Botanical Name :Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merr.
Species: F. indica
Other Scientific Names : Gmelina indica Burm. f.,Mespilus sylvestris Burm.,Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb.,Flacourtia ranibtcgu L’ Herit. ,Myroxylon decline Blanco ,Flacourtia cataphracta Rolfe
Common Names : Bitangol (Sbl.),Bitunogo (Tag.),Bolong (Mang.), Palutan (Ibn.), Saua-saua (Bis.),Many spiked Flacourtia (Engl.)
Habitat : Palutan is found in dry thickets at low altitude in Cagayan, Isabela, Zambales, Tarlac, Bataan, Rizal, and Batangas Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro. It also occurs in India to tropical Africa and Malaya.
The plant is an erect, branched, more or less spiny shrub of small tree, growing to a height of 3 meters. Spines are slender and scattered, up to 2 cm long. Leaves are obovate to oblong-ovate, 2.5 to 5 cm long, with toothed margins and rounded lobes, the based pointed with the tip rounded. Flowers are white, about 5 mm in diameter, borne on axillary or terminating short branchlets, solitary or in pairs. Fruit is rounded, about 1 cm in diameter, fleshy when fresh, smooth and purple or nearly black. The pulp is edible, fleshy and sweet, enclosing 6 to 10 small and flattened seeds.
Edible Uses: In India, fruits consumed as food by local people.
Parts Used: Bark and leaves.
*Bark is astringent.
*Dried leaves considered carminative, expectorant, tonic and astringent.
*Infusion of the bark used for hoarseness and as a gargle.
*In Madagascar, the bark is titurated in oil and used as a rheumatic liniment.
*The ashes of the roots are used for kidney ailments.
*Dried leaves are used in asthma, bronchitis, phthisis and catarrh of the bladder.
*Juice of fresh leaves and tender stalks used for fevers.
*As an antiperiodic for infants, 5 to 10 drops are placed in water or in mother’s milk.
*Also used in phthisical coughs, dysentery, diarrhea and indigestion during dentition.
*In Bengal, used as a tonic during parturition.
*The fruit is used for bilious disorders and to relieve nausea and vomiting.
*In India, used as an antiviral.
*In Sabah, roots used for headaches, leaves for colic.
*In Tanzania, fruit used for jaundice and enlarged spleens; leaves and roots for schistosomiasis, malaria and diarrhea. Also, the roots are used for hoarseness, pneumonia, intestinal worms; and as astringent, diuretic and analgesic.
• Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity: Study of extracts of aerial parts of F indica in paracetamol-induced hepatic necrosis in rat models exhibited hepatoprotective effects probably mediated through the inhibition of the microsomal metabolizing enzymes.
• Hepatoprotective / CCL4-Induced Hepatotoxicity: Study results conclude that aqueous extract of leaves of F indica protects the liver against oxidative damages and can be used as an effective protector against CCl4-induced hepatic damage.
• Antimalarial: Study reports on the antiplasmodial activity of the AcOEt extract and three major constituents of Flacourtia indica.
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.