Ailmemts & Remedies

Zica Virus

Zika virus is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, transmitted by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes, such as A. aegypti and A. albopictus, the same type of mosquito that spreads dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) said Aedes mosquitoes are found in all countries in the Americas except Canada and continental Chile, and the virus will likely reach all countries and territories of the region where Aedes mosquitoes are found.
The infection, known as Zika fever, often causes no or only mild symptoms. Since the 1950s it has been known to occur within a narrow equatorial belt from Africa to Asia. In 2014, the virus spread eastward across the Pacific Ocean to French Polynesia, then to Easter Island and in 2015 to Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, and South America, where the Zika outbreak has reached pandemic levels.

Click  & see  : zika virus – News Images

The Zika virus is found in tropical locales with large mosquito populations. Outbreaks of Zika virus disease have been recorded in Africa, the Americas, Southern Asia and the Western Pacific. The virus was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in rhesus monkeys and was first identified in people in 1952 in Uganda and Tanzania, according to the World Health Organization.
The vertebrate hosts of the virus were primarily monkeys in a so-called enzootic mosquito-monkey-mosquito cycle, with only occasional transmission to humans. Before the current pandemic began in 2007, Zika virus “rarely caused recognized ‘spillover’ infections in humans, even in highly enzootic areas”. Infrequently, other arboviruses have become established as a human disease though, and spread in a mosquito–human–mosquito cycle, like the yellow fever virus and the dengue fever virus (both flaviruses), and the chikungunya virus (a togavirus)

Can Zika be transmitted through sexual contact?

Two cases of possible person-to-person sexual transmission has been described, but the PAHO said more evidence is needed to confirm whether sexual contact is a means of Zika transmission.

It is unknown whether women can transmit Zika virus to their sexual partners. As of February 2016, the CDC recommends that men “who reside in or have traveled to an area of active Zika virus transmission who have a pregnant partner should abstain from sexual activity or consistently and correctly use condoms during sex (i.e., vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, or fellatio) for the duration of the pregnancy.” Men who reside in or have traveled to an area of active Zika virus transmission and their non-pregnant sex partners “might consider” abstinence or condom use. The CDC did not specify how long these practices should be followed with non-pregnant partners because the “incidence and duration of shedding in the male genitourinary tract is limited to one case report” and that “testing of men for the purpose of assessing risk for sexual transmission is not recommended.

The PAHO also said Zika can be transmitted through blood, but this is an infrequent transmission mechanism. There is no evidence the virus can be transmitted to babies through breast milk.

CDC issued new recommendations to those who have traveled to Zika-prone areas: Use condoms during sex or don’t have sex. – Click  & See 
Zika virus is related to dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses. The illness it causes is similar to a mild form of dengue fever, is treated by rest, and cannot yet be prevented by drugs or vaccines. There is a possible link between Zika fever and microcephaly in newborn babies by mother-to-child transmission, as well as a stronger one with neurologic conditions in infected adults, including cases of Guillain–Barré syndrome.

People who get Zika virus disease typically have a mild fever, skin rash, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain and fatigue that can last for two to seven days. But as many as 80 percent of people infected never develop symptoms. The symptoms are similar to those of dengue or chikungunya, which are transmitted by the same type of mosquito.

The PAHO said there is no evidence that Zika can cause death, but some cases have been reported with more serious complications in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.

The virus has been linked to microcephaly, a condition in newborns marked by abnormally small heads and brains that have not developed properly. It also has been associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome, a rare disorder in which the body’s immune system attacks part of the nervous system. Scientists are studying whether there is a causal link between Zika and these two disorders.

There is no defenite treatment developed yet.Patients are adviced to take rest. Doctors sometimes prescribe few nominal medicines to get little relieve from extenal symptoms.

Defense against mosquitoes is defense against Zika. The CDC recommends long clothing and insect repellent. If you develop symptoms, go see a doctor.

Vaccine development:
Effective vaccines exist for several flaviviruses. Vaccines for yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis, and tick-borne encephalitis were introduced in the 1930s, while the vaccine for dengue fever only became available for use in the mid-2010s.

Work has begun towards developing a vaccine for Zika virus, according to Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.  The researchers at the Vaccine Research Center have extensive experience from working with vaccines for other viruses such as West Nile virus, chikungunya virus, and dengue fever.   Nikos Vasilakis of the Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases predicted that it may take two years to develop a vaccine, but 10 to 12 years may be needed before an effective Zika virus vaccine is approved by regulators for public use.

Indian company Bharat Biotech is working on two approaches to a vaccine: “recombinant”, involving genetic engineering, and “inactivated”, where the virus is incapable of reproducing itself but can still trigger an immune response. On 3 February 2016, the company claimed animal trials of the inactivated version would commence in two weeks.

Since April 2015, a large, ongoing outbreak of Zika virus that began in Brazil has spread to much of South and Central America and the Caribbean. In January 2016, the CDC issued a level 2 travel alert for people traveling to regions and certain countries where Zika virus transmission is ongoing.   The agency also suggested that women thinking about becoming pregnant should consult with their physicians before traveling. Governments or health agencies of the United Kingdom, Ireland, New Zealand,   Canada, and the European Union soon issued similar travel warnings. In Colombia, Minister of Health and Social Protection Alejandro Gaviria Uribe recommended to avoid pregnancy for eight months, while the countries of Ecuador, El Salvador, and Jamaica have issued similar warnings.

Plans were announced by the authorities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to try to prevent the spread of the Zika virus during the 2016 Summer Olympic Games in that city.

According to the CDC, Brazilian health authorities reported more than 3,500 microcephaly cases between October 2015 and January 2016. Some of the affected infants have had a severe type of microcephaly and some have died. The full spectrum of outcomes that might be associated with infection during pregnancy and the factors that might increase risk to the fetus are not yet fully understood. More studies are planned to learn more about the risks of Zika virus infection during pregnancy. In the worst affected region of Brazil, approximately 1 percent of newborns are suspected of being microcephalic.

Click & see  : 2007 Yap Islands Zika virus outbreak   
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Ailmemts & Remedies

Japanese encephalitis

Japanese encephalitis  previously known as Japanese B encephalitis to distinguish it from von Economo’s A encephalitis—is a disease caused by the mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus. The Japanese encephalitis virus is a virus from the family Flaviviridae. Domestic pigs and wild birds are reservoirs of the virus; transmission to humans may cause severe symptoms. One of the most important vectors of this disease is the mosquito Culex tritaeniorhynchus. This disease is most prevalent in Southeast Asia and the Far East.


It was first recognised in Japan in the late 1800s (hence the name) and has since been found throughout most countries of east and South East Asia where it is the leading cause of viral encephalitis. Approximately 30,000 to 50,000 cases are reported every year, and there are about 10,000 deaths, mostly in children. In fact it’s now thought that many more people have the infection (research shows that by the age of 15 most people in South East Asia have had it) but symptoms are usually minimal so it doesn’t get reported.

Most people who are infected show only mild symptoms or no symptoms at all. However, in severe cases the disease may be fatal.

Japanese encephalitis begins like flu with headache, fever, and weakness. As it progresses to inflammation of the brain there may be confusion and delirium. Gastrointestinal problems, including vomiting, may also be present. About one third of these patients will die, and 25-30 per cent have neurological damage including paralysis, speech difficulties, Parkinson’s-like syndrome or psychological problems. Children are most vulnerable.

Japanese encephalitis has an incubation period of 5 to 15 days and the vast majority of infections are asymptomatic: only 1 in 250 infections develop into encephalitis.


Severe rigors mark the onset of this disease in humans. Fever, headache and malaise are other non-specific symptoms of this disease which may last for a period of between 1 and 6 days. Signs which develop during the acute encephalitic stage include neck rigidity, cachexia, hemiparesis, convulsions and a raised body temperature between 38 and 41 degrees Celsius. Mental retardation developed from this disease usually leads to coma. Mortality of this disease varies but is generally much higher in children. Transplacental spread has been noted. Life-long neurological defects such as deafness, emotional lability and hemiparesis may occur in those who have had central nervous system involvement. In known cases some effects also include nausea, headache, fever, vomiting and sometimes swelling of the testicles.

Increased microglial activation following JEV infection has been found to influence the outcome of viral pathogenesis. Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and have a critical role in host defense against invading microorganisms. Activated microglia secrete cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), which can cause toxic effects in the brain. Additionally, other soluble factors such as neurotoxins, excitatory neurotransmitters, prostaglandin, reactive oxygen, and nitrogen species are secreted by activated microglia.

In a murine model of JE, it was found that in the hippocampus and the striatum, the number of activated microglia was more than anywhere else in the brain closely followed by that in the thalamus. In the cortex, number of activated microglia was significantly less when compared with other regions of the mouse brain. An overall induction of differential expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines from different brain regions during a progressive JEV infection was also observed.

Although the net effect of the proinflammatory mediators is to kill infectious organisms and infected cells as well as to stimulate the production of molecules that amplify the mounting response to damage, it is also evident that in a nonregenerating organ such as brain, a dysregulated innate immune response would be deleterious. In JE the tight regulation of microglial activation appears to be disturbed, resulting in an autotoxic loop of microglial activation that possibly leads to bystander neuronal damage

The causative agent Japanese encephalitis virus is an enveloped virus of the genus flavivirus; it is closely related to the West Nile virus and St. Louis encephalitis virus. Positive sense single stranded RNA genome is packaged in the capsid, formed by the capsid protein. The outer envelope is formed by envelope (E) protein and is the protective antigen. It aids in entry of the virus to the inside of the cell. The genome also encodes several nonstructural proteins also (NS1,NS2a,NS2b,NS3,N4a,NS4b,NS5). NS1 is produced as secretory form also. NS3 is a putative helicase, and NS5 is the viral polymerase. It has been noted that the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infects the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)  and rapidly accumulates substantial amounts of viral proteins for the JEV.

Japanese Encephalitis is diagnosed by detection of antibodies in serum and CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) by IgM capture ELISA

Treatment ;
At present, there is no medical ‘cure’ for Japanese encephalitis once infection has occurred although supportive care in hospital can help.There is no transmission from person to person and therefore patients do not need to be isolated.

A breakthrough in the field of Japanese encephalitis therapeutics is the identification of macrophage receptor involvement in the disease severity. A recent report of an Indian group demonstrates the involvement of monocyte and macrophage receptor CLEC5A in severe inflammatory response in JEV infection of brain. This transcriptomic study provides a hypothesis of neuroinflammation and a new lead in development of appropriate therapeutic against Japanese encephalitis.

As with any disease transmitted by mosquitoes, you can prevent exposure to JE virus by:

•remaining in wellscreened areas,

•wearing clothes that cover most of the body, and

•using an effective insect repellent, such as those containing up to 30% N,N-diethyl metatoluamide (DEET) on skin and clothing. Use of permethrin on clothing will also help prevent mosquito bites.

Japanese encephalitis vaccine can prevent JE, however, JE vaccine is not 100% effective and is not a substitute for mosquito precautions. It is licensed for use in the UK and the USA for people who plan to travel to South East Asia. Allergic reactions can occur in up to one in 100 people vaccinated but are mostly minor.

Who should get Japanese encephalitis vaccine and when?
Who should get vaccinated?

•People who live or travel in certain rural parts of Asia should get the vaccine.

•Laboratory workers at risk of exposure to JE virus should also be vaccinated.

When to get the vaccine?

•Three doses of vaccine are given, with the 2nd dose given 7 days after the 1st and the 3rd dose given 30 days after the 1st.

•The third dose should be given at least 10 days before travel, to be sure the vaccine begins to protect and to allow for medical care if there are delayed side effects.

•A booster dose may be needed after 2 years.

Children 1-3 years of age get a smaller dose than older children and adults. Children younger than 1 year of age should not normally get the vaccine.

JE vaccine may be given at the same time as other vaccines.

Who should NOT get Japanese encephalitis vaccine?Return to top .
Anyone who has ever had a life-threatening reaction to mouse protein, thimerosal, or to a previous dose of JE vaccine. Tell your doctor if you:

•have severe allergies, especially a history of allergic rash (hives) or wheezing after a wasp sting or taking medications,

•are pregnant, or are a nursing mother,

•will be traveling for fewer than 30 days, especially if you will be in major urban areas. (You may be at lower risk for Japanese encephalitis and not need the vaccine.)

Risks of Japanese encephalitis vaccine
A vaccine, like any medicine, is capable of causing serious problems, such as severe allergic reactions. The risk of a vaccine causing serious harm, or death, is extremely small.

Mild problems:

•soreness, redness, or swelling where the shot was given (about 1 person in 5)

•fever, headache, muscle pain, abdominal pain, rash, chills, nausea/vomiting, dizziness (about 1 person in 10)

•If these problems occur, they usually begin soon after the shot and last for a couple of days.

Moderate or Severe Problems:
•Serious allergic reactions including rash; swelling of the hands and feet, face, or lips; and breathing difficulty. These have occurred within minutes to as long as 10 to 17 days after receiving the vaccine, usually about 48 hours after the vaccination. (About 60 per 10,000 people vaccinated have had allergic reactions to JE vaccine.)

•Other severe problems, such as seizures or nervous system problems, have been reported. These are rare (probably less than 1 per 50,000 people vaccinated).

What is to be done if there is a moderate or severe reaction.
•Look for any unusual conditions, such as high fever, allergic symptoms or neurologic problems that occur 1-30 days after vaccination. Signs of an allergic reaction can include difficulty breathing, hoarseness or wheezing, hives, swelling of extremities, face, or lips, paleness, weakness, a fast heartbeat, or dizziness within a few minutes up to two weeks after the shot.

•Call a doctor, or get the person to a doctor right away.

•Tell your doctor what happened, the date and time it happened, and when the vaccination was given.

•Ask your health care provider to file a Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) form if you have any reaction to the vaccine. Or call VAERS yourself at 1-800-822-7967 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting 1-800-822-7967 end_of_the_skype_highlighting, or visit their website at

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose


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Ailmemts & Remedies

Stiff Neck

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The causes and symptoms of stiff neck are various, let me jot down some of them and their links which might help to learn more about it.

1. Whiplas-—Whiplash is when the soft tissues of the neck are injured by a sudden jerking or “whipping” of the head.

Symptoms:Depressed mood ,neck Pain ,Dizziness and Fatigue

2. Sprains and Strains: Definition Sprain refers to damage or tearing of ligaments or a joint capsule.

Symptoms:Irritability ,Knee joint – tender ,Back pain and Bruises.

3.Torticollis :It is sa twisted neck, referring to the head being tipped to one side, while the chin is turned.

Symptoms:Neck lump ,neck Pain ,Headache and Facial asymmetry.

4. Meningitis : Meningitis is an infection¿that causes inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Non-…
This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

Symptoms:Drowsiness, neck Pain ,Bulging fontanelle and Disorientation .

5.Tetanus :Tetanus is a disease caused by the toxin of the bacterium Clostridium tetani that affects the central nervous system.

Symptoms:Abdominal pain ,Fecal incontinence ,Abdominal cramp and Stops breathing.

6.Cervical spondylosis :Cervical spondylosis is a disorder caused by abnormal wear on the cartilage and bones of the neck

Symptoms:Numbness of skin , Incomplete emptying of bladder, Finger numbness and Pain .

7. Encephalitis :Encephalitis is an inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the brain, usually caused by infections.
This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

Symptoms: Chorea ,Flat affect ,Indifferent mood and Impaired judgement

8.Subarachnoid hemorrhage: Subarachnoid hemorrhage is bleeding¿between the middle membrane covering of the brain and the brain itself. S…
This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

Symptoms: Hemianopsia ,Pain ,Alteration in consciousness and Blindness .

9. Head injury :A head injury is any trauma that leads to injury of the scalp, skull, or brain. These injuries can range from…
This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

Symptoms: Communication disorders ,Personality change ,Oversensitive hearing and Bleeding eye .

10. Lyme disease: Lyme disease is an inflammatory disease characterized by a skin rash, joint inflammation, and flu-like sympto…

Symptoms:Visual problems ,Lethargy ,Low grade fever and Arm pain
11. Tuberculosis: Definition Tuberculosis (TB) is a potentially fatal contagious disease that can affect almost any part of the…

Symptoms:Loss of appetite ,Abdominal pain ,Drowsiness and Coughing up yellow sputum .

12.Mononucleos: Mononucleosis is a viral infection causing fevers, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands, especially in the neck..

Symptoms: Loss of appetite ,Abdominal pain ,Abnormal heart rhythms and Pale stools .

13.Histoplasmosis: Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, which primarily affects the lungs but .

Symptoms: Malaise ,Joint pain ,Headache and Pain.

14. West Nile virus: West Nile virus is transmitted by mosquitos and causes an illness that ranges from mild to severe. Mild, flu-…

Symptoms: Diarrhea ,Stuporous ,Confusion and Swollen lymph nodes .

Ayurvedic treatment of stiff neck

Natural & Herbal treatment of Stiff neck

Self-help for stiff neck and shoulders

Home Remedies for Stiff Neck

4 home remedy submissions for Stiff Neck

Stiff Neck Homeopathy Remedy

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.

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