Herbs & Plants


Botanical Name :Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merr.
Family: Flacourtiaceae
Genus: Flacourtia
Species: F. indica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Violales

Other Scientific Names : Gmelina indica Burm. f.,Mespilus sylvestris Burm.,Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb.,Flacourtia ranibtcgu L’ Herit. ,Myroxylon decline Blanco ,Flacourtia cataphracta Rolfe

Common Names :  Bitangol (Sbl.),Bitunogo (Tag.),Bolong (Mang.), Palutan (Ibn.), Saua-saua (Bis.),Many spiked Flacourtia (Engl.)

Habitat : Palutan is found in dry thickets at low altitude in Cagayan, Isabela, Zambales, Tarlac, Bataan, Rizal, and Batangas Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro. It also occurs in India to tropical Africa and Malaya.

The plant is an erect, branched, more or less spiny shrub of small tree, growing to a height of 3 meters. Spines are slender and scattered, up to 2 cm long. Leaves are obovate to oblong-ovate, 2.5 to 5 cm long, with toothed margins and rounded lobes, the based pointed with the tip rounded. Flowers are white, about 5 mm in diameter, borne on axillary or terminating short branchlets, solitary or in pairs. Fruit is rounded, about 1 cm in diameter, fleshy when fresh, smooth and purple or nearly black. The pulp is edible, fleshy and sweet, enclosing 6 to 10 small and flattened seeds.


Edible Uses: In India, fruits consumed as food by local people.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts Used: Bark and leaves.

*Bark is astringent.
*Dried leaves considered carminative, expectorant, tonic and astringent.

*Infusion of the bark used for hoarseness and as a gargle.

*In Madagascar, the bark is titurated in oil and used as a rheumatic liniment.

*The ashes of the roots are used for kidney ailments.

*Dried leaves are used in asthma, bronchitis, phthisis and catarrh of the bladder.

*Juice of fresh leaves and tender stalks used for fevers.

*As an antiperiodic for infants, 5 to 10 drops are placed in water or in mother’s milk.

*Also used in phthisical coughs, dysentery, diarrhea and indigestion during dentition.

*In Bengal, used as a tonic during parturition.

*The fruit is used for bilious disorders and to relieve nausea and vomiting.

*In India, used as an antiviral.

*In Sabah, roots used for headaches, leaves for colic.

*In Tanzania, fruit used for jaundice and enlarged spleens; leaves and roots for schistosomiasis, malaria and diarrhea. Also, the roots are used for hoarseness, pneumonia, intestinal worms; and as astringent, diuretic and analgesic.

Studies :-
Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity: Study of extracts of aerial parts of F indica in paracetamol-induced hepatic necrosis in rat models exhibited hepatoprotective effects probably mediated through the inhibition of the microsomal metabolizing enzymes.
• Hepatoprotective / CCL4-Induced Hepatotoxicity: Study results conclude that aqueous extract of leaves of F indica protects the liver against oxidative damages and can be used as an effective protector against CCl4-induced hepatic damage.
• Antimalarial: Study reports on the antiplasmodial activity of the AcOEt extract and three major constituents of Flacourtia indica.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Click to access palutan.pdf

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Herbs & Plants

Floating Heart ( Limnanthemum cristatum)

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Botanical Name : Limnanthemum cristatum (Roxb.) Griseb.
Family : Menyanthaceae
Scientific names : Limnanthemum cristatum (Roxb.)  ,Menyanthes cristata Roxb. .Menyanthes hydrophyllum Lour. ,Villarsia cristata Spreng.,Nymphoides cristata (Roxb.)Griseb.,Nymphoides hydrophyllum Lour.
Common names:Griseb. Lolokisen (Ilk.),Pusong-lutang (Tag.) , Shui pi lian (Chin.), Floating heart (Engl.) , Snow flake (Engl.)

Habitat : Pusong-lutang is found in shallow lakes, quiet streams, and sometimes rice paddies, at low and medium altitudes though on Mount Data it ascends to an altitude of 2,100 meters. It occurs in Ilocos Norte, Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Rizal, Zambales, and Laguna Provinces in Luzon. It is also found in India to Southern China.

Annual, with large floating stem, rooting at the nodes. Leaves floating, lamina 2.5-7.5 (-10) cm long, 2-8 mm broad, orbicular, cordate at base, with conspicuous dense brown glands on the under surface, margin entire or wavy, petiole (C.5) 1-5 cm long, Pedicel 0.5-5 cm long. Calyx lobes 3-4 x c.2 mm, oblong, rounded. Corolla lobes oblong, acute, c.4 x 1.5-2 mm, white, with yellow base and longitudnal folds along the margin and centre. Stamens 2.75-3 mm long; anthers c. 1 mm long. Capsule ellipsoid, 5-6 mm long, 10-20 seeded. Seeds c. 1 mm long. tuberculate.

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Floating heart is water plant of the habit of the water lily. It is sometimes cultivated in ponds or as an aquarium plant.

Edible Uses: According to Burkill, in China it is edible.

Medicinal Uses:

Parts used:   Stalks, seeds and leaves
It is reported that in India, the stalks and leaves, pounded with oil, are applied to ulcers and insect bites; a decoction is used as a wash for parasitic skin complaints; and the seeds are eaten to destroy or prevent intestinal worms. Chopra says that they are used in fever and jaundice.

*In India, stalks and leaves are pounded with oil and applied to ulcers and insect bites. Also, used as a substitute for *Valeriana hardwickii in neurological disorders and colic.
*Decoction used as wash for parasitic skin complaints.
*Seeds eaten to destroy or prevent intestinal worms.
*Reported use for fever and jaundice.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Click to access pusong-lutang.pdf

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