological stress triggers many ulcers and impairs response to treatment, while helicobacter is inadequate as a monocausal explanation as most infected people do not develop ulcers. Psychological stress probably functions most often as a cofactor with H pylori. It may act by stimulating the production of gastric acid or by promoting behavior that causes a risk to health. Unravelling the aetiology of peptic ulcer will make an important contribution to the biopsychosocial model of disease.
A study of peptic ulcer patients in a Thai hospital showed that chronic stress was strongly associated with an increased risk of peptic ulcer, and a combination of chronic stress and irregular mealtimes was a significant risk factor .
A study on mice showed that both long-term water-immersion-restraint stress and H. pylori infection were independently associated with the development of peptic ulcers
*Perforated ulcer (anterior. Surface) with sudden onset of the pain, a chemical peritonitis followed by bacterial peritonitis.
*Posterior penetration (posterior. Surface), maybe to pancreas=>increased amylase-pain=>radiating to back, unrelated to meals.
*Hemorrhage (post. Surface), bleeding from Gasteroduodenal artery.
*Gastric Outlet Obstruction (Goo) which happens usually because of edema or scarring, most often occurs in the setting of duodenal or pyloric channel ulcers.
*A severe, untreated ulcer can sometimes burn through the wall of the stomach, allowing digestive juices and food to leech into the abdominal cavity. This medical emergency is known as a perforated ulcer. Treatment generally requires immediate surgery.
Diagnosing a stomach ulcer is done using a range of methods, including:-
*Endoscopy – a thin flexible tube is threaded down the oesophagus into the stomach under light anaesthesia. The endoscope is fitted with a small camera so the physician can see if there is an ulcer.
*Barium meal – a chalky liquid is drunk and an x-ray is performed, showing the stomach lining. These tests are less common nowadays, but may be useful where endoscopy is unavailable.
*Biopsy – a small tissue sample is taken during an endoscopy and tested in a laboratory. This biopsy should always be done if a gastric ulcer is found.
*C14 breath test – to check for the presence of H. pylori. The bacteria convert urea into carbon dioxide. The test involves swallowing an amount of radioactive carbon (C14) and testing the air exhaled from the lungs. A non-radioactive test can be used for children and pregnant women.
*An esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), a form of endoscopy, also known as a gastroscopy, is carried out on patients in whom a peptic ulcer is suspected. By direct visual identification, the location and severity of an ulcer can be described. Moreover, if no ulcer is present, EGD can often provide an alternative diagnosis.
The diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori can be by:
*Breath testing (does not require EGD);
*Direct culture from an EGD biopsy specimen;
*Direct detection of urease activity in a biopsy specimen;
*Measurement of antibody levels in blood (does not require EGD). It is still somewhat controversial whether a positive antibody without EGD is enough to warrant eradication therapy.
*The possibility of other causes of ulcers, notably malignancy (gastric cancer) needs to be kept in mind. This is especially true in ulcers of the greater (large) curvature of the stomach; most are also a consequence of chronic H. pylori infection.
If a peptic ulcer perforates, air will leak from the inside of the gastrointestinal tract (which always contains some air) to the peritoneal cavity (which normally never contains air). This leads to “free gas” within the peritoneal cavity. If the patient stands erect, as when having a chest X-ray, the gas will float to a position underneath the diaphragm. Therefore, gas in the peritoneal cavity, shown on an erect chest X-ray or supine lateral abdominal X-ray, is an omen of perforated peptic ulcer disease.
Gastric ulcer is most often localized on the lesser curvature of the stomach. It is a round to oval parietal defect (“hole”), 2 to 4 cm diameter, with a smooth base and perpendicular borders. These borders are not elevated or irreguliar as in gastric cancer – ulcerative form. Surrounding mucosa may present radial folds, as a consequence of the parietal scarring.
Gastric peptic ulcer is a mucosal defect which penetrates the muscularis mucosae and muscularis propria, produced by acid-pepsin aggression. Ulcer margins are perpendicular and present chronic gastritis. During the active phase, the base of the ulcer shows 4 zones: inflammatory exudate, fibrinoid necrosis, granulation tissue and fibrous tissue. The fibrous base of the ulcer may contain vessels with thickened wall or with thrombosis
Modern Treatment options:
Special diets are now known to have very little impact on the prevention or treatment of stomach ulcers. Treatment options can include:
Medications – including antibiotics, to destroy the H. pylori colony, and drugs to help speed the healing process. Different drugs need to be used in combination; some of the side effects can include diarrhoea and rashes. Resistance to some of these antibiotics is becoming more common.
Subsequent breath tests – used to make sure the H. pylori infection has been treated successfully.
Changes to existing medications – the doses of arthritis medications, aspirin or other anti-inflammatory drugs can be altered slightly to reduce their contributing effects on the stomach ulcer.
Reducing acid – tablets are available to reduce the acid content in the gastric juices.
In Ayurveda it is a disease of tri-doshic nature i.e. Vata, Pitta, Kapha. But aggravation of pitta is noted in all cases. Ayurvedic Suppliments :Moti pisti, Ayucid , Avipatrikar Churna Click to buy
Diet: Since hyperacidity is the villain of the piece which ultimately leads to stomach ulcers, the first step is to withhold all foods which aggravate the condition. Fried food and spices, specially chillies, should be totally prohibited. Milk should be freely taken, at intervals of 3 to 4 hours during a day, because the pain of the ulcer occurs at times when the stomach is empty. Milk, wheat, and ghee should be taken in adequate quantities.
Lifestyle modifications – such as quitting cigarettes, since smoking reduces the natural defences in the stomach and impairs the healing process.: In addition to the above, the patient must be advised to keep himself free from worry and stresses of life which are likely to exacerbate the ulcer pain. He must take sufficient rest and sleep for an hour or so during the day. His below movement must be ensured because constipation can only contribute to worsening of the condition.
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.
Eating too much salt is known to cause high blood pressure, heart attacks and stroke. Now US researchers say it can also give you an ulcer.
Presenting the results of their study at the American Society for Microbiology conference, researchers said their findings show salt and Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) bacterium interact to cause ulcers, which affect the digestive track……..click & see
Found in stomach and duodenum, the H pylori bacterium accounts for up to 90 per cent of duodenal ulcers and up to 80 per cent of gastric ulcers.
Many people carry the bacterium without experiencing any symptoms. And some of those who are affected suffer far less severe symptoms than others.
Researchers at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in the USA found high levels of salt cause genetic changes in the bacterium and make it more powerful, reported online edition of Daily Mail.
The team of scientists headed by Hanan Gancz said the bacterium might also increase the risk of gastric cancer.
“It was known that people who ate a high-salt diet had an increased risk of gastric cancer but no one had looked specifically at the effects of salt on H pylori itself,” the researchers added.