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Antidepressants and Other Psychotropic Medications Linked to Birth Defects

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Between 1998 and 2007, psychotropic medications were associated with 429 adverse drug reactions in Danish children under the age of 17. More than half of the 429 cases were serious and several involved birth defects, such as birth deformities and severe withdrawal syndromes.
Professors Lise Aagaard and Ebbe Holme Hansen studied all 4,500 pediatric adverse drug reaction reports submitted during the study period to find those which were linked to psychotropic medications. The two researchers found that 42 percent of adverse reactions were reported for psychostimulants, such as Ritalin, which treats attention deficit disorder (ADD), followed by 31 percent for antidepressants, such as Prozac, and 24 percent for antipsychotics, such as Haldol.

“A range of serious side effects such as birth deformities, low birth weight, premature birth, and development of neonatal withdrawal syndrome were reported in children under two years of age, most likely because of the mother’s intake of psychotropic medication during pregnancy,” says Associate Professor Lisa Aagaard.

The researchers believe that these tendencies should serve as a warning to doctors and health care personnel.

“Psychotropic medication should not be prescribed in ordinary circumstances, because this type of medication has a long half-life. If people take their medicine as prescribed it will be a constantly high dosage, and it could take weeks for one single tablet to exit the body’s system. Three out of four pregnancies are planned, and therefore society must take responsibility for informing women about the serious risks of transferring side effects to their unborn child,” says Aagaard.

There is a clear indication that use of antidepressants is increasing in Denmark, as well as in many other countries, and the tendency is the same when it comes to pregnant women.

“We are constantly reminded about the dangers of alcohol use and smoking during pregnancy, but there is no information offered to women with regards to use of psychotropic medication. There is simply not enough knowledge available in this area,” concludes Aagaard, suggesting that greater control should be required when prescribing psychotropic medications to pregnant women.

Elements4Health:25 June 2010

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Ailmemts & Remedies

Alcohol Dependence

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A person who is dependent on alcohol has an irresistible compulsion to drink, which takes priority over almost everything else in life. This craving for drink coupled with withdrawal symptoms when drinking stops, is what separates alcohol dependence from alcohol abuse, a term used to describe regular drinking to excess. About 14 million people in the us abuse or are dependent on alcohol. drinking problems are most common in men, particularly between the ages of 20 and 40. In addition to causing damage to the liver and brain, the need to drink to excess regularly is damaging to mental health and may destroy a person’s family and social life and career.

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What are the causes?
Alcohol dependence is often the result of a combination of factors. sometimes alcohol dependence runs in families, partly as a result of children growing up in an environment of heavy drinking and partly because of an inherited predisposition. People who are shy, anxious, or depressed may rely heavily on alcohol. Working as a bartender or in an occupation that is associated with social drinking increases the risk of dependence. stressful life events may turn a moderate drinker into a heavy one.

What are the symptoms?
Alcohol dependence may develop after a number of years of moderate to heavy drinking.

symptoms may include:
· A compulsion to drink and loss of control over the amount consumed.
· Increased tolerance to the effects of alcohol, leading to greater consumption to achieve the desired effects.
· Withdrawal symptoms, such as nausea, sweating, and tremor, which starts a few hours after the last drink.

In severe cases, withdrawal seizures develop after alcohol is stopped. after a few days without alcohol, delirium tremens may develop with symptoms of liver, shakes, seizures, disorientation and hallucinations. Symptoms last for 3 to 4 days and are usually followed by a deep, prolonged sleep. in extreme cases, shock occurs and may be fatal.

Are there complications?
Alcohol has direct effects on the body and may cause many diseases. long-term alcohol dependence is the most common cause of severe liver disease and may damage the digestive system, causing peptic ulcers.

Heavy drinkers often have a poor diet, which may lead to a deficiency in vitamin b1 that may eventually cause dementia. rarely, sever thiamine, deficiency leads to wernicke-korsakoff syndrome, a severe brain disorder that causes confusion and amnesia and may lead to coma. If excessive drinking continues for a prolonged period of time, damage to vital organs may be life-threatening.

Psychiatric disorder associated with alcohol dependence include anxiety, depression and suicidal behavior. generally, a person with alcohol dependence becomes self-centered and lacks concerns for family and friends.

How is it diagnosed?
Before the doctor can make a diagnosis, a person may need to be persuaded to seek help. the doctor will ask about the extent of the person’s drinking and look for evidence of dependence. Blood tests to assess possible damage to the liver and other organs may be arranged.

What is the treatment?
Gradual reduction of alcohol intake or limiting alcohol consumption to social drinking is rarely possible. instead, the person will be asked to stop drinking completely. In mild to moderate cases, withdrawal can take place at home, provided that adequate support is available. antianxiety drugs, such as benzodiazepine, may be prescribed for a short time to reduce agitation and other physical effects of withdrawal.

When heavy drinking is stopped suddenly, withdrawal seizures or delirium tremens may develop. the symptoms of delirium tremens are potentially life-threatening and require admission to the hospital or a special detoxification unit. “withdrawal symptoms are usually treated with antianxiety drugs.

Treatment for physical problems as a result of long-term alcohol dependence includes ulcer-healing drugs for peptic ulcers and vitamin b1 injections for a thiamine deficiency.

When the symptoms of withdrawal have been treated, the doctor may prescribe drugs that reduce craving for alcohol or cause unpleasant reaction when it is consumed.Support is given to help prevent a relapse. Individual counseling or group therapy may help people address the problems that contribute to alcohol dependence.

What is the prognosis?
Accepting that there is a problem and receiving emotional support during the effort to give up drinking greatly improve a person’s chance of recovery. attending a self-help group, such as alcoholics anonymous, reduces the risk of relapse. however, after a long period of dependence, several attempts at detoxification may be needed before a person abstains from alcohol altogether.

In about 1 in 5 cases in which delirium tremens develop and is untreated, the condition proves fatal.

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Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.


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