Herbs & Plants

Meyna spinosa Roxb.

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Botanical Name: Meyna spinosa Roxb.
Family:    Rubiaceae
Subfamily: Ixoroideae
Tribe:    Vanguerieae
Genus:    Meyna
Clade:    Angiosperms
Clade:    Eudicots
Clade:    Asterids
Order:    Gentianales

Synonyms : Vangueria spinosa  (Roxb. ex Link) Roxb.; Vangueria spinosa var. mollis Hook. f.; Pyrostria spinosa (Roxb. ex Link) Miq.; Vangueria miqueliana Kurz ; Vangueria mollis Wall.; Vangueria stellata Blanco.

Common names: Mainakanta, Madan, Maniphal

Vernacular names in other Languages :

Bengali : Mainakanta, Maniphal, Madan | Sanskrit : Pinditaka | Hindi : Maniphal, Pundrika | Tribal : Serali | English : Voavanga | Other Languages : Manakkarai (Tam.) ; Cegagadda (Tel.) ; Moltakanta (Ori.)

Habitat :Mainakanta is native to tropical Asia & Africa.It grows in hot and humid climate with a slightly acidic to neutral (pH 6.3-7.3) soil condition.

Meyna spinosa Roxb  is a thorny bushy shrub. The plant has straight, sharp spines and whorled green leaves arranged in opposite manner. Flowering season starts in late spring and lasts until early summer. It is distributed in India, Bangladesh, Nepal and also found in the plain lands of Java and Myanmar. In Bangladesh it is known as ‘Moyna’. Fruits of M. spinosa are reported to contain sugar, gum and tannic acid whereas the seeds contain esters of palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids.


Medicinal Uses:

Chemical constituents: The present study was undertaken to investigate the antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of the ethanol extract of Meyna spinosa stem. Antibacterial activity was investigated against Staphylococcus aureus. Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Shigella dysenieriae by disc diffusion and broth macrodilution assay. In disk diffusion assay, the extract inhibited all the microorganisms except E. coli. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract was 1000 μg/ml for S. aureus, S. pyogenes and E. coli, whereas 500 μg/mLfor S. dysenieriae. For cytotoxicity test, the extract was subjected to brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The LD50 of M. spinosa stem extract was found to be 40 μg/mL. Findings of the study justify the use of the plant in traditional medicine and suggests for further investigation.

Meyna spinosa Roxb., a medicinal plant enjoys it use in the traditional medicine in Bangladesh for the treatment of a number of ailments. Fruits are used in the treatment of fever, inflammation, biliary complaints and hepatic congestion. Leaves are used in bone fracture and in the treatment of diphtheria. The plant is also reported to be used traditionally in the treatment of skin irritation abortion and renal diseases .

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Herbs & Plants

Water pennywort

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Botanical Name :Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides
Family :       :Apiaceae/ Umbelliferae
Synonyms:Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam.

Other scientific names : Hydrocotyle rotundifolia Roxb. ,Hydrocotyle nitidula A. Rich.  ,Hydrocotyle hirsuta Sw. ,Hydrocotyle puncticulata Miq.  Water pennywort (Engl.) ,Hydrocotyle latisecta Zoll.

Common names :lawn pennywort,lawn marshpennywort, Kanapa (Ig.), Tomtomon (Bon.), Man-t’ien-hsing (Chin.),Water pennywort (Engl.),

Habitat : Native to Asia and Africa, but introduced elsewhere where it has escaped to become a serious weed that may become invasive in wet areas or along stream banks.

Water pennywort is a creeping perennial, smooth herb with the stems rooting at the nodes. Leaves are orbicular or subreniform, thin, about 1 cm in diameter with heart-shaped base and margins somewhat lobed, the lobes being short and having 2 or 3 teeth. Umbels are very small, with few flowers. Flowers are small, white, sessile, axillary, sepals lacking, petals and stamens 5. Fruits are few, sometimes only 2 or 3 on a peduncle and less than 1 mm long, ellipsoid, usually with red colored spots.
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plant often found as a weed of gardens, pathways and lawns, but occasionally planted for its attractive, glossy foliage.This plant is a prostrate creeping herb 1 to 2 cm tall with an unlimited spread via the wiry, hollow, green stems that root freely at the nodes.


*Roots contain vellarin and vitamin C.
*Plant yielded 7 new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, hydrocotylosides I-VII and one known saponin, udosaponin B.

Ediable Uses:
• Leaves are edible.
• Whole plant can be used as a potherb with its parsley-like aroma.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts used
· Entire plant.
· Gathered throughout the year.
· Rinse after collection, sun-dry before use or use in fresh state.

Sweet tasting, slightly minty.
Juice is emetic.
Considered depurative, febrifuge, expectorant, antitussive; antifebrile, diuretic.

*Plant juice used for fevers.
*Poultice used for wounds and boils.
*Decoction of plant used for abscesses, colds, coughs, hepatities, infuenza, pruritus, sore throat.
*Used for headaches and urinary problems.
*In Malaya, mixed with sugar and cassia bark for coughs.
*Leaves pounded with alum for poulticing scrotal skin ailments.
*In China, used for hepatoma. Also, an ingredient in Chinese herbal concoctions used for muscular dystrophy.
*In the Arunachal Pradesh district of India, juice of the plant mixed with honey, used for typhoid fever. In the district of India, fresh plants are crushed and the *juice extracted and three tablespoons are taken twice daily for five days.

Antitumor / Immunomodulatory: Ethanolic extract of HS showed anti-tumor activity with significantly enhanced activitiy on murine hepatic carcinoma, sarcoma 180 crocker, and uterine cervical carcinoma clones. Activity was comparable to that of antitumor agent 5-fluorouracil. The extract also mediate immunomodulatory effects as shown by promotion of thymus and spleen indices and humoral immunity in mice.
Antioxidant / Antriproliferative: H sibthorpioides was one of four Hydrocotyle species studied. The results demonstrated that the phytochemicals might have a significant effect on antioxidant and anticancer activities related to the amount of polyphenols and flavonoids. The four species present a potential source of natural antioxidants. Of the four hydrocotyle specie, HS and H batrachium had the lowest antiproliferative activity and H nepalensis, the highest activity.
Phytochemicals / Saponins: Study of methanolic extract yielded seven new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, hydrocotylosides I-VII and one known saponin, udosaponin B.
• Phytochemicals / Saponins: Study of methanolic

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider


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Herbs & Plants


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Botanical Name :Donax cannaeformis (Forst. f.) K. Schum.
Family : Marantaceae
Genus : Donax
Class: Liliopsida
Subclass: Commelinidae
Superorder: Zingiberanae
Order: Cannales
: Plantae
Other Scientific Names : Thalia cannaeformis Forst. f.,Maranta arundinacea Blanco ,Clinogyner grandis Benth. & Hook. f.,Donax arundastrum K. Schum. ,Actophanes arucanaeformis K. Schum. ,Phrynium dichotomum Roxb. ,Maranta dichotoma Wall. ,Maranta grandis Miq.

Common Names in Chinese:Zhu Ye Jiao
Common Names in Malay:Bamban, Bamban Batu
Common Names in Tagalog
:Bamban, Banban, Manban, Matalbak
Common Names in Visayan:Alaro, Bamban

Habitat :Common in secondary forests, especially along streams, at low and medium altitudes.


Rhizomatous shrub with stems up to 2 to 3 meters tall, several growing in a cluster, smooth, and much branched. Leaves are short-pertioled, thin, smooth, ovate, 15 to 18 cm long and 9 cm wide. Panicles are loosely- and few-branched. Calyx tube is about 1 cm long with lanceolate segments, acute and ribbed. Corolla lobes are white, linear to oblong, and longer than the tube. The staminodes are obovate and large, with the tip smaller, obovate and clawed. Anther, filament and lobe are linear. Fruit is globoid to ellipsoid, slightly hairy, about 1 cm in diameter and whitish. Seeds are oblong, grooved and strongly wrinkled.

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Medicinal Uses:

Parts Used: Roots, stems, leaves.

• Roots, brewed in decoction, are used as antidote for snake bites and for blood poisoning.
• In Macassar, paste of young stems with ginger and cinnamon bark is taken for biliousness.
• Juice from young curled up leaves used for sore eyes.
• In Vanuatu, used postpartum to draw placental fragments: right side of the leaf blade is squeezed into a glass of water to drink.

Other Uses: Split stems are used for basket weaving, making fish traps and hats, and for sewing nipa shingles.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Herbs & Plants


Botanical Name : Solanum ferox Linn.
Family : Solanaceae
Other Scientific Names:Solanum lasiocarpum Dunal ,Solanum trongum Poiret  ,Solanum hirsutum Roxb. ,Solanum zeylanicum Blanco

Local Names: Balbalusangi (Ilk.); basula (Ibn.); dabutung (Sul.); dagutung (Sul.); kamadaka (Iv.); tagatum (P. Bis.); talong-ayam (Bik.); talong-gubat (Tag.); talong-talong (Tag.); tarambola (Tag.); tarong-tarong (S. L. Bis.); tarambulo (Tag.); tagutong (Bis.).

Habitat :Tarambulo is found throughout the Philippines in waste places, old clearings, etc., at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 2,000 meters. It also occurs in India to southern China and Malaya.

This weed is a small, suberect, prickly, hairy herb 0.5 to 1.5 meters in height the leaves are ovate, 15 to 20 centimeters long, 12 to 23 centimeters wide, lobed at the margins, and densely covered with stiff woolly hairs above and woolly hairs and prickly spines on the nerves beneath; the lobes are triangular, and 2.5 to 4 centimeters deep. The flowers are borne on lateral racemes. The calyx is shortly funnel-shaped, with ovate- triangular lobes. The corolla is densely woolly without white, oblong-lobed, and 2 to 2.5 centimeters in length. The fruit (berry) is yellow, rounded, 2.5 to 3.5 centimeters in diameter, densely covered with needlike hairs, and many-seeded.
click & see the pictures

Edible Uses:
*In India, Thaland and Malaysia, fruit widely used as a sour-relish in curries.
*In Thailand, a special kind of sauce called nam prek is made with the fruit.

Medicinal Uses:
*Leaves used as poultices for swellings.
*Decoction of roots used for body pains and discomfort after meals.
*Decoction used for syphilis.
*Roots used externally for baths for fevers and as poultice for itches, cuts, wounds and bruises.
*Seeds used for toothaches – burned and the fumes inhaled.
*In Bangladesh, used for coughs, asthma, fever, vomiting, sore throat and gonorrhea.
*In India, used for female sex disorders.

• Seed Fat: Seeds yield a yellow colored oil, containing palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Click to access tarambulo.pdf

terung bulu

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Botanical Name :Memecylon ovatum Smith
Family : Melastomataceae

Other scientific names:
: Memecylon ovatum Smith  ,Memecylon tinctorium Blanco ,Memecylon parviflorum Blanco ,Memecylon lucidum Presl,Memecylon prasinum Naud.  ,Memecylon edule F.-Vill. ,Memecylon parviflorum Roxb. var. ovatum  ,Memecylon umbellatum Merr.

Common names :Bayan (Tag.) ,Diok (Pang.) ,Gisian (Tag.) , Kandong (ilk.) ,Kolis (Tag.),Kulis (Sbl.) , Malabahi (Bik.),Malabanggi (Kuy.),Sagingsing (Bis.) , Sisirai (Ilk.) ,Ironwood tree (Engl.)

Habitat :Common in thickets at low altitudes, especially along the seashore.Mostly in southeast Asia.

Smooth shrub or small tree reaching a height of 8 meters. Leaves are leathery, oblong-ovate to oblong elliptic, 6 to 14 cn long, green, shining, and usually pointed at both ends. Flowers are faintly scented, numerous, about 7 mm across, deep blue or purple and borned on axillary, solitary or fascicled cymes, 2 to 4 cm long. Fruit is rounded, 7 to 10 mm diameter, fleshy and dark purple….click & see the picture

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Constituents : Plant yields alkaloids, triterpenes, flavonoids and saponins.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts used:  Roots, leaves.

Decoction of roots used for menstrual irregularities.
• Infusion of leaves used as astringent in ophthalmia.

• Antibacterial: . Results showed the ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of the plant with moderate antibacterial activity. Maximum activity was shown by the chloroform extract against Bacillus subtilis.
• Radical Scavenging / Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: . The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest stimulation for interleukin-10 production; it also caused significant inhibition of the writhing response. The methanol fraction exhibited radical scavenging activity.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Source :

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