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Herbs & Plants

Clerodendrum infortunatum

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Botanical name :Clerodendrum infortunatum
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: ClerodendrumL.
Species: infortunatum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales
Species: infortunatum

Synonyms:  Clerodendrum viscosum Vent. and Volkameria infortunata Roxb

Common name : Hill glory bower

Bengali Name :Bhatphool,

Habitat :Clerodendrum infortunatum is native to tropical regions of Asia including India, Myanmar, Pakistan, Thailand and Sri Lanka.

Description :
C. infortunatum is a flowering shrub or small tree, and is so named because of its rather ugly leaf. The stem is eresct, 0.5–4 m high, with no branches and produce circular leaves with 6 inch diameter. Leaves are simple, opposite; both surfaces sparsely villous-pubes-cent, elliptic, broadly elliptic, ovate or elongate ovate, 3.5–20 cm wide, 6–25 cm long, dentate, inflorescence in terminal, peduncled, few-flow­ered cyme; flowers white with purplish pink or dull-purple throat, pubescent. Fruit berry, globose, turned bluish-black or black when ripe, enclosed in the red accrescent fruiting-calyx. The stem is hollow and the leaves are 6-8 inch (15–20 cm) long, borne in whorls of four on very short petioles. The inflorescence is huge, consisting of many tubular snow white flowers in a terminal cluster up to 2 ft (0.6 m) long. The tubes of the flowers are about 4 inch (10 cm) long and droop downward, and the expanded corollas are about 2 inch (5 cm) across. The fruits are attractive dark metallic blue drupes, about a half inch in diameter. Fruit usually with 4 dry nutlets and the seeds may be with or without endosperm. It flowers from April to August.

Click to see the pictures

Chemical constituents:
The major compounds are sterols, sugars, flavonoids and saponins. Novel crystalline compounds such as clerodolone, clerodone, clerodol and a sterol designated clerosterol have been isolated from the root. Seven sugars namely raffinose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, galactose, glucose and fructose were identified. Fumaric acid, caffeic acid esters, ?-sitosterol and ?-sitosterol glucoside were isolated from the flowers. Apigenin, acacetin and a new flavone glycoside, characterised as the methyl ester of acacetin-7-0-glucuronide are isolated from the flowers. Saponin is one of the major compounds of the leaf. 24 beta-ethylsterols, clerosterol and 22-dehydroclerosterol, 24-methyl-sterols (24-methylcholestanol, 24-methylcholesterol, 24-methyl-22-dehydrocholesterol, and 24-methyllathostero) and 24 beta-ethyl-22-dehydrocholestanol are found in the seeds. Scutellarin and hispidulin-7-O-glucuronide are present in the leaf. Poriferasterol and stigmasterol are the components of the aerial parts

Medicinal uses:

Ayurvedic and Siddha medicines

In Ayurvedic and Siddha traditional medicines, the leaves and roots of C. infortunatum are used as herbal remedy for alopecia, asthma, cough, diarrhoea, rheumatism, fever and skin diseases. It is also known to have hepato-protective and antimicrobial activities.[9][unreliable medical source?] The roots and bark of stem of this plant prepared as decoction and given in the dose of 60-80 ml twice daily for respiratory diseases, fever, periodic fever, cough, bronchial asthma, etc.[citation needed] The leaves are ground well and applied externally to induce ripenning of ulcers and swellings.[citation needed] A paste of leaves and roots are applied externally over skin diseases especially fungal infections and alopecia.[citation needed] Fresh leaves are given for diarrhoea, liver disorders and headache.

Traditional practices:

The leaf and root are widely used as antidandruff, antipyretic, ascaricide, laxative, vermifuge, and in treatments of convulsion, diabetes, gravel, malaria, scabies, skin diseases, sore, spasm, scorpion sting, snake bite and tumor. In Thai medicine the leaves and root are known to be diuretic; and used for treatment of intestinal infections and kidney dysfunction; when boiled or ground with water, it is take to increase milk secretion for post-labor. In many traditional practices the leaves and root are widely used as antihyperglycemic.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

 Resouces:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clerodendrum_infortunatum

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Categories
Herbs & Plants

Mañgoñgot

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Botanical Name :Clerodendrum inerme (Linn.) Gaertn
Family : Verbenaceae

Other Scientific Names:  Clerodendrum commersonii Spreng.,Clerodendrum nerifolium Wall. ,Volkameria commersonii Poir.,Volkameria inermis Linn. ,Volkameria nereifolia Roxb.,Clerodendrum capsulare Blanco,

Common Names: Gaertn. Ang-angri (Ilk.),Baliseng (Bis.),Busel-busel (Ilk.),Mañgoñgot (Tag.),Samin-añga (Sul.),Tabang-oñgong (P. Bis.),Seaside clerodendron (Engl.) ,Garden quinine (Engl.) ,Sorcerer’s bush (Engl.),Wild jasmine (Engl.) ,Ku lang shu (Chin.)

Habitat : Mañgoñgot is found along the seashore and beside tidal streams throughout the Philippines. It also occurs in India to Formosa, and through Malaya to tropical Australia and Polynesia.

Description:
This plant is an erect or somewhat straggling shrub 1 to 4 meters high. The leaves are ovate, oblong-ovate, or elliptic-ovate, 4 to 8 centimeters long, 2 to 5 centimeters wide, shinning, smooth, entire, and pointed at the tip. The inflorescence (cyme) is usually composed of three flowers and is borne in the axils of the leaves. The calyx is green, narrowly funnel-shaped, and furnished with 5 very short teeth. The corolla is about 3 centimeters long and comprises a slender, white tube spreading, purple-tinged lobes which are about 7 millimeters long. The stamens are long-exserted, and purple. The fruit is obovoid, about 1.5 centimeters long, and splitting into 4 pyrenes. The calyx in the fruit is about 1 centimeter in diameter.

click & see the pictures

Medicinal Uses:
Parts used: Root, leaves.

Constituents:
* Leaves yield a bitter principle that is entirely removed by ether; and treatment with alcohol and water yields extracts free from bitterness. The bitter principle shows a resemblance to Chiretta (Swertia chirata), a gentianaceous plant.
* Leaves also yield a fragrant stearoptin with an apple-like odor; resin; gum; brown coloring matter; and ash containing a large amount of sodium chloride (24.01% of the ash).
* Study of hexane extract of the aerial parts isolated an aliphatic glucoside characterized as pentadecanoic acid-ß-D-glucoside. A butanol extract yielded acacetin and apigenin.

Properties:
*Leaves are mucilaginous and fragrant.
*Considered alterative, febrifuge and resolvent.

Folkloric
*In the Philippines, root decoction is used as febrifuge and alterative.
*Leaves are used in poultices as resolvent.
*Elsewhere, the root, boiled in oil, is applied like a liniment for rheumatism.
*In Guam, the bitter root, leaves and wood are used by natives as a remedy for intermittent fevers.
*Poultices of leaves used for swellings to prevent suppuration.
*Leaves and roots, in tincture and decoction, used as substitute for quinine.
*Juice of leaves and root used as alterative in scrofulous and venereal diseases.
*Poultices of leaves applied to resolve buboes.
*Leaf bath recommended for mani and for itches.
*At one time, sailors of Macassar were reported to take the fruit, seeds and roots to sea, and a decoction or pounded seeds were ingested when taken sick by ingestion of poisonous fish and crabs.
*Leaves, eaten with rice, used to increase the appetite.
*In Java, fruit used as medicine for dysentery.
*In Africa, used to treat hypertension.
*In traditional Indian medicine, leaves used for treating fever, cough, skin rahses, boils; also, for treating umbilical cord infection and cleaning the uterus.

Studies :
• Megastigmane / Iridoid Glucosides: Study of aerial parts of C. inerme yielded two megastimane glucosides (sammangaosides A and B) and an iridoid glucoside (sammangaoside C) with 15 known compounds.
Hepatoprotective: Study of ethanolic extract of C. inerme leaves in CCl4-induced liver damage in Swiss albino rats showed hepatoprotective activity with significant reduction of liver enzymes ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase, with significant increase in glutathione level.
Hypotensive Activity: Study of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum inerme leaves showed a hypotensive effect attributted to the presence of chemical elements such as alkaloids and polyphenols. Results support its traditional use for its hypotensive effect.
• Antifungal: Study of the ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of leaves and stems of C. inerme and C. phlomidis showed both inhibited inhibition of all plant and human pathogenic fungi. The leaf extract of C. inerme inhibited plant pathogenic fungi better than the human dermatophytes.
• Antioxidant / Free Radical Scavenging Activity: Study of methanolic extract of leaves of C. inerme showed free radical scavenging activity increasing with concentration, with maximum activity at 2500 mg/mL. Antioxidant activity may be due to phenolic compounds.
• Antibacterial / Wound Healing: Study of methanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts showed significant inhibition against 15 of 18 bacterial tested. Results clearly showed the leaves were effective in controlling bacterial pathogens, particular gram positive bacteria. Results also confirmed its utility as a wound-healing agent.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: Study of the methanol extract of C. inerme in animal models exhibited anti-inflammatory activty. In addition, it showed significant analgesic activity in acetic acid induced-writhing model. The effects were attributed largely to its antioxidant and lysosomal membrane stabilizing effects.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.bpi.da.gov.ph/Publications/mp/pdf/m/mangongot.pdf
http://www.stuartxchange.com/Mangongot.html

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