Tag Archives: Young

Lamium album

Botanical Name: Lamium album
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus:     Lamium
Species: L. album
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:     Lamiales

Synonyms: Archangel. White Dead Nettle. Blind Nettle. Dumb Nettle. Deaf Nettle. Bee Nettle

Common Names : White nettle or White dead-nettle

Habitat :  Lamium album is native to throughout Europe and Western Asia, growing in a variety of habitats from open grassland to woodland, generally on moist, fertile soils.It was introduced to North America, where it is widely naturalised.

Description:
It is a herbaceous perennial plant growing to 50-100 cm tall, with green, four-angled stems. The leaves are 3-8 cm long and 2-5 cm broad, triangular with a rounded base, softly hairy, and with a serrated margin and a petiole up to 5 cm long; like many other members of the Lamiaceae, they appear superficially similar to those of the Stinging nettle Urtica dioica but do not sting, hence the common name “deadnettle”. The flowers are white, produced in whorls (‘verticillasters’) on the upper part of the stem, the individual flowers 1.5-2.5 cm long.
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Cultivation:      
A very easily grown plant, it tolerates most soils and conditions. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers a sunny position, though it also does well in partial shade. Plants are hardy to about -25°c. The white dead nettle is too weedy to be grown in the flower garden, but it does well in the wild garden and self-sows when well sited. Plants seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits. A good bee plant and a good companion plant, helping any vegetables growing nearby. Special Features: Attractive foliage, Invasive, Suitable for cut flowers.

Propagation:    
Seed – this species usually self sows freely and should not require human intervention. When required it can be sown in situ as soon as it is ripe. Division in spring. Division succeeds at almost any time in the growing season. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.

Edible Uses:Young leaves are eaten  raw or cooked. They can be added to salads or mixed with other leaves and cooked as a potherb. They can also be dried for later use. The leaves are a good source of vitamin A. A pleasant herb tea is made from the flowers

Medicinal Uses:
Chemical constituents:
Two phenylpropanoid glycosides, lamalboside (2R-galactosylacteoside) and acteoside, the flavonol p-coumaroylglucoside, tiliroside, 5-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid), along with rutoside and quercetin and kaempferol 3-O-glucosides can be isolated from the flowers of L. album. The plant also contains the iridoid glycosides lamalbid, alboside A and B, and caryoptoside as well as the hemiterpene glucoside hemialboside

Lamium album is an astringent and demulcent herb that is chiefly used as a uterine tonic, to arrest inter-menstrual bleeding and to reduce excessive menstrual flow. It is a traditional treatment for abnormal vaginal discharge and is sometimes taken to relieve painful periods. The flowering tops are antispasmodic, astringent, cholagogue, depurative, diuretic, expectorant, haemostatic, hypnotic, pectoral, resolvent, sedative, styptic, tonic, vasoconstrictor and vulnerary. An infusion is used in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints, diarrhoea, menstrual problems, bleeding after childbirth, vaginal discharges and prostatitis. Externally, the plant is made into compresses and applied to piles, varicose veins and vaginal discharges. A distilled water from the flowers and leaves makes an excellent and effective eye lotion to relieve ophthalmic conditions. The plant is harvested in the summer and can be dried for later use. A homeopathic remedy is made from the plant. It is used in the treatment of bladder and kidney disorders and amenorrhoea.

Other Uses: Bees, especially bumble bees are attracted to the flowers which are a good source of early nectar and pollen, hence the plant is sometimes called the Bee Nettle.

A distillation of the flowers is reputed “to make the heart merry, to make a good colour in the face, and to make the vital spirits more fresh and lively.”

The plant has a creeping rootstock and makes a good groundcover plant for woodland edges.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamium_album
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?latinname=Lamium+album
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/n/nettle03.html#whi
http://www.kew.org/science-conservation/plants-fungi/lamium-album-white-dead-nettle

Aralia nudicaulis

Botanical Name :Aralia nudicaulis
Family: Araliaceae
Genus: Aralia
Species: A. nudicaulis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Apiales

Common Names: Wild Sarsaparilla, False sarsaparilla, Shot bush, Small Spikenard, Wild Liquorice, and Rabbit Root

Habitat : Aralia nudicaulis is native to northern and eastern North America. It grows in the moist, shady, rocky woods

Description:
Aralia nudicaulis  is an indigenous perennial  flowering plant which reaches a height of 30–60 cm (12–24 in) with creeping underground stems.In the spring the underground stems produce compound leaves that are large and finely toothed. Tiny white flowers, typically in three, globe-shaped clusters 4–5 cm (1.6–2.0 in) wide, are produced on tall scapes that grow about the same height as the leaves. These bloom from May to July and develop into purple-black comestible berries. The leaves go dormant in summer before the fruits ripen. The berries taste a little spicy and sweet.

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The slender man of the plant grows straight up from the ground and divides into a whorl of 3 stems which branch up and out, each forming 3 to 7 (most often 5) pinnately compound leaflets; leaflets ovate, acute, serrate, green.  Technically, all the leaflets on one plant are considered to be one entire leaf, and the stems that connect the leaflets are called rachis; this arrangement is called doubly compound. In some cases some of the leaflets are further completely subdivided, forming a triply compound pattern.

It is found in shady rocky woods, very common in rich soil, rhizome horizontal, creeping several feet in length and more or less twisted; of a yellowish-brown colour externally and about 1/4 inch in diameter, has a fragrant odour and a warm, aromatic, sweetish taste.

Because it sometimes grows with groups of 3 leaflets, it can be mistaken for poison ivy; the way to tell the difference is that Wild Sarsaparilla lacks a woody base and has fine teeth along the edges of the leaves.

Cultivation:   
Prefers a good deep loam and a semi-shady position. Requires a sheltered position. Plants are hardier when grown in poorer soils. The young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun.

Propagation:    
Seed – best sown as soon as ripe in a cold frame. Stored seed requires 3 – 5 months of cold stratification. Germination usually takes place within 1 – 4 months at 20°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in light shade in a greenhouse for at least their first winter. Once the plants are 25cm or more tall, they can be planted out into their permanent positions, late spring or early summer being the best time to do this. Root cuttings 8cm long, December in a cold frame. Store the roots upside down in sand and pot up in March/April. High percentage. Division of suckers in late winter. Very easy, the suckers can be planted out direct into their permanent positions if required.

Edible Uses:
The rootstock is used as a flavouring, it is a substitute for sarsaparilla and is also used for making ‘root beer’. It is also used as an emergency food (usually mixed with oil), having a sweet spicy taste and a pleasant aromatic smell. A nutritious food, it was used by the Indians during wars or when they were hunting since it is very sustaining.

Young shoots – cooked as a potherb. A refreshing herbal tea is made from the root. Pleasantly flavoured. The roots are boiled in water until the water is reddish-brown.

A jelly is made from the fruit. The fruit is also used to make wine. The fruit is about 6mm in diameter

Medicinal Uses:
Wild sarsaparilla is a sweet pungent tonic herb that acts as an alterative. It had a wide range of traditional uses amongst the North American Indians and was at one time widely used as a substitute for the tropical medicinal herb sarsaparilla.

The root is alterative, diaphoretic, diuretic, pectoral and stimulant. The herb encourages sweating, is stimulating and detoxifying and so is used internally in the treatment of pulmonary diseases, asthma, rheumatism, stomach aches etc. Externally it is used as a poultice in treating rheumatism, sores, burns, itchy skin, ulcers and skin problems such as eczema. The root is collected in late summer and the autumn and dried for later use. A drink made from the pulverised roots is used as a cough treatment. A poultice made from the roots and/or the fruit is applied to sores, burns, itchy skin, ulcers, swellings etc.

A homeopathic remedy made from the roots is important in the treatment of cystitis.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://practicalplants.org/wiki/Aralia_nudicaulis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Aralia+nudicaulis
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/b/bambri09.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aralia_nudicaulis

Armoracia rusticana(Horseradish)

Botanical Name ; Armoracia rusticana
Family: Brassicaceae– Mustard family
Genus: Armoracia G. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb.– armoracia
Species: Armoracia rusticana G. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb.– horseradish
Kingdom: Plantae– Plants
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta– Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta– Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta– Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida– Dicotyledons
Subclass: Dilleniidae
Order: Capparales

Synonyms: Armoracia armoracia. Armoracia rustica. Cardamine armoracia. Rorippa armoracia

Common Name :Horseradish

Habitat :Armoracia rusticana is native to Europe. Naturalized in Britain. It grows on arable land, waste ground and by streams, favouring slightly damp positions.

Description:
Armoracia rusticana is a perennial herb  growing to 2 to 2.5 feet and spreading 2.5 to 3 feet with dock-like, toothed, shiny, dark green leaves and insignificant, whitish flowers which appear in summer in terminal panicles. An extremely vigorous plant that crowds out most weeds and is itself weed-like, with a very spreading growth habit (particularly if the roots are not harvested every year)….click & see

You may click to see the pictures

It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, beetles, self.The plant is self-fertile.

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Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.

It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
A very easily grown plant, horseradish prefers a good deep moist well-drained soil and a sunny position. Plants require a good soil if they are to produce good roots, though once established they are very tolerant of neglect and will continue to produce a crop for many years. Plants do not thrive if they are in the shade of trees. Excess nitrogen causes heavy top growth and forking of the roots. Prefers a wet clay soil according to one report, whilst another says that it will not grow in wet clay. Tolerates a pH in the range 5.8 to 8.3. Horseradish has long been cultivated for its root which is used as a food flavouring and medicinally, there are some named varieties. If the roots are given some protection they will produce fresh young leaves for the salad bowl all through the winter. Digging up some roots and putting them into a greenhouse for the winter is the easiest method. If the young shoots are blanched they will produce white, tender, sweet leaves. A very invasive plant, it is considered to be a pernicious weed in some areas. Even quite small sections of root will regrow if they are left in the soil. The plant has yet to prove invasive on our Cornwall trial grounds, though it has survived and even prospered in a very overgrown site. The forms of this plant grown in gardens are almost sterile and seldom produce good seed. This is a good companion plant for potatoes since it is said to deter potato eelworm and the Colorado beetle. One plant at each corner of the potato patch is quite sufficient. When grown under apple trees it is said to prevent brown rot, powdery mildew and other fungal diseases.

Propagation: Seed – this is seldom produced on plants in cultivation. If seed is obtained then it is best sown in situ during the spring. Division is very easy and can be carried out at almost any time of the year, though it is probably best in spring. It s best to use sections of root about 20cm long, which can be planted out into their permanent positions in February or March, though even very small bits of root will grow away. Division should be carried out at least once every three years or the crop will deteriorate

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Leaves;  Root;  Seed.
Edible Uses: Condiment.

Young root – raw or cooked. The grated root is used to make the condiment ‘Horseradish sauce’, this has a hot mustard-like flavour. The sauce is best used uncooked or gently warmed, heating it will destroy the volatile oils that are responsible for its pungency. It is said that in Germany the roots are sliced and cooked like parsnips[183] – rather them than me!. The root is a rich source of sulphur. Fresh roots contain the glycoside sinigrin – this is decomposed in the presence of water by the enzyme myrosin, producing mustard oil which gives the root its hot flavour. The fleshy roots can be up to 60cm long and 5cm thick. The plant is fully hardy and can be left in the ground all winter to be harvested as required. Alternatively, the roots can be harvested in early winter and stored for later use, they will retain their juicy state for some time if stored in dry sand. Young leaves – raw or cooked. A very strong flavour, though nice when added in small quantities to the salad bowl. A pleasant mild flavour according to another report. Seeds – sprouted and eaten in salads.

Medicinal Uses:
Antibacterial;  Antirheumatic;  Antiseptic;  Aperient;  Digestive;  Diuretic;  Expectorant;  Rubefacient;  Stimulant.

Horseradish is a very pungent stimulant herb that controls bacterial infections and can be used both internally and externally. The plant is a powerful stimulant, whether used internally as a spur for the digestive system or externally as a rubefacient. It should not be used internally by people with stomach ulcers or thyroid problems. The roots are antiseptic, aperient, digestive, diuretic, expectorant, rubefacient and stimulant. They should be used in their fresh state. An infusion is used in the treatment of colds, fevers and flu and is of value in the treatment of respiratory and urinary tract infections. A sandwich of the freshly grated root is a traditional remedy for hay fever. A tea made from the root is weakly diuretic, antiseptic and expectorant. The plant is antibiotic against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and also pathogenic fungi. It is experimentally antitumor. Externally, a poultice made from the roots is used to treat pleurisy, arthritis and infected wounds. It will also relieve the pain of chilblains. Some caution should be employed, however, because it can cause blistering. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Armoracia rusticana for internal & external use in catarrhs of the respiratory tract, internally as supportive therapy for urinary tract infections, externally for the hyperaemic treatment of minor muscles aches.

Other Uses :
Fungicide;  Repellent.

Horseradish tea is effective against brown rot of apples and other fungicidal diseases. The growing plant deters potato eelworm.

Known Hazards:
Large quantities of this plant can be poisonous due to its content of volatile oils. Traditional texts suggested possible thyroid function depression. Contraindicated with chronic nephritis, hepatitis, gastro-oesophageal reflux or hyperacidity conditions, and inflammatory bowel conditions. Avoid during pregnancy and lactation (moderate amounts with food ok)

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Armoracia+rusticana
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ARRU4
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Armoracia_rusticana

Raphanus sativus

Botanical Name : Raphanus sativus
Family: Brassicaceae– Mustard family
Genus: Raphanus L.– radish
Species: Raphanus sativus L.– cultivated radish
Kingdom:Plantae– Plants
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta– Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta– Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta– Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida– Dicotyledons
Subclass: Dilleniidae
Order: Capparales

Synonyms: Raphanus raphanistrum sativus – (L.) G. Beck.

Common Name :Radish

Habitat :The origin of Raphanus sativus is not found, it is a plant  of cultivation. It probably arose through cultivation.

Description:
Raphanus sativus is an annual herb growing to 0.45m by 0.2m at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone 0 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from June to August, and the seeds ripen from July to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies.

You may click to see the picture

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation :
Very easily cultivated fast-growing plants which prefer a rich light soil with ample moisture. They dislike very heavy or acid soils. Plants are susceptible to drought and require irrigation during dry spells in the summer or the root quality will rapidly deteriorate and the plant will go to seed. Radishes are widely cultivated for their edible roots. There are many named variet that are able to supply edible roots all year round. Over the centuries a number of distinct groups have evolved through cultivation, these have been classified by the botanists as follows. A separate entry has been made for each group:- R. sativus. The common radish. Fast maturing plants with small roots that can be round or cylindrical and usually have red skins. They are grown primarily for their roots which in some varieties can be ready within three weeks from sowing the seed and are used mainly in salads. These are mainly grown for spring, summer and autumn use and can produce a crop within a few weeks of sowing. R. sativus caudatus. The rat-tailed radishes. This group does not produce roots of good quality, it is cultivated mainly for the edible young seedpods which are harvested in the summer. R. sativus niger. The Oriental and Spanish radishes. These are grown for their larger edible root which can be round or cylindrical and can be available throughout the winter. R. sativus oleiformis. The fodder radishes. These are grown mainly for their leaves and oil-rich seeds, they are used as a green manure or stock feed though they can also be eaten by people. The roots of these plants soon become fibrous, though they make acceptable eating when young. Radishes are a good companion plant for lettuces, nasturtiums, peas and chervil, tomatoes and cucumbers. They are said to repel cucumber beetles if planted near cucumber plants and they also repel the vine borers which attack squashes, marrows and courgettes. They grow badly with hyssop and with grape vines.

Propagation:
Seed – sow outdoors in situ in succession from late winter to the middle of summer. Germination takes place within a few days of sowing the seed. If you want a constant supply of the roots then you need to sow seed every 2 – 3 weeks

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Root; Seed; Seedpod.

Edible Uses: Oil.
Young leaves – raw or cooked. A somewhat hot taste, and the texture is somewhat coarse. As long as they are young, they make an acceptable addition in small quantities to chopped salads and are a reasonable cooked green[K]. A nutritional analysis is available. Young flower clusters – raw or cooked. A spicy flavour with a crisp pleasant texture, they make a nice addition to salads or can be used as a broccoli substitute. Seeds – raw. The seed can be soaked for 12 hours in warm water and then allowed to sprout for about 6 days. They have a hot spicy flavour and go well in salads. Young seedpods – raw. Crisp and juicy with a mildly hot flavour. They must be eaten when young because they quickly become tough and fibrous. Root – raw or cooked. Crisp and juicy, they have a hot and spicy flavour and are a very popular addition to salads. The summer crops do not store well and should be used as soon as possible after harvesting. The winter varieties (including the Japanese forms) have much larger roots and often a milder flavour. These store well and can be either harvested in early winter for storage or be harvested as required through the winter. An edible oil is obtained from the seed.

Composition:
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.

Leaves (Dry weight) : 287 Calories per 100g
*Water: 0%
*Protein: 28.7g; Fat: 5.2g; Carbohydrate: 49.6g; Fibre: 9.6g; Ash: 16.5g;
*Minerals – Calcium: 1913mg; Phosphorus: 261mg; Iron: 35.7mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 956mg; Potassium: 4348mg; Zinc: 0mg;
*Vitamins – A: 21mg; Thiamine (B1): 0.7mg; Riboflavin (B2): 2.43mg; Niacin: 34.8mg; B6: 0mg; C: 704mg;

Notes: Vitamin A is mg not IU

Medicinal Uses:
Anthelmintic; Antibacterial; Antifungal; Antiscorbutic; Antispasmodic; Astringent; Cancer; Carminative; Cholagogue; Digestive; Diuretic; Expectorant; Laxative; Poultice; Stomachic.

Radishes have long been grown as a food crop, but they also have various medicinal actions. The roots stimulate the appetite and digestion, having a tonic and laxative effect upon the intestines and indirectly stimulating the flow of bile. Consuming radish generally results in improved digestion, but some people are sensitive to its acridity and robust action. The plant is used in the treatment of intestinal parasites, though the part of the plant used is not specified. The leaves, seeds and old roots are used in the treatment of asthma and other chest complaints. The juice of the fresh leaves is diuretic and laxative. The seed is carminative, diuretic, expectorant, laxative and stomachic. It is taken internally in the treatment of indigestion, abdominal bloating, wind, acid regurgitation, diarrhoea and bronchitis. The root is antiscorbutic, antispasmodic, astringent, cholagogue, digestive and diuretic. It is crushed and used as a poultice for burns, bruises and smelly feet. Radishes are also an excellent food remedy for stone, gravel and scorbutic conditions. The root is best harvested before the plant flowers. Its use is not recommended if the stomach or intestines are inflamed. The plant contains raphanin, which is antibacterial and antifungal. It inhibits the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, streptococci, Pneumococci etc. The plant also shows anti-tumour activity.

Radish root stimulates the appetite and digestion.  The common red radish is eaten as a salad vegetable and an appetizer.  The juice of the black radish is drunk to counter gassy indigestion and constipation.  Radish juice has a tonic and laxative action on the intestines and indirectly stimulates the flow of bile.  Consuming radish generally results in improved digestion, but some people are sensitive to its acridity and robust action. It is crushed and used as a poultice for burns, bruises and smelly feet. The leaves, seeds and old roots are used in the treatment of asthma and other chest complaints.  The juice of the fresh leaves is diuretic and laxative.  In China, radish is eaten to relive abdominal distension.  The root is also prepared “dry-fried” to treat chest problems.  The seed is used to treat abdominal fullness, sour eructations, diarrhea caused by food congestion, phlegm with productive cough and wheezing.  Because of its neutral energy, it is very effective in breaking up congestion in patients with extreme heat.  Radishes are also an excellent food remedy for stone, gravel and scorbutic conditions. The plant contains raphanin, which is antibacterial and antifungal. It inhibits the growth of Staphylococcuc aureus, E. coli, streptococci, pneumococci etc. The plant also shows anti-tumor activity.

Other Uses:
Green manure; Oil; Repellent.

The growing plant repels beetles from tomatoes and cucumbers. It is also useful for repelling various other insect pests such as carrot root fly. There is a fodder variety that grows more vigorously and is used as a green manure.

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Known Hazards: The Japanese radishes have higher concentrations of glucosinolate, a substance that acts against the thyroid gland. It is probably best to remove the skin.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

 

Resources:
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Raphanus_sativus
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=RASA2
http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Raphanus_sativus
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm

Plantago lanceolata

Botanical Name : Plantago lanceolata
Family:Plantaginaceae
Genus: Plantago
Species: P. lanceolata
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Common Names : Ribwort plantain, English plantain, Buckhorn plantain, Narrowleaf plantain, Ribleaf and lamb’s tongue.

Habitat : Plantago lanceolata is native to Europe, including Britain, from Iceland south and east to Spain, northern and central Asia.It grows in Grassland, roadsides etc, a common weed of lawns and cultivated ground, on neutral and basic soils.

Description:
Plantago lanceolata is a rosette-forming perennial herb,growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in), with leafless, silky, hairy flower stems (10–40 cm/3.9–16 in). The basal leaves are lanceolate spreading or erect, scarcely toothed with 3-5 strong parallel veins narrowed to short petiole. Grouping leaf stalk deeply furrowed, ending in an oblong inflorescence of many small flowers each with a pointed bract.It is in flower from Apr to August, and the seeds ripen from Jun to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind, flies, beetles.The plant is self-fertile. Each flower can produce up to two seeds. Flowers 4 mm (calyx green, corolla brownish), 4 bent back lobes with brown midribs, long white stamens. Found in British Isles, scarce on acidic soils (pH < 4.5). It is considered an invasive weed in North America. It is present and widespread in the Americas and Australia as an introduced species.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender.  It is noted for attracting wildlife. bUT  IT IS onsidered to be an indicator of agriculture in pollen diagrams, P. lanceolata has been found in western Norway from the Early Neolithic onwards. Something that is considered to be an indicator of grazing in that area.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

Cultivation:Succeeds in any moderately fertile soil in a sunny position. Plants also succeed in very poor land. An important food plant for the caterpillars of many species of butterflies.

Propagation:Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in early summer. A sowing can be made outdoors in situ in mid to late spring if you have enough seeds.

Edible Uses:

Young leaves – raw or cooked. They are rather bitter and very tedious to prepare, the fibrous strands are best removed prior to eating. The very young leaves are somewhat better and are less fibrous. Seed – cooked. Used like sago. The seed can be ground into a powder and added to flours when making bread, cakes or whatever.

Medicinal Uses:

Antibacterial;  Antidote;  AstringentDemulcent;  Expectorant;  Haemostatic;  Laxative;  Ophthalmic;  Poultice.

Ribwort plantain is a safe and effective treatment for bleeding, it quickly staunches blood flow and encourages the repair of damaged tissue. The leaves contain mucilage, tannin and silic acid. An extract of them has antibacterial properties. They have a bitter flavour and are astringent, demulcent, mildly expectorant, haemostatic and ophthalmic. Internally, they are used in the treatment of a wide range of complaints including diarrhoea, gastritis, peptic ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, haemorrhage, haemorrhoids, cystitis, bronchitis, catarrh, sinusitis, asthma and hay fever. They are used externally in treating skin inflammations, malignant ulcers, cuts, stings etc. The heated leaves are used as a wet dressing for wounds, swellings etc. The root is a remedy for the bite of rattlesnakes, it is used in equal portions with Marrubium vulgare. The seeds are used in the treatment of parasitic worms. Plantain seeds contain up to 30% mucilage which swells up in the gut, acting as a bulk laxative and soothing irritated membranes. Sometimes the seed husks are used without the seeds. A distilled water made from the plant makes an excellent eye lotion.

P. lanceolata is used frequently in tisanes and other herbal remedies. A tea from the leaves is used as a highly effective cough medicine

Other Uses : Dye;  Fibre;  Starch.

A good fibre is obtained from the leaves, it is said to be suitable for textiles. A mucilage from the seed coats is used as a fabric stiffener. It is obtained by macerating the seed in hot water. Gold and brown dyes are obtained from the whole plant.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plantago_lanceolata
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Plantago+lanceolata