Tag Archives: Water

Astragalus exscapus

Botanical Name : Astragalus exscapus
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Galegeae
Subtribe: Astragalinae
Genus: Astragalus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales
Habitat :Astragalus exscapus is native to Central EuropeMoldavia and the Ukraine. It grows on steppe and foothills, on limestone soils.
Astragalus exscapus is a perennial herb growing to 0.3 m (1ft).
It is in flower from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, lepidoptera.It can fix Nitrogen.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry soil.
Requires a dry well-drained soil in a sunny position. Succeeds in poor soils. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance and are best planted in their final positions whilst still small. This plant is a sub-shrub and although it produces woody stems these tend to die back almost to the base each winter. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. Many members of this genus can be difficult to grow, this may be due partly to a lack of their specific bacterial associations in the soil.

Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. A period of cold stratification may help stored seed to germinate. Stored seed, and perhaps also fresh seed, should be pre-soaked for 24 hours in hot water before sowing – but make sure that you do not cook the seed. Any seed that does not swell should be carefully pricked with a needle, taking care not to damage the embryo, and re-soaked for a further 24 hours. Germination can be slow and erratic but is usually within 4 – 9 weeks or more at 13°c if the seed is treated or sown fresh. As soon as it is large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter, planting them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.
Medicinal Uses: A decoction of the plant has been used in the treatment of syphilitic sores.

Other Uses:
A gum called morea tragacanth is obtained from the stem (see above). It has a wide range of uses including:- a thickening agent in preparing dyes for calico printing, textile dyes and for dressing fabrics, it is also a thickener in making glues, water colours, ink (where it supplies a gloss), it is a binding agent in paper making, a culture medium in laboratories etc

Known Hazards : Many members of this genus contain toxic glycosides. All species with edible seedpods can be distinguished by their fleshy round or oval seedpod that looks somewhat like a greengage. A number of species can also accumulate toxic levels of selenium when grown in soils that are relatively rich in that element.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Crataegus acclivis

Botanical Name : Crataegus acclivis
Family: Rosaceae
Division:Magnoliophyta – Flowering Plants
Sub Class:Rosidae
Genus :Crataegus
Species: Crataegus coccinea L. var. coccinea

Common Name:Scarlet hawthorn

Habitat : Crataegus acclivis is native to North-eastern N. America – New York to the borders of southern Canada. It grows in banks of streams and steep gorges.
Crataegus acclivis is a deciduous Tree growing to 8 m (26ft) by 7 m (23ft).
It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen in September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Midges.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.


It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist or wet soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure. It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.
A very easily grown plant, it prefers a well-drained moisture retentive loamy soil but is not at all fussy. Once established, it succeeds in excessively moist soils and also tolerates drought. It grows well on a chalk soil and also in heavy clay soils. A position in full sun is best when plants are being grown for their fruit, they also succeed in semi-shade though fruit yields and quality will be lower in such a position. Most members of this genus succeed in exposed positions, they also tolerate atmospheric pollution. Plants are hardy to at least -18°c. We have very little specific information on this plant, and it is regarded as no more than a form of C. pedicellata by most botanists. However, a tree seen at Kew in early September 1997 had a good crop of almost ripe fruit. This fruit was more elongated than C. pedicellata and was also ripe about 4 weeks before that species. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Seedling trees take from 5 – 8 years before they start bearing fruit, though grafted trees will often flower heavily in their third year. The flowers have a foetid smell somewhat like decaying fish. This attracts midges which are the main means of fertilization. When freshly open, the flowers have more pleasant scent with balsamic undertones. Seedlings should not be left in a seedbed for more than 2 years without being transplanted.
Seed – this is best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame, some of the seed will germinate in the spring, though most will probably take another year. Stored seed can be very slow and erratic to germinate, it should be warm stratified for 3 months at 15°c and then cold stratified for another 3 months at 4°c. It may still take another 18 months to germinate. Scarifying the seed before stratifying it might reduce this time. Fermenting the seed for a few days in its own pulp may also speed up the germination process. Another possibility is to harvest the seed ‘green’ (as soon as the embryo has fully developed but before the seedcoat hardens) and sow it immediately in a cold frame. If timed well, it can germinate in the spring. If you are only growing small quantities of plants, it is best to pot up the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow them on in individual pots for their first year, planting them out in late spring into nursery beds or their final positions. When growing larger quantities, it might be best to sow them directly outdoors in a seedbed, but with protection from mice and other seed-eating creatures. Grow them on in the seedbed until large enough to plant out, but undercut the roots if they are to be left undisturbed for more than two years.

Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw or cooked. The fruit ripens in early September, it is about 18mm long with a pleasantly sweet juicy flesh and makes an excellent dessert fruit. The fruit contains up to 5 seeds in the centre, these usually stick together and so the effect is like eating a cherry with its single large seed.

Medicinal Uses:
Cardiac; Hypotensive.

Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Papaver rhoeas

Botanical Name: Papaver rhoeas
Family: Papaveraceae
Genus: Papaver
Species: P. rhoeas
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales

Synonyms: Corn Rose. Corn Poppy. Flores Rhoeados. Headache.

Common Names: Common poppy, Corn poppy, Corn rose, Field poppy, Flanders poppy, Red poppy, Red weed, Coquelicot, Shirley Poppy

Habitat :Papaver rhoeas is native to Europe, including Britain, from Scandanavia south and east to N. Africa and temperate Asia.
Parts Used: Flowers, petals. It is a common weed of cultivated land and waste places, avoiding acid soils. Becoming far less frequent on cultivated land due to modern agricultural practices.
Papaver rhoeas is an annual plant. It is is a variable, erect annual, forming a long-lived soil seed bank that can germinate when the soil is disturbed. In the northern hemisphere it generally flowers in late spring, but if the weather is warm enough other flowers frequently appear at the beginning of autumn. . It grows up to about 70 cm in height. The flowers are large and showy, 50 to 100mm across, with four petals that are vivid red, most commonly with a black spot at their base. The flower stem is usually covered with coarse hairs that are held at right angles to the surface, helping to distinguish it from Papaver dubium in which the hairs are more usually appressed. The capsules are hairless, obovoid in shape, less than twice as tall as they are wide, with a stigma at least as wide as the capsule. Like many other species of Papaver, the plant exudes white to yellowish latex when the tissues are broken.

It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to August, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, beetles, self.The plant is self-fertile. It is noted for attracting wildlife.
Landscape Uses: Border, Massing, Seashore, Specimen. Prefers a well-drained sandy loam in a sunny position. Does not do well on wet clay soils but succeeds in most other soils. Plants usually self-sow freely when growing in suitable conditions so long as the soil surface is disturbed. There are several named varieties selected for their ornamental value. A polymorphic species, varying in leaf shape and flower colour. When growing in cereal fields, poppies decrease the yields of nearby cereal plants. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer or rabbits. Special Features: Attractive foliage, Not North American native, Naturalizing, All or parts of this plant are poisonous, Suitable for cut flowers, Suitable for dried flowers.

Seed – sow spring or autumn in situ.
Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Oil; Seed.
Edible Uses: Colouring; Oil.

Seed – raw or cooked. Much used as a flavouring in cakes, bread, fruit salads etc, it imparts a very nice nutty flavour. The seeds are rather small, but they are contained in fairly large seed pods and so are easy to harvest. The seeds are perfectly safe to eat, containing none of the alkaloids associated with other parts of the plant. Leaves – raw or cooked. Used like spinach or as a flavouring in soups and salads. The leaves should not be used after the flower buds have formed. Some caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity. An edible oil is obtained from the seed. Said to be an excellent substitute for olive oil, it can be used in salad dressings or for cooking. A syrup can be prepared from the scarlet flower petals, it is used in soups, gruels etc. A red dye from the petals is used as a food flavouring, especially in wine.

Constituents: Papaver Rhoeas is very slightly narcotic. The chief constituent of the fresh petals is the red colouring matter, which consists of Rhoeadic and Papaveric acids. This colour is much darkened by alkalis.

All parts of the plant contain the crystalline non-poisonous alkaloid Rhoeadine. The amount of active ingredients is very small and rather uncertain in quantity. There is great controversy as to the presence of Morphine. Also it has not been determined whether Meconic Acid, which is present in opium, is a constituent.

Medicinal Uses:
Anodyne; Cancer; Emmenagogue; Emollient; Expectorant; Hypnotic; Sedative; Tonic.

The flowers of corn poppy have a long history of medicinal usage, especially for ailments in the elderly and children. Chiefly employed as a mild pain reliever and as a treatment for irritable coughs, it also helps to reduce nervous over-activity. Unlike the related opium poppy (P. somniferum) it is non-addictive. However, the plant does contain alkaloids, which are still under investigation, and so should only be used under the supervision of a qualified herbalist. The flowers and petals are anodyne, emollient, emmenagogue, expectorant, hypnotic, slightly narcotic and sedative. An infusion is taken internally in the treatment of bronchial complaints and coughs, insomnia, poor digestion, nervous digestive disorders and minor painful conditions. The flowers are also used in the treatment of jaundice. The petals are harvested as the flowers open and are dried for later use. They should be collected on a dry day and can be dried or made into a syrup. The latex in the seedpods is narcotic and slightly sedative. It can be used in very small quantities, and under expert supervision, as a sleep-inducing drug. The leaves and seeds are tonic. They are useful in the treatment of low fevers. The plant has anticancer properties.

Other Uses:
Dye; Ink; Oil; Pot-pourri.

A red dye is obtained from the flowers, though it is very fugitive. A syrup made from the petals has been used as a colouring matter for old inks. The red petals are used to add colour to pot-pourri.
Known Hazards: This plant is toxic to mammals, though the toxicity is low. The seed is not toxic.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Menyanthes trifoliata

Botanical Name :Menyanthes trifoliata
Family: Menyanthaceae
Genus: Menyanthes
Species: M. trifoliata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Names:Bogbean , Buckbean, March Clover

Habitat : Menyanthes trifoliata occurs in fens and bogs in Asia, Europe, and North America. In eastern North America, it is considered to be a diagnostic fen species.

Menyanthes trifoliata is a herbaceous perennial  plant.It grows to a height of 0.75 to 1 feet and  spread 1 to 2 feet. It blooms  during May to June. Menyanthes trifoliata has a horizontal rhizome with alternate, trifoliate leaves. The inflorescence is an erect raceme of white flowers
Click to see the pictures.…..(01).....(1).……..(2)....(3)
It is a winter hardy plant  to USDA Zones 3-10. In water gardens, grow in containers submerged in shallow water (to 3” over the rhizome) in full sun to part shade. Best in acidic, peaty soils. Also may be grown in the shallow margins of a pond, either in containers or planted in the mud near the water’s edge. Rhizomes may spread to and root in the muddy banks of a water garden or pond, thus making this an excellent transitional foliage plant.

Constituents:  volatile oil, bitter principle, a glucoside called menyanthin.

Medicinal Uses:
Properties: * Antirheumatic * Bitter * Diuretic * Febrifuge * Nervine * Tonic
Parts Used: whole herb

Bogbean is a most useful herb for the treatment of rheumatism, osteo-arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. It has a stimulating effect upon the walls of the colon which will act as an aperient, but it should not be used to help rheumatism where there is any colitis or diarrhea. It has a marked stimulating action on the digestive juices and on bile-flow and so will aid in debilitated states that are due to sluggish digestion, indigestion and problems of the liver and gall-bladder.  Bogbean is a strongly bitter herb that encourages the appetite and stimulates digestive secretions.  It is commonly taken to improve an underactive or weak digestion, particularly if there is abdominal discomfort.  Used for anorexia.  This herb is tonic, cathartic, deobstruent and febrifuge. Other uses are for muscular weakness in myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic infections with debility and exhaustion. May be combined with black cohosh and celery seed to relieve joint and muscular pain.  An extract is made from the leaves, which possesses strong tonic properties, and which renders great service in rheumatism, scurvy, and skin diseases. An infusion of 1 oz. of the dried leaves to 1 pint of boiling water is taken in wineglassful doses, frequently repeated. It has also been recommended as an external application for dissolving glandular swellings. Finely powdered Bogbean leaves have been employed as a remedy for ague, being said to effect a cure when other means fail. In large doses, the powder is also purgative. It is used also as an herb tobacco.  Buckbean tea, taken alone or mixed with wormwood, centaury or sage, is said to cure dyspepsia and a torpid liver.

Bogbean is one of the medicinal plants that containing iridoids, plant chemicals that play a central role in herbalism as they are often the basis of what is known as the bitter principle. These bitter tonics, such as bogbean stimulate digestive secretions, including bile.It is a medicine fore  * Lupus

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider


Enhanced by Zemanta

Hottonia palustris

Botanical Name : Hottonia palustris
Family: Primulaceae
Genus: Hottonia
Species: H. palustris
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ericales

Common NameWater Violet

Habitat : Hottonia palustris is  native to wetland areas throughout Europe, where it is threatened, endangered, or extinct in certain parts of its range. It grows in ponds and ditches.

Hottonia palustris is a  perennial  pinnate-leafed aquatic plant.  It is usually found growing totally submersed except for the long flower spikes each bearing a set of light purple flowers.

This plant has a stem reaching up to 80 cm in height. Its basal roots are buried in the underlying mud while other silvery, shiny roots dangle freely in the water. The leaves are deeply divided as far as the central vein, like the teeth of a double comb, and are completely submerged, but if there is a drastic fall in the water level they can surface. The leaves are alternate or connected to the stem in more of less regular whorls. Flowers from May to June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects, Cleistogomy (self-pollinating without flowers ever opening). The plant is self-fertile.

A vigorous water plant, either rooting in the mud a few centimetres below water level, or floating in the water[200]. Plants overwinter by means of winter resting buds which sink to the bottom of the pond until the following spring. Plants are useful oxygenators of the water. The flowers have a delicate mossy scent rather like the primrose or the fading perfume of the violet.

Seed – sow spring in pots of soil standing in water and only just cover the seed. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. Division or cuttings in the spring. Just throw them into the water or place them into the submerged marginal mud

Medicinal Uses:

It is often used as a medicinal herb.Flower Essence: Helps you to develop warmer relationships with others when your pride or independence makes you appear aloof.

Other Uses: Although relatively uncommon in the aquarium trade, it is used extensively as a decorative plant in ponds.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.



Enhanced by Zemanta