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Ailmemts & Remedies

Ganglion

Definition:
A ganglion is a sac-like swelling or cyst formed from the tissue that lines a joint or tendon. The tissue, called synovium, normally functions to produce lubricating fluid for these areas. A ganglion is a cyst formed by the synovium that is filled with a thick jelly-like fluid. While ganglia can follow local trauma to the tendon or joint, they usually form for unknown reasons. Occasionally, ganglia are early signs of arthritis that will become more obvious in the future

It is a biological tissue mass, most commonly a mass of nerve cell bodies. Cells found in a ganglion are called ganglion cells, though this term is also sometimes used to refer specifically to retinal ganglion cells. A ganglion cyst is a small lump most commonly on the hand or foot, not believed to be of nerve cells.

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Ganglions are common and can occur at any age to both sexes.

In neurological contexts, ganglia are composed mainly of somata and dendritic structures which are bundled or connected together. Ganglia often interconnect with other ganglia to form a complex system of ganglia known as a plexus. Ganglia provide relay points and intermediary connections between different neurological structures in the body, such as the peripheral and central nervous systems.

There are two major groups of ganglia:

*Dorsal root ganglia (also known as the spinal ganglia) contain the cell bodies of sensory (afferent) nerves……  CLICK & SEE

*Autonomic ganglia contain the cell bodies of autonomic nerves…..CLICK & SEE

In the autonomic nervous system, fibers from the central nervous system to the ganglia are known as preganglionic fibers, while those from the ganglia to the effector organ are called postganglionic fibers.

Basal ganglia
The term “ganglion” usually refers to the peripheral nervous system.

However, in the brain (part of the central nervous system), the “basal ganglia” is a group of nuclei interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem, associated with a variety of functions: motor control, cognition, emotions, and learning.

Partly due to this ambiguity, the Terminologia Anatomica recommends using the term basal nuclei instead of basal ganglia.

Symptoms:
Ganglions range in size from that of a small pea to that of a plum. They’re usually found on the back of the wrist, but also appear at its front, or on the palm or fingers.

They’re harmless and in general don’t cause any problems, but when large they’re more likely to get knocked, and if visible they can cause embarrassment.

Occasionally, a ganglion may become inflamed and feel uncomfortable, and in rare cases it may compress a nearby nerve. If this occurs, odd sensations may be felt in the hand, and finger movements may become difficult.

Causes:
Ganglion cysts are idiopathic, but presumably reflect a variation in normal joint or tendon sheath function. Cysts near joints are connected to the joint and the leading theory is that a type of check valve forms that allows fluid out of the joint, but not back in. The cyst contains clear fluid similar to, but thicker than, normal synovial fluid. They are most often found around the wrist joint, especially at the scapho-lunate joint, which accounts for 80% of all ganglion cysts.

Treatment:
As no one really understands why ganglions occur, it’s not possible to prevent them. They don’t need treatment and many disappear of their own accord, but if a ganglion is causing discomfort or embarrassment, it can be surgically removed.

It’s important to do this if the ganglion is causing symptoms related to nerve compression.

With surgery, the recurrence rate is reduced to 5 to 10% if the check valve at the joint capsule is removed. Arthroscopy of the wrist is becoming available as an alternative to open excision of ganglion cysts.

An out-dated method of treating a ganglion cyst was supposedly to strike the lump with a large heavy book, causing the cyst to rupture and drain into the surrounding tissues. An urban legend states that since even the poorest households often possessed a Bible, this was commonly used, which led to the nicknaming of ganglion cysts as “Bible bumps” or “Gideon’s disease.”

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/ganglion1.shtml
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ganglion
http://www.medicinenet.com/ganglion/article.htm

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Ailmemts & Remedies

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

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Heavy computer use can lead to compression of the nerves in the carpal tunnel

Everyone worries about his or her health. Today, cancers and heart attacks are commonplace and randomly strike friends and relatives. Anyone who suddenly develops a tingling, shooting pain radiating down the left arm, severe enough to wake up the person in the night, cannot be blamed for thinking it is a heart attack!

But such symptoms are typical of carpal tunnel syndrome, a condition common during middle age.

The carpal tunnel is actually a narrow, rigid box-like area in the wrist which forms a passageway for the ligaments and nerves at the base of the hand. If the nerves are compressed as they pass through this canal, they respond to the pressure with pain, a tingling sensation and numbness. Sleeping with the wrist in a flexed position aggravates the problem and the sufferer often wakes up at night with a numbing pain in the arm that needs to be shaken for relief. If this occurs on the left side, it can be mistaken for a heart attack.

Eventually, as the compression progresses, the tingling decreases but is replaced by weakness of the fingers and obvious wasting of the thumb muscles. Grasping small objects, making a fist and distinguishing between hot and cold may be difficult.

Compression of the nerves in the carpal tunnel may occur as a result of :

A fracture or sprain of the wrist which disrupts the normal relationship between the various structures in that area

Repetitive stress injury as a result of continual movement of the wrist. People working as butchers, fishermen and tailors are particularly susceptible. Heavy computer use or typing for seven hours or more a day is also implicated

Diseases like diabetes and hypothyroidism (it may be the first symptom)

Fluid retention as a result of kidney or liver disease

Obesity and pregnancy

The symptoms are three times commoner in women than in men. This is because women have smaller carpal tunnels than men. However, the carpal tunnel syndrome is not seen in children even though their wrists are small as the structures are more pliable.

The diagnosis is made on the basis of the symptoms. The tingling sensation can be reproduced by tapping on the carpal tunnel area. The symptoms are aggravated if this is done with the wrist in a flexed position. If the diagnosis is uncertain then nerve conduction studies can be done.

Permanent damage to the entrapped median nerve can occur if the compression is not relieved sufficiently early.

Treatment involves the following :

Diagnosis and correction of any underlying metabolic disorders such as diabetes and hypothyroidism

Using a splint to maintain the wrist in a neutral position for two weeks

Using wrist supports while typing. Some computer keyboards are designed to prevent the carpal tunnel syndrome

Medications, especially the NSAID group (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents), can relieve pain and swelling. But they should be used only on a short-term basis

Vitamins, particularly pyridoxine (B6), can bring temporary relief.

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Injections — usually a combination of a steroid and local anaesthetic — can be given into the carpal tunnel

Surgery, open or laparoscopic, can be done to remove any compression from bands of bone or tissue. This is done if there is no improvement after six months of conservative treatment.

Physiotherapy provides sustained long-term relief without invasive procedures or medications. The exercises are simple and not time-consuming. Accrued benefit disappears within three days if the exercises are not continued.

Straighten the wrists and relax the fingers

Make tight fists with both hands

Bend the wrists down while keeping the fists. Hold for a count of five

Straighten the wrists and relax the fingers, again for a count of five

The exercise should be repeated 10 times. Finally, let your arms hang loosely at the sides and shake them for a few seconds. Many alternative treatments like acupuncture and massage have been tried. Studies, however, have not shown any proven benefits. Regular practice of yoga provides sustained and long-term relief.

In India, there is usually no compensation for work-related incapacitating injuries. Workers have to maintain their health to remain efficient and productive. Occupational carpal tunnel syndrome can be prevented by —

Providing frequent breaks to workers

Teaching them corrective exercises and stretching

Designing furniture ergonomically for the workplace so that the hands are kept in a natural position.

Unfortunately, even among the educated, blue-collar workers, regular exercise and prevention of injures is not taken very seriously until it is too late.

Click to Learn more about Carpal Tunnel Syndrome…………..(1).………….(2)

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Guide
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Remedies – Natural Pain Relief – Alternative ……(2).…..(3)

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Source:The Telegraph (Kolkata, India)

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