Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Motion Sickness

Definition:

Motion sickness or kinetosis is a condition in which a disagreement exists between visually perceived movement and the vestibular system’s sense of movement.

To understand motion sickness, it helps to understand a few parts of your body and how they affect the way you feel movement:

CLICK & SEE

*inner ears – liquid in the semicircular canals of the inner ear allows you to sense if you’re moving, and, if you are, which way you’re moving – up, down, side to side, round and round, forward, or backward.

*eyes – what you see also lets your body know whether you’re moving and in which direction.

*skin receptors – these receptors tell your brain which parts of your body are touching the ground.

*muscles and joint sensory receptors – these sensing receptors tell your brain if you’re moving your muscles and which position your body is in.

The brain gets an instant report from these different parts of your body and tries to put together a total picture about what you are doing just at that moment. But if any of the pieces of this picture don’t match, you can get motion sickness.

For example, if you’re riding in a car and reading a book, your inner ears and skin receptors will detect that you are moving forward. However, your eyes are looking at a book that isn’t moving, and your muscle receptors are telling your brain that you’re sitting still. So the brain gets a little confused. Things may begin to feel a little scrambled inside your head at that point.

When this happens, you might feel really tired, dizzy, or sick to your stomach. Sometimes you might even throw up. And if you’re feeling scared or anxious, your motion sickness might get even worse.

Depending on the cause it can also be referred to as seasickness, carsickness, simulation sickness, airsickness, or space sickness.

.
Kinds of Motion Sickness:

Airsickness
Airsickness is a sensation which is induced by air travel. It is a specific form of motion sickness, and is considered a normal response in healthy individuals. Airsickness occurs when the central nervous system receives conflicting messages from the body (including the inner ear, eyes and muscles) affecting balance and equilibrium.

Sea-sickness
Seasickness is a form of motion sickness characterized by a feeling of nausea and, in extreme cases, vertigo experienced after spending time on a craft on water. It is typically brought on by the rocking motion of the craft.

Simulation sickness
Simulation sickness, or simulator sickness, is a condition where a person exhibits symptoms similar to motion sickness caused by playing computer/simulation/video games.

The most common theory for the cause of simulation sickness is that the illusion of motion created by the virtual world, combined with the absence of motion detected by the inner ear, causes the area postrema in the brain to infer that one is hallucinating and further conclude that the hallucination is due to poison ingestion. The brain responds by inducing nausea and mass vomiting, to clear the supposed toxin.[7] According to this theory, simulation sickness is just another form of motion sickness.

The symptoms are often described as quite similar to that of motion sickness. Some can range from headache, drowsiness, nausea, dizziness, vomiting and sweating. A research done at the University of Minnesota had students play Halo for less than an hour, and found that up to 50 percent felt sick afterwards.
In a study conducted by U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences in a report published May 1995 titled “Technical Report 1027 – Simulator Sickness in Virtual Environments”, out of 742 pilot exposures from 11 military flight simulators, “approximately half of the pilots (334) reported post-effects of some kind: 250 (34%) reported that symptoms dissipated in less than 1 hour, 44 (6%) reported that symptoms lasted longer than 4 hours, and 28 (4%) reported that symptoms lasted longer than 6 hours. There were also 4 (1%) reported cases of spontaneously occurring flashbacks”.

Space sicknesss
Space sickness was effectively unknown during the earliest spaceflights, as these were undertaken in very cramped conditions; it seems to be aggravated by being able to freely move around, and so is more common in larger spacecraft. Around 60% of all Space Shuttle astronauts currently experience it on their first flight; the first case is now suspected to be Gherman Titov, in August, 1961 onboard Vostok 2, who reported dizziness and nausea. However, the first significant cases were in early Apollo flights; Frank Borman on Apollo 8 and Rusty Schweickart on Apollo 9. Both experienced identifiable and reasonably severe symptoms — in the latter case causing the mission plan to be modified.

.
Signs and Symptoms:
The most common signs and symptoms of motion sickness include:

*Nausea
*Paleness of the skin
*Cold sweats
*Vomiting
*Dizziness
*Headache
*Increased salivation
*Fatigue

Dizziness, fatigue, and nausea are the most common symptoms of motion sickness. Sopite syndrome is also a side effect of motion sickness. In fact, nausea in Greek means seasickness (naus means ship). If the motion causing nausea is not resolved, the sufferer will frequently vomit. Unlike ordinary sickness, vomiting in motion sickness tends not to relieve the nausea.

Causes:
Motion sickness occurs when the body, the inner ear, and the eyes send conflicting signals to the brain. This reaction is generally provoked by a moving vehicle such as a car, boat, airplane, or space shuttle, but it may also happen on flight simulators or amusement park rides. From inside a ship’s cabin, the inner ear may sense rolling motions that the eyes cannot perceive, and, conversely, the eyes may perceive movement on a “virtual reality” simulation ride that the body does not feel. Interestingly, once a person adapts to the movement and the motion stops, the symptoms may recur and cause the person to adjust all over again (although, this reaction is generally brief). In addition, even anticipating movement can cause anxiety and symptoms of motion sickness. For example, a person with a previous experience of motion sickness may become nauseous on an airplane before take-off.

About 33% of people are susceptible to motion sickness even in mild circumstances such as being on a boat in calm water, although nearly 66% of people are susceptible in more severe conditions. Approximately 50% of the astronauts in the U.S. space program have suffered from space sickness.Individuals and animals without a functional vestibular system are immune to motion sickness.

Motion sickness on the sea can result from being in the berth of a rolling boat without being able to see the horizon. Sudden jerky movements tend to be worse for provoking motion sickness than slower smooth ones, because they disrupt the fluid balance more. A “corkscrewing” boat will upset more people than one that is gliding smoothly across the oncoming waves. Cars driving rapidly around winding roads or up and down a series of hills will upset more people than cars that are moving over smooth, straight roads. Looking down into one’s lap to consult a map or attempting to read a book while a passenger in a car may also bring on motion sickness.

The most common hypothesis for the cause of motion sickness is that it functions as a defense mechanism against neurotoxins. The area postrema in the brain is responsible for inducing vomiting when poisons are detected, and for resolving conflicts between vision and balance. When feeling motion but not seeing it (for example, in a ship with no windows), the inner ear transmits to the brain that it senses motion, but the eyes tell the brain that everything is still. As a result of the disconcordance, the brain will come to the conclusion that one of them is hallucinating and further conclude that the hallucination is due to poison ingestion. The brain responds by inducing vomiting, to clear the supposed toxin.

Risk Factors:

The following are the most common risk factors for motion sickness:

  • Riding in a car, boat, airplane, or space shuttle
  • Age — children between the ages of 2 – 12 are most at risk. Occurrence of motion sickness declines with age (this is probably due to behavioral changes and coping strategies rather than anything inherent in the aging process).
  • Susceptibility to nausea or vomiting
  • Heightened level of fear or anxiety
  • Exposure to unpleasant odors
  • Poor ventilation
  • Spending long hours at a computer screen
  • Being outside of the earth’s gravitational force

Diagnosis:

Most people who have experienced motion sickness in the past ask their health care provider how to prevent another episode from occurring in the future. Rarely will an individual arrive at his or her health care provider’s office actually experiencing motion sickness. To establish a diagnosis of motion sickness, the provider will inquire about the individual’s symptoms as well as the event that typically causes the condition (such as riding in a boat, flying in a plane, or driving in car). Laboratory tests are generally not necessary to establish a diagnosis of motion sickness.

Preventive Care:

The following general measures may be taken to help avoid the discomfort caused by motion sickness:

  • Reduce anxiety and fears, particularly through methods such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and biofeedback.
  • Use head rests to minimize head movements.
  • Maintain proper ventilation to decrease foul odors that may cause nausea.
  • Stay occupied to distract the mind from thinking about motion sickness. Reading may worsen symptoms.
  • Particular exercises, such as tumbling or jumping on a trampoline, may desensitize an individual prior to being in a situation that causes motion sickness.

Individuals who commonly experience motion sickness on a plane should take the following preventive measures:

  • Avoid bulky, greasy meals and overindulgence in alcoholic beverages the night before air travel.
  • Eat light meals or snacks that are low in calories in the 24 hours before air travel.
  • Avoid salty foods and dairy products before air travel.
  • Sit toward the front of the aircraft or in a seat by the wing because the ride will feel smoother in these locations.
  • Eat foods high in carbohydrates before air travel.

Individuals with a tendency toward motion sickness on a boat should take the following preventive measures:

  • Passengers below the deck should keep their eyes closed and minds occupied (by engaging in conversation, for example).
  • Passengers on the deck should keep their eyes fixed on the horizon or visible land.

Treatment:

While medications may be an acceptable treatment for travelers who occasionally experience motion sickness, the goal for individuals who experience motion sickness on a regular basis or whose work is affected by their symptoms is to learn to control — and eventually prevent — these symptoms. This may be accomplished with mind-body practices, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and biofeedback. Other alternatives to medication include homeopathy, acupuncture, dietary supplements, dietary changes, and physical exercise.

Modern Medications:

Medications for motion sickness may cause drowsiness and impair judgement and, therefore, should be avoided in pilots, astronauts, ship crew members, and individuals in any other occupation where heavy equipment is operated or where being alert is critical. The following medications are a reasonable option for infrequent travelers and others who experience motion sickness occasionally:

  • Scopolamine — most commonly prescribed medication for motion sickness. It must be taken before the onset of symptoms. It is available in patch form that is placed behind the ear 6 – 8 hours before travel. The effects last up to 3 days. Side effects may include dry mouth, drowsiness, blurred vision, and disorientation.
  • Promethazine — take 2 hours before travel. The effects last between 6 – 8 hours. Side effects may include drowsiness and dry mouth.
  • Cyclizine — most effective when taken at least 30 minutes before travel. It is not recommended for children younger than 6, and side effects are similar to scopolamine.
  • Dimenhydrinate — take every 4 – 8 hours. Side effects are similar to scopolamine.
  • Meclizine — most effective when taken 1 hour before travel. It is not recommended for children under 12, and side effects may include drowsiness and dry mouth

Nutrition and Dietary Supplements:

Generally, small frequent meals are recommended for individuals prone to motion sickness. A comprehensive treatment plan for recovering from motion sickness may include a range of complementary and alternative therapies. Ask your team of health care providers about the best ways to incorporate these therapies into your overall treatment plan. Always tell your health care provider about the herbs and supplements you are using or considering using.

Following these nutritional tips may help reduce symptoms and improve overall health:

  • Try to eliminate potential food allergens, including dairy, wheat (gluten), corn, preservatives, and food additives. Your health care provider may want to test for food sensitivities.
  • Eat antioxidant foods, including fruits (such as blueberries, cherries, and tomatoes) and vegetables (such as squash and bell peppers).
  • Eat foods high in B-vitamins and calcium, such as almonds, beans, whole grains (if no allergy), dark leafy greens (such as spinach and kale), and sea vegetables.
  • Avoid refined foods, such as white breads, pastas, and especially sugar.
  • Eat fewer red meats and more lean meats, cold-water fish, tofu (soy, if no allergy), or beans for protein.
  • Use healthy oils in foods, such as olive oil or vegetable oil.
  • Reduce or eliminate trans-fatty acids, found in commercially baked goods such as cookies, crackers, cakes, French fries, onion rings, donuts, processed foods, and margarine.
  • Avoid coffee and other stimulants, alcohol, and tobacco.
  • Drink 6 – 8 glasses of filtered water daily.

Nutritional deficiencies may be addressed with the following supplements:

  • A multivitamin daily, containing the antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, the B-complex vitamins, and trace minerals such as magnesium, calcium, zinc, and selenium.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids, such as fish oil, 1 – 2 capsules or 1 tablespoonful oil one to three times daily, to help decrease inflammation and help with immunity. Cold-water fish, such as salmon or halibut, are good sources.
  • Probiotic supplement (containing Lactobacillus acidophilus among other species), 5 – 10 billion CFUs (colony forming units) a day, when needed for maintenance of gastrointestinal and immune health. You should refrigerate your probiotic supplements for best results.
  • Alpha-lipoic acid, 25 – 50 mg twice daily, for antioxidant support.
  • Resveratrol (from red wine), 50 – 200 mg daily, to help decrease inflammation and for antioxidant effects.
  • 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), 50 mg two to three times daily, for mood stabilization.
  • Grape seed extract ( Vitis vinifera ) standardized extract, 25 – 100 mg three times daily, for antioxidant effects.

Herbal Suppliments:

Herbs are generally a safe way to strengthen and tone the body’s systems. As with any therapy, you should work with your health care provider to get your problem diagnosed before starting any treatment. You may use herbs as dried extracts (capsules, powders, teas), glycerites (glycerine extracts), or tinctures (alcohol extracts). Unless otherwise indicated, you should make teas with 1 tsp. herb per cup of hot water. Steep covered 5 – 10 minutes for leaf or flowers, and 10 – 20 minutes for roots. Drink 2 – 4 cups per day. You may use tinctures alone or in combination as noted.

  • Ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) standardized extract, 250 mg three times daily as needed, for symptoms of nausea.
  • Peppermint ( Mentha piperita ) standardized extract, 1 enteric coated tablet two to three times daily as needed. You may also make a tea of the leaf.
  • Milk thistle ( Silybum marianum ) seed standardized extract, 80 – 160 mg two to three times daily, for detoxification support.

Acupuncture:

Although results have been less convincing, studies suggest that acupressure may help reduce symptoms of motion sickness in the same way as acupuncture. An acupressure practitioner works with the same points used in acupuncture, but stimulates these healing sites with finger pressure, rather than inserting fine needles.

The acupuncture point known as Pericardium 6, located on the palm side of the wrist about the length of 2 fingernails up the arm from the center of the wrist crease, is a classic point for motion sickness and nausea of all kinds. Many travel stores sell wrist bands with built in buttons designed to apply acupressure to this point.

Massage and Physical Therapy:

One case study of a woman with motion sickness suggests that balance training and habituation (reducing or modifying one’s response to a stimulus that causes motion sickness) may help diminish the symptoms of the condition. The use of habituation for the treatment of motion sickness is based on the theory that when an individual prone to motion sickness is repetitively exposed to the stimulus that causes motion sickness (such as driving in a car or riding on an elevator) in a controlled, supervised fashion, they will become used to (habituate) that stimulus. Over time, the stimulus will no longer evoke the motion sickness response, and symptoms will diminish.

Cranio-Sacral therapy may be helpful in treating acute motion sickness and diminishing one’s tendency towards motion sickness. Ask your health care provider about more information on this alternative treatment for motion sickness.

Homeopathy Medications:

Few studies have examined the effectiveness of specific homeopathic remedies. A professional homeopath, however, may recommend one or more of the following treatments for motion sickness based on their knowledge and clinical experience. Before prescribing a remedy, homeopaths take into account a person’s constitutional type — your physical, emotional, and intellectual makeup. An experienced homeopath assesses all of these factors when determining the most appropriate remedy for a particular individual.

  • Borax — for nausea caused by downward motions, such as landing in an airplane
  • Cocculus — the primary treatment for motion sickness, particularly if nausea and vertigo or other type of dizziness are present
  • Nux vomica — for motion sickness accompanied by headache, nausea, and ringing in the ears
  • Petroleum — for dizziness and nausea that occur when riding in a car or boat
  • Sepia — for motion sickness brought on by reading while in a moving vehicle
  • Tabacum — for motion sickness with severe nausea and vomiting

Mind-Body Medicine

Biofeedback Training and Relaxation

In a study of 55 pilots who had to stop flying due to symptoms of motion sickness, 76% of them successfully overcame their motion sickness and were able to return to work after participating in a biofeedback training and relaxation program. Biofeedback instruments recorded skin temperature and changes in muscle tension while the pilots were exposed to a stimulus that caused motion sickness (sitting in a tilting, rotating chair). While in the chair, the pilots performed various relaxation techniques, such as deep muscle relaxation and mental imagery. Over time, the pilots became used to the rotating chair, and they no longer felt sick because they learned to relax.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

The goal of cognitive behavioral therapy is to alleviate the anxiety that some people experience simply thinking about movement or motion sickness. In a study of 50 pilots who occasionally experienced motion sickness, 86% of them successfully overcame their symptoms after cognitive behavioral therapy. During this therapy, individuals are exposed to a provocative stimulus (such as a tilting, rotating chair) in a slow and controlled fashion until they experience some symptoms of motion sickness, but not until the symptoms become overwhelming. As the individual performs better and better on the rotating chair, they build confidence, reducing their anxiety.

Breathing Techniques

In a study of 46 people with motion sickness, those who were instructed to take slow, deep breaths had a significant reduction in symptoms of motion sickness compared to those who breathed normally or counted their breaths. Interestingly, involuntary rapid and shallow breathing often exacerbates symptoms of motion sickness. While it makes sense that slow, deliberate breathing would help reduce the anxiety associated with motion sickness, further studies are needed to determine whether breathing techniques effectively diminish the symptoms associated with the condition.

Prognosis and Complications:

While motion sickness has no long-term complications, the condition may be devastating for those in an occupation that involves constant movement, such as a flight attendant, pilot, astronaut, or ship crew member.

The symptoms of motion sickness generally disappear quickly once the journey is over. People who travel infrequently may also become accustomed to movement during a trip lasting several days. Even those who travel often may improve from repeated exposures to the same type of experience. However, people who become anxious before a journey often experience worsened symptoms of motion sickness and tend to require more formal interventions, such as biofeedback and relaxation training

Click to learn more:->How to stop travel sickness :

First aid

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motion_sickness
http://kidshealth.org/kid/talk/qa/motion_sickness.html
http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/motion-sickness-000110.htm

Categories
News on Health & Science

Zinc Can Cure Diarrhea

Zinc supplements reduce both the severity and duration of acute or persistent diarrhea in children, according to researchers from the Medical College of Georgia in Augusta.

[amazon_link asins=’B00VXPYO76,B01JO4KWAU,B00XD703WM,B01F9AUOJ2,B018CDA6NC,B01N9JCVGE’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’1f12ae78-28bc-11e7-950a-93318e9ebee1′]

[amazon_link asins=’B0013HV9O0,B002FH90Q6,B000GCQ8X0,B00024D8N0,B00024D3SK,B00KNN0VGC,B000F4YBJC,B00VXE7MSA,B0083HA3PE’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’413a455c-28bc-11e7-b41d-85af264f811c’]

The study included data from 22 studies, including 16 that focused on children with acute diarrhea, and six that focused on children with persistent diarrhea.

Compared to placebo, the zinc supplements reduced the occurrence of both types of diarrhea by about 18 percent. The supplements also reduce stool frequency by about 19 percent in children with acute diarrhea, and 13 percent in those with persistent diarrhea.

However, most of the studies also found that zinc supplements were more likely to cause vomiting than placebo.
Sources:
Reuters February 19, 2008
Pediatrics February 2008, Vol. 121 No. 2, pp. 326-336

Enhanced by Zemanta
Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Gastroparesis

[amazon_link asins=’162315698X,B006ZEFMCQ,1612436455,1461168643,B072MP4P4Q,0998676101,B007KVY0M6,B01N47LYUG,B0060A2SBI’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’4aae8911-7b28-11e7-8deb-59225e18f247′]

What is gastroparesis?

Gastroparesis, also called delayed gastric emptying, is a disorder in which the stomach takes too long to empty its contents. Normally, the stomach contracts to move food down into the small intestine for digestion. The vagus nerve controls the movement of food from the stomach through the digestive tract. Gastroparesis occurs when the vagus nerve is damaged and the muscles of the stomach and intestines do not work normally. Food then moves slowly or stops moving through the digestive tract.

…………..CLICK & SEE

What causes gastroparesis?

The most common cause of gastroparesis is diabetes. People with diabetes have high blood glucose, also called blood sugar, which in turn causes chemical changes in nerves and damages the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients to the nerves. Over time, high blood glucose can damage the vagus nerve.

Some other causes of gastroparesis are

  • surgery on the stomach or vagus nerve
  • viral infections
  • anorexia nervosa or bulimia
  • medications—anticholinergics and narcotics—that slow contractions in the intestine
  • gastroesophageal reflux disease
  • smooth muscle disorders, such as amyloidosis and scleroderma
  • nervous system diseases, including abdominal migraine and Parkinson’s disease
  • metabolic disorders, including hypothyroidism

Many people have what is called idiopathic gastroparesis, meaning the cause is unknown and cannot be found even after medical tests.

What are the complications of gastroparesis?

If food lingers too long in the stomach, it can cause bacterial overgrowth from the fermentation of food. Also, the food can harden into solid masses called bezoars that may cause nausea, vomiting, and obstruction in the stomach. Bezoars can be dangerous if they block the passage of food into the small intestine.

Gastroparesis can make diabetes worse by making blood glucose control more difficult. When food that has been delayed in the stomach finally enters the small intestine and is absorbed, blood glucose levels rise. Since gastroparesis makes stomach emptying unpredictable, a person’s blood glucose levels can be erratic and difficult to control.

How is gastroparesis diagnosed?

After performing a full physical exam and taking your medical history, your doctor may order several blood tests to check blood counts and chemical and electrolyte levels. To rule out an obstruction or other conditions, the doctor may perform the following tests:

  • Upper endoscopy. After giving you a sedative to help you become drowsy, the doctor passes a long, thin tube called an endoscope through your mouth and gently guides it down the throat, also called the esophagus, into the stomach. Through the endoscope, the doctor can look at the lining of the stomach to check for any abnormalities.
  • Ultrasound. To rule out gallbladder disease and pancreatitis as sources of the problem, you may have an ultrasound test, which uses harmless sound waves to outline and define the shape of the gallbladder and pancreas.
  • Barium x ray. After fasting for 12 hours, you will drink a thick liquid called barium, which coats the stomach, making it show up on the x ray. If you have diabetes, your doctor may have special instructions about fasting. Normally, the stomach will be empty of all food after 12 hours of fasting. Gastroparesis is likely if the x ray shows food in the stomach. Because a person with gastroparesis can sometimes have normal emptying, the doctor may repeat the test another day if gastroparesis is suspected.

Once other causes have been ruled out, the doctor will perform one of the following gastric emptying tests to confirm a diagnosis of gastroparesis.

  • Gastric emptying scintigraphy. This test involves eating a bland meal, such as eggs or egg substitute, that contains a small amount of a radioactive substance, called radioisotope, that shows up on scans. The dose of radiation from the radioisotope is not dangerous. The scan measures the rate of gastric emptying at 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours. When more than 10 percent of the meal is still in the stomach at 4 hours, the diagnosis of gastroparesis is confirmed.
  • Breath test. After ingestion of a meal containing a small amount of isotope, breath samples are taken to measure the presence of the isotope in carbon dioxide, which is expelled when a person exhales. The results reveal how fast the stomach is emptying.
  • SmartPill. Approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2006, the SmartPill is a small device in capsule form that can be swallowed.The device then moves through the digestive tract and collects information about its progress that is sent to a cell phone-sized receiver worn around your waist or neck. When the capsule is passed from the body with the stool in a couple of days, you take the receiver back to the doctor, who enters the information into a computer.

How is gastroparesis treated?

Treatment of gastroparesis depends on the severity of the symptoms. In most cases, treatment does not cure gastroparesis—it is usually a chronic condition. Treatment helps you manage the condition so you can be as healthy and comfortable as possible.

Medication

Several medications are used to treat gastroparesis. Your doctor may try different medications or combinations to find the most effective treatment. Discussing the risk of side effects of any medication with your doctor is important.

  • Metoclopramide (Reglan). This drug stimulates stomach muscle contractions to help emptying. Metoclopramide also helps reduce nausea and vomiting. Metoclopramide is taken 20 to 30 minutes before meals and at bedtime. Side effects of this drug include fatigue, sleepiness, depression, anxiety, and problems with physical movement.
  • Erythromycin. This antibiotic also improves stomach emptying. It works by increasing the contractions that move food through the stomach. Side effects include nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps.
  • Domperidone. This drug works like metoclopramide to improve stomach emptying and decrease nausea and vomiting. The FDA is reviewing domperidone, which has been used elsewhere in the world to treat gastroparesis. Use of the drug is restricted in the United States.
  • Other medications. Other medications may be used to treat symptoms and problems related to gastroparesis. For example, an antiemetic can help with nausea and vomiting. Antibiotics will clear up a bacterial infection. If you have a bezoar in the stomach, the doctor may use an endoscope to inject medication into it to dissolve it.

Dietary Changes

Changing your eating habits can help control gastroparesis. Your doctor or dietitian may prescribe six small meals a day instead of three large ones. If less food enters the stomach each time you eat, it may not become overly full. In more severe cases, a liquid or pureed diet may be prescribed.

The doctor may recommend that you avoid high-fat and high-fiber foods. Fat naturally slows digestion—a problem you do not need if you have gastroparesis—and fiber is difficult to digest. Some high-fiber foods like oranges and broccoli contain material that cannot be digested. Avoid these foods because the indigestible part will remain in the stomach too long and possibly form bezoars.

Feeding Tube

If a liquid or pureed diet does not work, you may need surgery to insert a feeding tube. The tube, called a jejunostomy, is inserted through the skin on your abdomen into the small intestine. The feeding tube bypasses the stomach and places nutrients and medication directly into the small intestine. These products are then digested and delivered to your bloodstream quickly. You will receive special liquid food to use with the tube. The jejunostomy is used only when gastroparesis is severe or the tube is necessary to stabilize blood glucose levels in people with diabetes.

Parenteral Nutrition

Parenteral nutrition refers to delivering nutrients directly into the bloodstream, bypassing the digestive system. The doctor places a thin tube called a catheter in a chest vein, leaving an opening to it outside the skin. For feeding, you attach a bag containing liquid nutrients or medication to the catheter. The fluid enters your bloodstream through the vein. Your doctor will tell you what type of liquid nutrition to use.

This approach is an alternative to the jejunostomy tube and is usually a temporary method to get you through a difficult period with gastroparesis. Parenteral nutrition is used only when gastroparesis is severe and is not helped by other methods.

Gastric Electrical Stimulation

A gastric neurostimulator is a surgically implanted battery-operated device that releases mild electrical pulses to help control nausea and vomiting associated with gastroparesis. This option is available to people whose nausea and vomiting do not improve with medications. Further studies will help determine who will benefit most from this procedure, which is available in a few centers across the United States.

Botulinum Toxin

The use of botulinum toxin has been associated with improvement in symptoms of gastroparesis in some patients; however, further research on this form of therapy is needed.

What if I have diabetes and gastroparesis?

The primary treatment goals for gastroparesis related to diabetes are to improve stomach emptying and regain control of blood glucose levels. Treatment includes dietary changes, insulin, oral medications, and, in severe cases, a feeding tube and parenteral nutrition.

Dietary Changes

The doctor will suggest dietary changes such as six smaller meals to help restore your blood glucose to more normal levels before testing you for gastroparesis. In some cases, the doctor or dietitian may suggest you try eating several liquid or pureed meals a day until your blood glucose levels are stable and the symptoms improve. Liquid meals provide all the nutrients found in solid foods, but can pass through the stomach more easily and quickly.

Insulin for Blood Glucose Control

If you have gastroparesis, food is being absorbed more slowly and at unpredictable times. To control blood glucose, you may need to

  • take insulin more often or change the type of insulin you take
  • take your insulin after you eat instead of before
  • check your blood glucose levels frequently after you eat and administer insulin whenever necessary

Your doctor will give you specific instructions for taking insulin based on your particular needs.

Hope Through Research

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases’ Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition supports basic and clinical research into gastrointestinal motility disorders, including gastroparesis. Among other areas, researchers are studying whether experimental medications can relieve or reduce symptoms of gastroparesis, such as bloating, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting, or shorten the time the stomach needs to empty its contents following a meal.

Points to Remember

  • Gastroparesis is the result of damage to the vagus nerve, which controls the movement of food through the digestive system. Instead of moving through the digestive tract normally, the food is retained in the stomach.
  • Gastroparesis may occur in people with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes. The vagus nerve becomes damaged after years of high blood glucose, resulting in gastroparesis. In turn, gastroparesis contributes to poor blood glucose control.
  • Symptoms of gastroparesis include early fullness, abdominal pain, stomach spasms, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, bloating, gastroesophageal reflux, lack of appetite, and weight loss.
  • Gastroparesis is diagnosed with tests such as x rays, manometry, and gastric emptying scans.
  • Treatment includes dietary changes, oral medications, adjustments in insulin injections for people with diabetes, a jejunostomy tube, parenteral nutrition, gastric neurostimulators, or botulinum toxin.

For More Information

American College of Gastroenterology
P.O. Box 342260
Bethesda, MD 20827–2260
Phone: 301–263–9000
Internet: www.acg.gi.org

American Diabetes Association
1701 North Beauregard Street
Alexandria, VA 22311
Phone: 1–800–342–2383
Email: AskADA@diabetes.org
Internet: www.diabetes.org

International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders
P.O. Box 170864
Milwaukee, WI 53217
Phone: 1–888–964–2001 or 414–964–1799
Fax: 414–964–7176
Email: iffgd@iffgd.org
Internet: www.iffgd.org

Sources:http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/gastroparesis/index.htm

Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome)

[amazon_link asins=’0967024285,0387773274,1416037950,0824740769,0323326420,1420088408,1615046348,B013F9NX5G,3319418505′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’45ced4fc-7f0b-11e7-9aa7-03e0a7145dcf’][amazon_link asins=’3319418505,B013F9NX5G,1416037950,1615046348,1420088408,0128042737,0323326420,B000Q35WHM,0511575114′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’f512cd5b-7f0a-11e7-ae7c-97a4106c7481′]

 

Alternative Names :
Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema; Increased-permeability pulmonary edema; Stiff lung; Shock lung; Adult respiratory distress syndrome; Acute respiratory distress syndrome; Acute lung injury.

Definition:
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is breathing failure that can occur in critically ill persons with underlying illnesses. It is not a specific disease. Instead, it is a life-threatening condition that occurs when there is severe fluid buildup in both lungs. The fluid buildup prevents the lungs from working properly—that is, allowing the transfer of oxygen from air into the body and carbon dioxide out of the body into the air.

CLICK & SEE

In ARDS, the tiny blood vessels (capillaries) in the lungs or the air sacs (alveoli (al-VEE-uhl-eye)) are damaged because of an infection, injury, blood loss, or inhalation injury. Fluid leaks from the blood vessels into air sacs of the lungs. While some air sacs fill with fluid, others collapse. When the air sacs collapse or fill up with fluid, the lungs can no longer fill properly with air and the lungs become stiff. Without air entering the lungs properly, the amount of oxygen in the blood drops. When this happens, the person with ARDS must be given extra oxygen and may need the help of a breathing machine.

Breathing failure can occur very quickly after the condition begins. It may take only 1 or 2 days for fluid to build up. The process that causes ARDS may continue for weeks. If scarring occurs, this will make it harder for the lungs to take in oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide.

In the past, only about 4 out of 10 people who developed ARDS survived. But today, with good care in a hospital’s intensive or critical care unit, many people (about 7 out of 10) with ARDS survive. Although many people who survive ARDS make a full recovery, some survivors have lasting damage to their lungs.

How the Lungs Work

To understand acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), it is helpful to understand how your lungs work.

Normal Lung Function

A slice of normal lung looks like a pink sponge—filled with tiny bubbles or holes. Around each bubble is a fine network of tiny blood vessels. These bubbles, which are surrounded by blood vessels, give the lungs a large surface to exchange oxygen (into the blood where it is carried throughout the body) and carbon dioxide (out of the blood). This process is called gas exchange. Healthy lungs do this very well.

Here’s how normal breathing works:

  • You breathe in air through your nose and mouth. The air travels down through your windpipe (trachea) through large and small tubes in your lungs called bronchial (BRON-kee-ul) tubes. The larger tubes are bronchi (BRONK-eye), and the smaller tubes are bronchioles (BRON-kee-oles). Sometimes, we use the word “airways” to refer to the various tubes or passages that air uses to travel from the nose and mouth into the lungs. The airways in your lungs look something like an upside-down tree with many branches.
  • At the ends of the small bronchial tubes, there are groups of tiny bubbles called air sacs or alveoli. The bubbles have very thin walls, and small blood vessels called capillaries are next to them. Oxygen passes from the air sacs into the blood in these small blood vessels. At the same time, carbon dioxide passes from the blood into the air sacs.

Causes:
The causes of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are not well understood. It can occur in many situations and in persons with or without a lung disease.

ARDS can be caused by any major lung inflammation or injury. Some common causes include pneumonia, septic shock, trauma, aspiration of vomit, or chemical inhalation. ARDS develops as inflammation and injury to the lung and causes a buildup of fluid in the air sacs. This fluid inhibits the passage of oxygen from the air into the bloodstream.

The fluid buildup also makes the lungs heavy and stiff, and the lungs’ ability to expand is severely decreased. Blood concentration of oxygen can remain dangerously low in spite of supplemental oxygen delivered by a mechanical ventilator (breathing machine) through an endotracheal tube (breathing tube).

Typically patients require care in an intensive care unit (ICU). Symptoms usually develop within 24 to 48 hours of the original injury or illness. ARDS often occurs along with the failure of other organ systems, such as the liver or the kidneys. Cigarette smoking and heavy alcohol use may be risk factors.

There are two ways that lung injury leading to ARDS can occur: through a direct injury to the lungs, or indirectly when a person is very sick or has a serious bodily injury. However, most sick or badly injured persons do not develop ARDS.

Direct Lung Injury

A direct injury to the lungs may result from breathing in harmful substances or an infection in the lungs. Some direct lung injuries that can lead to ARDS include:

  • Severe pneumonia (infection in the lungs)
  • Breathing in vomited stomach contents
  • Breathing in harmful fumes or smoke
  • A severe blow to the chest or other accident that bruises the lungs

Indirect Lung Injury

Most cases of ARDS happen in people who are very ill or who have been in a major accident. This is sometimes called an indirect lung injury. Less is known about how indirect injuries lead to ARDS than about how direct injuries to the lungs cause ARDS. Indirect lung injury leading to ARDS sometimes occurs in cases of:

  • Severe and widespread bacterial infection in the body (sepsis)
  • Severe injury with shock
  • Severe bleeding requiring blood transfusions
  • Drug overdose
  • Inflamed pancreas

It is not clear why some very sick or seriously injured people develop ARDS, and others do not. Researchers are trying to find out why ARDS develops and how to prevent it.

Pollution: Checking the Damages Caused to the Respiratory System

Symptoms:

*Shortness of breath
*Fast, labored breathing
*A bluish skin color (due to a low level of oxygen in the blood)
*A lower amount of oxygen in the blood
*Labored, rapid breathing
*Low blood pressure or shock (low blood pressure accompanied by organ failure)
Often, persons affected by ARDS are so sick they are unable to complain of symptoms.

Doctors and other health care providers watch for these signs and symptoms in patients who have conditions that might lead to ARDS. People who develop ARDS may be too sick to complain about having trouble breathing or other related symptoms. If a patient shows signs of developing ARDS, doctors will do tests to confirm that ARDS is the problem.

ARDS is often associated with the failure of other organs and body systems, including the liver, kidneys, and the immune system. Multiple organ failure often leads to death.

Effects of ARDS

In ARDS, the tiny blood vessels leak too much fluid into the lungs. This results from toxins (poisons) that the body produces in response to the underlying illness or injury. The lungs become like a wet sponge, heavy and stiffer than normal. They no longer provide the effective surface for gas exchange, and the level of oxygen in the blood falls. If ARDS is severe and goes on for some time, scar tissue called fibrosis may form in the lungs. The scarring also makes it harder for gas exchange to occur.

People who develop ARDS need extra oxygen and may need a breathing machine to breathe for them while their lungs try to heal. If they survive, ARDS patients may have a full recovery. Recovery can take weeks or months. Some ARDS survivors take a year or longer to recover, and some never completely recover from having ARDS.

Who Is At Risk for ARDS?

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) usually affects people who are being treated for another serious illness or those who have had major injuries. It affects about 150,000 people each year in the United States. ARDS can occur in people with or without a previous lung disease. People who have a serious accident with a large blood loss are more likely to develop ARDS. However, only a small portion of people who have problems that can lead to ARDS actually develop it.

In most cases, a person who develops ARDS is already in the hospital being treated for other medical problems. Some illnesses or injuries that can lead to ARDS include:

  • Serious, widespread infection in the body (sepsis)
  • Severe injury (trauma) and shock from a car crash, fire, or other cause
  • Severe bleeding that requires blood transfusions
  • Severe pneumonia (infection of the lungs)
  • Breathing in vomited stomach contents
  • Breathing in smoke or harmful gases and fumes
  • Injury to the chest from trauma (such as a car accident) that causes bruising of the lungs
  • Nearly drowning
  • Some drug overdoses

Diagnosis:

Doctors diagnose acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) when:

  • A person suffering from severe infection or injury develops breathing problems.
  • A chest x ray shows fluid in the air sacs of both lungs.
  • Blood tests show a low level of oxygen in the blood.
  • Other conditions that could cause breathing problems have been ruled out.

ARDS can be confused with other illnesses that have similar symptoms. The most important is congestive heart failure. In congestive heart failure, fluid backs up into the lungs because the heart is weak and cannot pump well. However, there is no injury to the lungs in congestive heart failure. Since a chest x ray is abnormal for both ARDS and congestive heart failure, it is sometimes very difficult to tell them apart.

Exams and Tests :

Chest auscultation (examination with a stethoscope) reveals abnormal breath sounds, such as crackles that suggest fluid in the lungs. Often the blood pressure is low. Cyanosis (blue skin, lips, and nails caused by lack of oxygen to the tissues) is frequently seen.

Tests used in the diagnosis of ARDS include:

  • Chest X-ray
  • Arterial blood gas
  • CBC and blood chemistries
  • Evaluation for possible infections
  • Cultures and analysis of sputum specimens

Occasionally an echocardiogram (heart ultrasound) or Swan-Ganz catheterization may need to be done to exclude congestive heart failure, which can have a similar chest X-ray appearance to ARDS.

Treatment: Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are usually treated in the intensive or critical care unit of a hospital. The main concern in treating ARDS is getting enough oxygen into the blood until the lungs heal enough to work on their own again. The following are important ways that ARDS patients are treated.

The objective of treatment is to provide enough support for the failing respiratory system (and other systems) until these systems have time to heal. Treatment of the underlying condition that caused ARDS is essential.

The main supportive treatment of the failing respiratory system in ARDS is mechanical ventilation (a breathing machine) to deliver high doses of oxygen and a continuous level of pressure called PEEP (positive end-expiratory pressure) to the damaged lungs.

The high pressures and other breathing machine settings required to treat ARDS often require that the patient be deeply sedated with medications.

This treatment is continued until the patient is well enough to breathe on his or her own. Medications may be needed to treat infections, reduce inflammation, and eliminate fluid from the lungs.

Modern Medications:

Many different kinds of medicines are used to treat ARDS patients. Some kinds of medicines often used include:

  • Antibiotics to fight infection
  • Pain relievers
  • Drugs to relieve anxiety and keep the patient calm and from “fighting” the breathing machine
  • Drugs to raise blood pressure or stimulate the heart
  • Muscle relaxers to prevent movement and reduce the body’s demand for oxygen

Other Treatment

With breathing tubes in place, ARDS patients cannot eat or drink as usual. They must be fed through a feeding tube placed through the nose and into the stomach. If this does not work, feeding is done through a vein. Sometimes a special bed or mattress, such as an airbed, is used to help prevent complications such as pneumonia or bedsores. If complications occur, the patient may require treatment for them.

Results

With treatment:

  • Some patients recover quickly and can breathe on their own within a week or so. They have the best chance of a full recovery.
  • Patients whose underlying illness is more severe may die within the first week of treatment.
  • Those who survive the first week but cannot breathe on their own may face many weeks on the breathing machine. They may have complications and a slow recovery if they survive.

ARDS Treatment

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Prognosis :

The death rate in ARDS is approximately 30%. Although survivors usually recover normal lung function, many individuals suffer permanent, usually mild, lung damage.

Many people who survive ARDS suffer memory loss or other problems with thinking after they recover. This is related to brain damage caused by reduced access to oxygen while the lungs were malfunctioning.

After going home from the hospital, the ARDS survivor may need only a little or a lot of help. While recovering from ARDS at home, a person may:

  • Need to use oxygen at home or when going out of the home, at least for a while
  • Need to have physical, occupational, or other therapy
  • Have shortness of breath, cough, or phlegm (mucus)
  • Have hoarseness from the breathing tube in the hospital
  • Feel tired and not have much energy
  • Have muscle weakness

Calling Your Health Care Provider

Usually, ARDS occurs in the setting of another illness, for which the patient is already in the hospital. Occasionally, a healthy person may develop severe pneumonia that progresses to ARDS. If breathing difficulty develops, call the local emergency number (such as 911) or go to the emergency room.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000103.htm
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Ards/Ards_WhatIs.html

Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Dizziness

Feeling light-headed? A bit woozy or off-balance? If you’re traveling in a car, boat, or plane, it’s probably motion sickness. But sometimes dizziness, also commonly called vertigo, becomes a lingering or recurrent problem. Regardless of the cause, natural remedies can bring relief. ………... click & see

Symptoms
Unsteadiness or faintness.
A feeling that the room is spinning or that you’re whirling in space, sometimes accompanied by ringing in the ears.
Nausea.

When to Call Your Doctor
If dizziness is accompanied by numbness, rapid heartbeat, fainting or a feeling of faintness, or blurred vision; if it affects your ability to speak.
If dizziness comes on suddenly, especially if accompanied by nausea or vomiting.
If dizzy spells increase in frequency or persist.
Reminder: If you have a medical condition, talk to your doctor before taking supplements.

What It Is
The terms “dizziness” and vertigo are often used interchangeably, but they are not synonymous. Dizziness simply refers to a feeling of unsteadiness or faintness, whereas vertigo usually involves a more serious disorientation, as if the world were spinning around you. (If you’ve ever been in a high place and felt as if you were falling, you’ve experienced vertigo.) Unfortunately, for some people, dizziness can persist and become disabling.

What Causes It
Ordinary motion sickness — the queasy, light-headed feeling that comes while traveling — is by far the most common cause of dizziness. The problem arises when the eyes, which try to focus on constantly moving scenery, and the inner ear, which helps orient the body to movement, send conflicting signals to the brain. The result is a confusing, whirling sensation, often accompanied by nausea.

How Supplements Can Help
A centuries-old remedy for delicate stomachs,ginger can act relatively quickly — even within minutes — to combat the dizziness and nausea associated with motion sickness or mild vertigo. In some tests, the herb has proved more effective — and longer lasting — than over-the-counter remedies. Moreover, ginger produces few of the side effects of conventional medications, such as drowsiness or blurred vision.

What Else You Can Do
Stop reading or staring at a computer screen if you begin to feel sick while in a moving car, train, or boat. Instead, face forward and focus on a fixed point, such as the distant scenery or the horizon, to keep your body and eyes simultaneously oriented to the movement.
Opt for the front seat when riding in a car; at sea, stay amidship; and when flying, sit above the wing, where there is the least amount of motion.
Motion sickness is best treated before symptoms start. If you are prone to it, take ginger at least two hours before your departure — and every four hours thereafter.

Supplement Recommendations
Ginger
Ginkgo Biloba
Vitamin B6


Ginger

Dosage: 100 mg standardized extract every 4 hours as needed.
Comments: Or try fresh gingerroot (1/4- to 1/2-inch slice), ginger tea (1/2 tsp. gingerroot per cup of hot water), or powdered ginger (1 gram)-all taken 3 times a day. Ginger ale (8-ounce glass 3 times a day) can be equally effective if made with real ginger.

Ginkgo Biloba
Dosage: 80 mg 3 times a day.
Comments: Standardized to have at least 24% flavone glycosides.

Vitamin B6

Dosage: 50 mg 3 times a day.
Comments: 200 mg daily over long term can cause nerve damage.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose. 

Source:Your Guide to Vitamins, Minerals, and Herbs(Reader’s Digest)

Reblog this post [with Zemanta]
css.php