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Bunions

Definition:
A bunion is an enlargement of bone or tissue around the joint at the base of the big toe (metatarsophalangeal joint).The big toe (hallux) may turn in toward the second toe (angulation), and the tissues surrounding the joint may be swollen and tender.

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The term is used to refer to the pathological bump on the side of the great toe joint. The bump is partly due to the swollen bursal sac and/or an osseous (bony) anomaly on the mesophalangeal joint (where the first metatarsal bone and hallux meet). The larger part of the bump is a normal part of the head of first metatarsal bone that has tilted sideways to stick out at its top.

Although they’re more common in older people, they can begin at any age, and even children can develop them. A similar bump, but on the outer edge of the foot at the base of the smallest toe, is known as a bunionette.

The term “hallux valgus” or “hallux abducto-valgus” are the most commonly used medical terms associated with a bunion anomaly, where “hallux” refers to the great toe, “valgus” refers to the abnormal angulation of the great toe commonly associated with bunion anomalies, and “abductus/-o” refers to the abnormal drifting or inward leaning of the great toe towards the second toe, which is also commonly associated with bunions. It is important to state that “hallux abducto refers to the motion the great toe moves away from the body’s midline. Deformities of the lower extremity are usually named in accordance to the body’s midline, or the line bisecting the body longitudinally into two halves.

Bunions most commonly affect women. Some studies report that bunions occur nearly 10 times more frequently in women then men.

Symptoms:
Bunions may or may not cause symptoms. A frequent symptom is pain in the involved area when walking or wearing shoes that is relieved by resting. A bunion causes enlargement of the base of the big toe and is usually associated with positioning of the big toe toward the smaller toes. This leads to intermittent or chronic pain at the base of the big toe.

Bunions that cause marked pain are often associated with swelling of the soft tissues, redness, and local tenderness.

The symptoms of bunions include irritated skin around the bunion, pain when walking, joint redness and pain, and possible shift of the big toe toward the other toes. Blisters may form more easily around the site of the bunion as well.

Having bunions can also make it harder to find shoes that fit properly; bunions may force a person to have to buy a larger size shoe to accommodate the width the bunion creates. When bunion deformity becomes severe enough, the foot can hurt in different places even without the constriction of shoes because it then becomes a mechanical function problem of the forefoot.

Risk Factors & Causes:
It is found  that tight-fitting shoes, especially high-heel and narrow-toed, might increase the risk for bunion formation.
Bunions are reported to be more prevalent in people who wear shoes than in barefoot people. There also seem to be inherited (genetic) factors that predispose to the development of bunions, especially when they occur in younger individuals.

Other risk factors for the development of bunions include congenital (present from birth) abnormal formation of the bones of the foot, nerve conditions that affect the foot, rheumatoid arthritis, and injury to the foot. Bunions are common in ballet dancers.

Bunions are mostly genetic and consist of certain tendons, ligaments, and supportive structures of the first metatarsal that are positioned differently. This bio-mechanical anomaly may be caused by a variety of conditions intrinsic to the structure of the foot – such as flat feet, excessive flexibility of ligaments, abnormal bone structure, and certain neurological conditions. These factors are often considered genetic. Although some experts are convinced that poor-fitting footwear is the main cause of bunion formation, other sources concede only that footwear exacerbates the problem caused by the original genetic structure.

Bunions are commonly associated with a deviated position of the big toe toward the second toe, and the deviation in the angle between the first and second metatarsal bones of the foot. The small sesamoid bones found beneath the first metatarsal (which help the flexor tendon bend the big toe downwards) may also become deviated over time as the first metatarsal bone drifts away from its normal position. Arthritis of the big toe joint, diminished and/or altered range of motion, and discomfort with pressure applied to the bump or with motion of the joint, may all accompany bunion development.

Diagnosis:
A doctor can usually diagnose a bunion by looking at it. A foot x-ray can show an abnormal angle between the big toe and the foot and, in some cases, arthritis.

The doctor considers a bunion when noting the symptoms described above. The anatomy of the foot is assessed during the examination. Radiographs (x-ray films) of the foot can be helpful to determine the integrity of the joints of the foot and to screen for underlying conditions, such as arthritis or gout. X-ray films are an excellent method of calculating the alignment of the toes.

Treatment:
Bunions may be treated conservatively with changes in shoe gear, different orthotics (accommodative padding and shielding), rest, ice, and medications. These sorts of treatments address symptoms more than they correct the actual deformity. Surgery, by an orthopedic surgeon or a podiatrist, may be necessary if discomfort is severe enough or when correction of the deformity is desired.

Orthotics are splints, regulators while conservative measures include various footwear like gelled toe spacers, bunion / toes separators, bunion regulators, bunion splints, and bunion cushions.

Surgery:
Procedures are designed and chosen to correct a variety of pathologies that may be associated with the bunion. For instance, procedures may address some combination of:

*removing the abnormal bony enlargement of the first metatarsal,
*realigning the first metatarsal bone relative to the adjacent metatarsal bone,
*straightening the great toe relative to the first metatarsal and adjacent toes,
*realigning the cartilagenous surfaces of the great toe joint,
*addressing arthritic changes associated with the great toe joint,
*repositioning the sesamoid bones beneath the first metatarsal bone,
*shortening, lengthening, raising, or lowering the first metatarsal bone, and
*correcting any abnormal bowing or misalignment within the great toe.

At present there are many different bunion surgeries for different effects. Ultimately, surgery should always have function of the foot in mind besides its look. Can the proposed surgery help resolve the pain and callus under the middle metatarsal heads? Can one return to sports? Can the foot enjoy fashionable or high heel shoes like normal feet without undue discomfort? Does the proposed surgery prevent recurrence with any specific built-in mechanism? These are very reasonable challenges for any truly functional bunion surgeries but may not be so for esthetic bunion surgeries.

The age, health, lifestyle, and activity level of the patient may also play a role in the choice of procedure.

Bunion surgery can be performed under local, spinal, or general anesthetic. The trend has moved strongly toward using the less invasive local anesthesia over the years. A patient can expect a 6- to 8-week recovery period during which crutches are usually required for aid in mobility. An orthopedic cast is much less common today as newer, more stable procedures and better forms of fixation (stabilizing the bone with screws and other hardware) are used.

Prognosis:
The prognosis depends on your age and activities, and the severity of the bunion. Teenagers may have more trouble treating a bunion than adults. Many adults do well by caring for the bunion when it first starts to develop, and wearing different shoes. Surgery reduces the pain in many, but not all, people with bunions.

Possible Complications:

*Chronic foot pain
*Foot deformity
*Stiff foot
*Hallux varus (occurs with surgical over-correction, where the toe points away from the second toe

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.medicinenet.com/bunions/page2.htm
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001231.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bunion
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/bunions.shtml

http://www.consumerreports.org/health/conditions-and-treatments/bunions/what-is-it.htm

http://www.cafai.com/bunions.html

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Nose Job

To most people a nose is just an organ in the centre of our face. It may be straight and aquiline (enhancing perceptions of classical beauty), snub or button-shaped, flat or crooked. Some of us do not like the way our nose is structured and try to change its appearance. Elderly relatives may pull a baby’s nose several times a day in an attempt to make it grow longer. Others may grab a wallet and head to the nearest plastic surgeon for a “nose job” (rhinoplasy)….…CLICK & SEE

Whatever the shape, the nose warms and humidifies the air that enters our body. It is lined with fine hair that prevents dust from going into the lungs. This acts as a first line of defence against viral and bacterial infections. On contact with an organism or a noxious chemical, it secretes fluid that washes out the offending material (causing a dripping nose).

Sometimes violent sneezing is triggered which expels these substances far away from the body.

Until the age of 18 years, the nose grows and changes in shape and size. As we get older, the nasal cartilage loses its elasticity. This causes the tip of the nose to lengthen and droop. This makes the nose appear larger in older people.

The nose enables us to smell. This helps us identify substances and distinguish between pleasant harmless odours and noxious harmful ones. Like other animals, man once had a keenly developed sense of smell. This helped him identify potentially dangerous animals as well as warring strangers from other regions and tribes. We adults have lost this ability with evolution. However, smell is the best developed of all the five senses in a baby. Infants can distinguish between their mothers, other lactating women and strangers.

The sense of smell contributes to the taste of our food. People suffering from anosmia, or loss of the sense of smell, do not find food palatable. This causes them to lose weight. Anosmia may be a temporary phenomenon when the nose is blocked as a result of a cold. It may occur when the “smell centre” in the brain is damaged, or if the person has Parkinson’s disease. Attempts to relieve a blocked nose with repeated use of nasal sprays can damage the lining of the nose sufficiently to cause a permanent loss of smell.

Some people tend to pick their using their fingers. This is an unsavoury, socially unacceptable habit. It may also resul noses t in damage to the lining of the nose and bleeding. Constant trauma to the nostrils can cause infection of the hair follicles in the nose. This can result in fever, swelling and pus formation.

A pierced nose is perceived to enhance the beauty of a woman. It is a common practice in India from ancient times and was believed to ease the pains of childbirth. The area that should be pierced is just below the cartilage. If the nose cartilage is accidentally pierced instead, serious complications like bleeding, infection and permanent deformity can occur. Even otherwise, infection, redness, swelling and scar formation may occur.

The jewellery used may cause problems. It may come loose and be accidentally swallowed. The back of the stud can become embedded in the skin, or nose rings can get caught in clothing and violently pulled out. Also, once you have pierced your nose, even if you change your mind and decide against jewellery, there will always be a little hole.

About 60 per cent of people experience nose bleed (epistaxis) at some time in their lives. It occurs most often under the age of 10 and over the age of 60 years. This is usually due to a local problem in the nose like a cold, nose picking, a foreign body, irritants like cigarette smoke, or an injury. Less often it may be due to a systemic disease like high blood pressure or clotting disorders like haemophilia. It can also occur owing to blood thinning medicines such as aspirin, clopidogrel, heparin or warfarin. The patient may have purchased medicines over the counter, or may be taking non-allopathic drugs and may be unaware of their side effects.

Most nosebleeds can be tackled at home:

*Make the person sit up. This prevents blood from filling up in the throat and choking the person

*Pinch the nostrils firmly and maintain steady pressure for 10 minutes

*Instill a decongestant nasal spray containing oxymetazoline (Nasivion or Otrivin).

Most nosebleeds are harmless. Very rarely, they can be fatal. You need to seek medical help if the bleeding has lasted for more than 20 minutes, or if it followed a fall, a blow to the head or an accident.

Epistaxis

Epistaxis (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Recurrent nosebleeds with no identifiable or correctable cause need to be tackled by an ENT surgeon.

Source : The Telegraph ( kolkata, India)

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