Lippia dulcis

Botanical Name :Lippia dulcis
Family: Verbenaceae
Genus:     Phyla
Species: P. dulcis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Synonyms:Phyla dulcis, Yerba dulce. Mexican Lippia.

Common Names :Aztec Sweet Herb, Bushy Lippia, Honeyherb, Hierba Dulce, and Tzopelic-xihuitl (Nahuatl).

Habitat : Lippia dulcis is native to southern Mexico, the Caribbean (Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico), Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela. Lippia dulcis is well grown in mild and damp climate and under full sun exposure.

Lippia dulcis is a perennial herb. This 30 cm height grown plant isn`t evergreen, which means, it may lose its 5 cm sized leaves some months during the year. However, during spring time, small beautiful white conical spikes flowers appear. When grown, Lippia (Phyla) dulcis has a shrub-like development. For better performance, fertilize the soil by the end of the winter and water rarely, about once every 2-3 weeks. The pleasant sweetness rising from this special plant`s leaves comes from 4 main ingredients: ascorbic acid, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and hernandulcin. That is a natural sweetener for sugar and its substitutes in foods and beverages. Habit: Trailing .Flowering time:   Spring, Fall


Medicinal Uses:
Parts Used : leaves

This plant has historically been used as a natural sweetener and medicinal herb in its native Mexico and parts of Central America. It was used by the Aztecs and introduced to the Spanish when they arrived.

The sweet taste is caused by a sesquiterpene compound called hernandulcin, which was discovered in 1985 and named for Francisco Hernández, the Spanish physician who first described the plant in the sixteenth century.

The Aztecs used this plant as a sugar plant for their cooking and to ease coughs, colds, bronchitis & asthma.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


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Haematoxylum campechianum

Botanical Name : Haematoxylum campechianum
: H. campechianum

Synonyms: Haematoxylon Lignum. Lignum Campechianum. Lignum Coeruleum. Peachwood. Bois de Campechey de Sang or d’Inde. Bloodwood.

Common Name :Logwood,bloodwood,kampes agaci, logwood, palo de campeche, bois campeche, campeche, campechier,

Habitat: Haematoxylum campechianum is native to Tropical America, especially the shores of the Gulf of Campeachy. Naturalized in West Indies and elsewhere.

The name of the genus comes from the Greek and refers to the blood-red colour of the heart-wood. Haematoxylon Campeachianum is a crookedly-branched, small tree. It grows 9–15 metres (30–50 feet) tall and has a short, crooked trunk. The branches are spiny and the bark rough and dark. The leaves have four pairs of small, smooth leaflets, each in the shape of a heart with the points towards the short stem. The flowers, small and yellow, with five petals, grow in axillary racemes.
The leaves are pinnately compound (feather-formed), with rather oval leaflets. The small yellow flowers grow in a cluster from the leaf axil (upper angle between branch and leaf stem). The wood is heavy and extremely hard. A black dye, also called logwood, is obtained from the heartwood.

Medicinal Uses:
Part Used:  The heart-wood, or duramen, unfermented.

Constituents: A volatile oil, an oily or resinous matter, two brown substances, quercitin, tannin, a nitrogenous substance, free acetic acid, salts, and the colouring principle Haematoxylin or Haematin (not the haematin of the blood). The crystals are colourless, requiring oxygen from the air and an alkaline base to produce red, blue, and purple.

Haematein, produced by extraction of two equivalents of hydrogen, is found in dark violet crystalline scales, showing the rich, green colour often to be seen outside chips of logwood for dyeing purposes.

A mild astringent, especially useful in the weakness ofthe bowels following cholera infantum. It may be used in chronic diarrhoea and dysentery, in haemorrhages from uterus, lungs, or bowels, is agreeable to take, and suitable whether or not there is fever. It imparts a blood-red colour to urine and stools. It is incompatible with chalk or limewater. The patient should be warned of these two characteristics.

In large doses haematoxylin can produce fatal gastro-enteritis in lower animals.

The infusion, internally, combined with a spray or lotion, is said to have cured obstinate cases of foetid polypus in the nose.

The bark and leaves are also used in various medical applications.

Haematoxylum campechianum is used in homeopathic medicines

Other Uses:
Logwood was used for a long time as a natural source of dye, and still remains an important source of haematoxylin, which is used in histology for staining.  In its time, logwood was considered a versatile dye, and was widely used on textiles but also for paper. The dye’s colour depends on the mordant used as well as the pH. It is reddish in acidic environments but bluish in alkaline ones

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


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All about our nails

When we were young, fingernails and toenails gave us no trouble . (They may just be a bit dirty). With advancing age, however, they become brittle, hard, fall off or develop infections and become painful. Suddenly, we are forced to notice our nails!

Looks of nails reveals  many things:
Healthy nails are usually smooth and light pink in colour. Blue nails occur when there is a lack of oxygen in the blood (heart and lung disease). Nails can turn black in vitamin B12 deficiency. A horizontal depression or discoloration can develop across the nail due to illness, antibiotics or chemotherapy. The line becomes prominent as the nail grows out and then gradually disappears. Nails may grow brittle if there is anaemia and can also become spoon shaped. The opposite, a bulged out, parrot-beak like club-shaped nail is seen in chronic obstructive airways disease. Splitting and fraying are associated with hypothyroidism and psoriasis.

Click & see…>Healthy nails

Unhealthy nails

Most important, a close examination of the nails can reveal other disease processes such as iron deficiency (anaemia), vitamin B12 deficiency, diabetes, kidney and liver disease and even infection of the heart valves (endocarditis).

In older people (particularly those who have high blood sugar) an infected ingrown toenail (usually the big toe) is a common problem. This occurs when toenails are trimmed too short, blades or knives are used instead of nail cutters or if the edges of the nails are picked and torn.

Growth of nails:
Fingernails grow faster than toenails. The rate of growth depends on health, heredity and sex. Growth slows during illness and with increasing age, but at the same time, the nails become tougher. They are then more difficult to trim.

Nail biting:
In prehistoric times people had to bite their nails to trim them but today it is a social no-no. Biting in itself is harmless but it can cause secondary bacterial infection of the skin around the nail. It can cause and perpetuate worm infestation. It can transmit flu viruses acquired from contaminated surfaces directly to the mouth. Bitten down nails may work against you in job interviews. It is a habit that is arises out of lack of impulse control, and is perpetuated by stress.

Nail Care:
If there is no diabetes, an ingrown toenail can be treated at home by soaking it in warm salted water for 10 minutes and placing a cotton ball soaked in antibiotic ointment under it.

Nails are also prone to fungal infections. This destroys the nails and gives it an “eaten away” appearance. Topical ointments are not very effective. Medicines have to be taken orally until the infection resolves and a healthy nail grows out. This takes anywhere from three to six months. Medical conditions like psoariasis may mimic fungal infection. A proper diagnosis is essential before embarking on treatment.

For taking care of toe nails, it is advised  to wear slippers or open-toed sandals as in worm climate they  are better than shoes. If shoes have to be worn, they should fit properly. Shoes that people wear every day should have plenty of room around the toes so that nails do not hit the end of the shoe. They should also not be too loose as your feet will slide forward while walking or running and hit the end damaging the nails.It is always adviced to wear socks when one wears shoes.

Resources: The  Telegraph (Kolkata, India)
Diagnose Health Issues by Looking at Your Nails:-

Your fingernails and toenails are not just decorations for the ends of your palms and feet; they’re also an effective warning system for our health. So from now on, before you clip or paint your nails, take a look because they might be trying to tell you something.

WARNING – Some of these images may be unpleasant to look at

1. Dark bands on the nail tips
The tips of the nails seem to have dark bands on each one. This may just be a sign of old age. According to Mayo Clinic, it can also indicate “Terry’s nails“, diabetes, liver disease or even cognitive heart failure. If your doctor diagnoses you as diabetic, you may want to consult with a podiatrist on how to cut your nails to prevent harm.

2. White nails
If your nails are white as seen in the picture,WebMD warns that it may indicate liver problems or hepatitis.

3. Clubbed nails
According to the NCBI, nails that are round as seen in the picture may indicate lung problems.

4. Yellow Nails
According to WebMD, if your nails have a yellowish tinge, it may indicate a fungal infection, and even thyroid or lung disease.

5. “Spoon” nails
If the nail edges curve upwards and are soft to the touch, the Mayo Clinic says that it may indicate anemia, heart disease, liver problems, or hypothyroidism.

6. Weak nails
The nails split and chip easily and are overall weak. This often indicates abuse of acrylic nail polish. Let your nails “breath” for a few days, it will help them regain their strength.

7. Bitten nails
WebMD confirms that nails that are bitten down often indicate a state of anxiety, stress, or boredom. Applying foul-tasting nail polish can help you stop chewing on them.

8. Nail dents
If your nails have vertical dents, the NHS says that you may be suffering from skin disorders like eczema or psoriasis, as well as arthritis or even alopecia areata.

9. Loose nails
The nails are loose and come off the nail bed with ease? Cedars-Sinai says that it can indicate hyperthyroidism. If you’re a runner, however, it may just indicate that you’re wearing ill-fitting shoes.

10. Blue nails
Nails that are bluish in color are often an indicator of a lack of oxygen to the extremities. This is why surgeons insist on patients removing any nail polish before undergoing anesthesia. Another possible diagnosis is lung problems, according toWebMD.

11. Ingrown toenails
This is one of the most common nail-related ailments, characterizes by the edges of the toenail growing into the flesh of the toe. This condition may be accompanied by infection and pain.WebMD indicates that the most common causes are: Ill-fitting shoes, trauma to the toe or incorrect trimming of the nails.

12. Dark nails
According to AAFP, if your nails take on a dark color in conjunction with a discoloration of the skin, it may be an indication of melanoma (skin cancer).

13. Nail ridges
Vertical ridges along the nail are actually nothing to worry about.

14. Hematoma under the nail
If you notice spots of red/brown/black color under the nail, it’s most likely indicative of a hematoma, caused by mild trauma to the nail. The AOCDsays that the best treatment is to elevate your feet and ice the injured toe.

15. Horizontal ridges
Horizontal ridges along the nail, known as “Beau’s lines”, occur in cases of zinc deficiency, as well as diabetes, and as a result of high fever. (Source:Mayo Clinic)

16. Thin nails
The AAD warns that constant use of gel nail polish and the subsequent use of UV light and other chemicals can result in thinning of the nails. If this is the case, allow some time for the nails to recover before resuming your gel manicure.

17. Cracked / Missing nails
The NCBI warns that if any part of your nail looks similarly to the discolored, cracked nail in the image on the right, it may indicate that you have a fungal infection called onychomycosis.

18. Pincer nails
According to the NCBI, ill-fitting shoes, excessive trimming, a hereditary condition, and in rare conditions – tumors, can result in the formation of curved “pincer nails”.

19. White spots on the nails
Are there white spots on your nails? WebMD says it’s most likely a result of harsh manicure, nail trauma or ever a hereditary trait.

20. Nail pain
If your nails look healthy but are sore or even painful, visit your doctor and have your nails checked. Pain in the nails can be any of the above reasons, so having them looked at by an expert is not a bad idea.

Source:  E-mail  From of a renowned Doctor

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Gnaphalium Obtusifolium

Botanical NameGnaphalium polycephalum/ Gamochaeta purpurea/Gnaphalium uliginosum /Pseudognaphalium macounii
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Asteroideae
Tribe:     Gnaphalieae
Genus:     Gnaphalium
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms: Indian Posy. Sweet-scented Life Everlasting. Old Field Balsam. Gnaphalium Obtusifolium or Blunt-leaved Everlasting. Gnaphalium Connoideum. Fragrant Everlasting. None-so-Pretty. Catsfoot. Silver Leaf.

Common Names : White Balsam

Habitat:White Balsam is native to  Virginia, Pennsylvania and New England. This plant is common in old fields and pastures throughout the United States and Canada.

Natural Order, Compositae. This belongs to a genus of woolly herbs, which are peculiar for their downy and tomentose appearance. Their flowers are borne in many compact heads, closely arranged in a large terminal corymb, and all tubular. The species here spoken of is an annual, one to two feet high, the whole plant (stem, leaves, and peduncles) gray with a short and silky wool. Stem erect, branched above. Leaves alternate, three inches long by one-fourth of an inch broad, tapering at the base, sessile, margins a little wavy, smoothish above. Flowers tubular, white, in obovate heads; heads in a terminal and close panicled corymb, of a pretty appearance. Whole plant slightly fragrant. July and August.

click & see

click & see the pictures

The leaves and yellow flower-heads are used medicinally, though the whole plant is gathered. Its aroma is rather pleasant, its taste slightly bitter and aromatic, and its properties are extracted by water and alcohol. Several other species of the same genus are used indiscriminately with this one, among which may be named G. decurrens, with yellowish-white flowers and decurrent leaves; G. uliginosum, about five inches high, and with the clusters of flower-heads sitting down below the upper leaves; and G. purpureum, branching from the base, with the leaves green above, and the flowers in a wand-like terminal spike.

Medicinal Uses:

Parts Used: Herb, leaves, flowers.
This plant combines relaxing and stimulating properties with a moderate portion of demulcent quality. In cold preparations, its action is mainly expended upon mucous membranes; and as it soothes and strengthens these tissues, it has been pronounced astringent, though it is faintly tonic and not drying. It has been used in sore-mouth, sub-acute coughs, feebleness of the lungs, leucorrhea, catarrh of the bladder, and the latter stages of dysentery. It is really an excellent article in such cases; and though it is too mild to be of use in degenerate conditions, it is useful for its gentle influence. In warm infusion, it promotes mild diaphoresis, and is a popular remedy in recent colds and light fever; and a strong preparation is said to relieve mumps, quinsy, the tenesmus of dysentery, and excessive menstruation. In some respects it acts on the assimilative organs much as avens root does–toning them and abating a tendency to curdy diarrhea. From being at one time over-rated, it has fallen into undeserved neglect. An ounce may be digested in a pint and a half of water till a pint remains, and two fluid ounces of this used once every two hours or oftener. It is sometimes combined with other agents in pulmonary sirups.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


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Antennaria Margaritaceum

Botanical Name : Antennaria Margaritaceum
Family: Compositae/Asteraceae
Subfamily: Asteroideae
Tribe: Gnaphalieae
Genus: Anaphalis
Species: A. margaritacea
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms: American Everlasting.Antennaria dioica, Antennaria plantaginifolia,Helichrysum arenarium

Common Names :  Cudweed. Pearly everlasting, Pearl-flowered, life everlasting

Habitat:Antennaria Margaritaceum is native to North America, Kamschatka and in English gardens. Grows wild in Essex, near Bocking, and in Wales. Cultivated in Whin’s Cottage garden by the writer. It grows in dry hills and woods of various parts of the United States

Antennaria margaritacea is a perennial plant, with a simple, erect stem, corymbosely branched above. The leaves are linear-lanceolate, acute, 3-veined, sessile, and beneath the stem woolly; the corymbs are many-flowered and fastigiate; the scales of the hemispheric involucre are elliptic, obtuse, opaque, pearl-white, the outer ones only tomentose at the base; beads dioecious; the pistillate flowers are very slender; pappus simple, bristly, capillary in the fertile flowers, and in the sterile club-shaped, or barbellate at the summit. The corolla is yellowish (W. G.).The plant is slightly fragrant, ; it is from 1 to 2 feet in height, and bears yellow and white flowers in July. The leaves are the parts used. They contain a bitter principle and an essential oil.

Medicinal Uses:

Parts Used: Leaves, flowers, stalks.
The name Antennaria is from the resemblance of the sterile pappus to the antennae of many insects (W.).Anodyne, astringent, and pectoral. A decoction has proved beneficial in diarrhoea and dysentery, and in pulmonary affections. Externally, it forms an excellent poultice in sprains, bruises, boils, painful swellings, etc., and is said to produce sleep when applied externally to the head, even in cases where a poultice of hops has failed. Rafinesque is authority for the statement that the Indians, for a trifle, would allow rattlesnakes to bite them, to show that they could cure the bite at once with this plant.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


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Limonium carolinianum

Botanical Name ;Limonium carolinianum
Family: Plumbaginaceae
Genus:    Limonium
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:     Caryophyllales

Synonyms :Statice caroliniana.

Common Names :Statice Limonium. Ink Root. Sea Lavender. Marsh Rosemary.(Despite their common names, species are not related to the lavenders or to rosemary.)

Habitat :Limonium carolinianum  is native to Eastern N. America – Labrador to Florida and Texas.(The genus has a subcosmopolitan distribution in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and North America. By far the greatest diversity (over 100 species) is in the area stretching from Canary Islands east through the Mediterranean region to central Asia; for comparison, North America only has 3 native species.)It grows near coasts and in salt marshes, and also on saline, gypsum and alkaline soils in continental interiors.

Limonium carolinianum  is a herbaceous perennial plant growing to 0.6 m (2ft).
The leaves are simple, entire to lobed, and from 1–30 cm long and 0.5–10 cm broad; most of the leaves are produced in a dense basal rosette, with the flowering stems bearing only small brown scale-leaves (bracts). It is in flower from Aug to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile. The flowers are produced on a branched panicle or corymb, the individual flowers small (4–10 mm long) with a five-lobed calyx and corolla, and five stamens; the flower colour is pink, violet to purple in most species, white or yellow in a few. Many of the species are apomictic. The fruit is a small capsule containing a single seed, partly enclosed by the persistent calyx.
Several species are popular garden flowers; they are generally known to gardeners as statices. They are grown both for their flowers, and for the appearance of the calyx, which remains on the plant after the true flowers have fallen, and are known as “everlasting flowers”.

Medicinal Uses:

Part Used:…is the root. This is large, heavy, blackish, inodorous, with a bitter, saltish and very astringent taste.

Constituents: Volatile oil, resin, gum, albumen, tannic acid, caoutchouc, extractive and colouring matter, woody fibre, and various salts.
It has long been in use as a domestic remedy for diarrhoea, dysentery, etc., but is only used as an astringent tonic after the acute stage has passed. It is also very useful as a gargle or wash in ulcerations of mouth and throat, scarlatina, anguinosa, etc. The powdered root is applied to old ulcers, or made with a soothing ointment for piles. As an injection the decoction is very useful in chronic gonorrhoea, gleet, leucorrhoea, prolapsus of womb and anus, and in some ophthalmic affections. It can otherwise be used where astringents are indicated and may be applicable to all cases where kino and catechu are given. It is said to be a valuable remedy for internal and local use in cynanche maligna. Decoction is 1 ounce of powdered root to 1 pint, in wineglassful doses.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


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Lavender cotton

Botanical Name : Santolina chamaecyparissus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:     Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe:     Anthemideae
Genus:     Santolina
Species: S. chamaecyparissus

Synonym:  Santolina.

Common Names:Cotton lavender, lavender cotton (also sometimes called French Lavender, like L. Stoechas)

Habitat :Lavender cotton is  native to the western and central Mediterranean.

It is a small evergreen shrub growing to 50 cm (20 in) tall and 2 to 3 ft. wide. Densely covered in narrow, aromatic, grey-green leaves, in summer it produces masses of yellow, button-like composite flowerheads, held on slender stems above the foliage. The disc florets are tubular, and there are no ray florets.The blooming time is July to August. Zone: 6 to 9


This plant was once also esteemed for its stimulant properties, and the twigs have been used for placing amongst linen, etc., to keep away moths. All the species of Santolina have a strong resemblance to one another, except S. fragrantissima, which differs in having the flowerheads in flat inflorescences termed corymbs, the flowers all being at the same level, instead of singly at the apex of the twigs.
This plant is valued in cultivation as groundcover, or as an edging plant for a hot, sunny, well-drained spot, though it may be short-lived. It dislikes winter wetness.

Numerous cultivars have been produced, of which ‘Nana’, a dwarf form growing to 25 cm (10 in), has gained the Royal Horticultural Society‘s Award of Garden Meri.

Medicinal Uses:
The Arabs are said to use the juice of this plant for bathing the eyes. Culpepper tells us that Lavender Cotton ‘resists poison, putrefaction and heals the biting of venomous beasts.’ It is now chiefly used as an edging to borders, spreading like a silvery carpet close to the ground.

Other Uses:
Cotton lavender has many potential uses. Most commonly, the flowers and leaves are made into a decoction used to expel intestinal parasites. An oil used in perfumery can also be extracted from the plant. Branches may be hung up in wardrobes to repel insects, and leaves are also suitable for use in pot pourri and in herbal tobacco substitutes. In cosmetics it is used as a tonic.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


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Delphinium Consolida

Botanical Name : Delphinium Consolida
Family: Ranunculaceae
Genus:     Delphinium
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:     Ranunculales

Synonyms: Lark’s Heel. Lark’s Toe. Lark’s Claw. Knight’s Spur.

Common Name: Larkspur (The common name “larkspur” is shared between perennial Delphinium species and annual species of the genus.)


Habitat: Delphinium Consolida is  native throughout the Northern Hemisphere and also on the high mountains of tropical Africa .


Delphinium Consolida is an annual flowering plant, with upright, round stems a foot high or more, pubescent and divided into alternate, dividing branches. The leaves are alternate, the lower ones with petioles 1/2 inch long, the upper ones sessile, or nearly so. The plant closely resembles some of the species commonly cultivated in gardens.

The leaves are deeply lobed with three to seven toothed, pointed lobes in a palmate shape. The main flowering stem is erect, and varies greatly in size between the species, from 10 centimetres in some alpine species, up to 2 m tall in the larger meadowland species.


The flowers are in short racemes, pink, purple or blue, followed by glabrous follicles containing black, flattened seeds with acute edges and pitted surfaces. The seeds are poisonous, have an acrid and bitter taste, but are inodorous.

The seeds are small and often shiny black. The plants flower from late spring to late summer, and are pollinated by butterflies and bumble bees. Despite the toxicity, Delphinium species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the dot moth and small angle shades.

Medicinal Uses:

Part Used: Seed.
As in Stavesacre, the part used medicinally is the seed, a tincture of which in like manner acts as a parasiticide and insecticide, being used to destroy lice and nits in the hair. (During the Great War, when the men in the trenches took the trouble to use it, the results were said to be quite successful. – EDITOR.)

The tincture, given in 10-drop doses, gradually increased, is also employed in spasmodic asthma and dropsy.

The expressed juice of the leaves is considered good as an application to bleeding piles, and a conserve made of the flowers was formerly held to be an excellent medicine for children when subject to violent purging.

The juice of the flowers and an infusion of the whole plant was also prescribed against colic.

The expressed juice of the petals with the addition of a little alum makes a good blue ink.

The name Delphinium, from Delphin (a dolphin), was given to this genus because the buds were held to resemble a dolphin. Shakespeare mentions the plant under the name of Lark’s Heel.

The name Consolida refers to the plant’s power of consolidating wounds.

Known Hazards:
All parts of these plants are considered toxic to humans, causing severe digestive discomfort if ingested, and skin irritation.

Larkspur, especially tall larkspur, is a significant cause of cattle poisoning on rangelands in the western United States. Larkspur is more common in high-elevation areas, and many ranchers delay moving cattle onto such ranges until late summer when the toxicity of the plants is reduced. Death is through cardiotoxic and neuromuscular blocking effects, and can occur within a few hours of ingestion.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


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Spiranthes spiralis

Botanical Name : Spiranthes spiralis
Family: Orchidaceae
Genus:     Spiranthes
Species: S. spiralis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:     Asparagales

Synonyms : Spiranthes autumnalis
Spiranthes is the Greek word for twisted, spiralis is Latin for twisted or spiral.Both refer to the inflorescence.

Common Names:Lady’s Tresses, Autumn lady’s-tresses

Habitat : Spiranthes spiralis grows on   dry, hilly fields all over Europe – towards the Caucasus.
Spiranthes spiralis is a palearctic orchid which in Europe blooms in August and September. It is characterised by a spiral inflorescence produced after the leaves have died down. The inflorescence can be very small (as little as 50 millimetres or 2.0 inches high) especially in short grazed grassland. In Western Europe it occurs most frequently in close cropped grassland overlying chalk or limestone.

Spiranthes spiralis is a short tuberous perennial which reaches heights between 5 and 30 centimeters. The stem is stickily-hairy.The plant has two tubers as storage organs, rarely, one or three. From Autumn two new tubers are formed and the old tubers lowly die off. The shiny oval-elliptical foliage leaves form a basal rosette close to the ground and to one side of the flower-spike. There are from three to seven and they have a length of 1.5 to 3.5 cm and a width of 1 to 1.5 cm. The leaves are often withered by flowering time. The stem leaves are scale-like and overlapping;the bracts are shorter than the flowers.
The flowers are white, 6-7mm long. There are up to 20 borne in a slender spiral 3 to 12 cm long.The outer 2 sepals are spreading, the upper sepal and the petals fuse to form a tube with the lip. The lip has up-curved edges and is yellowish-green. The edge of the lip is notched and appears viewed up close as frayed.

Medicinal Uses:
A tincture of the root is used in homeopathy for skin affections, painful breasts, pain in the kidneys and eye complaints. click & see 

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


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Leontodon hispidus

Botanical Name :Leontodon hispidus
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe:    Cichorieae
Genus:    Leontodon
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:    Asterales

Common Names :Hawkbits or Rough Hawkbits, Bristly Hawkbit

Habitat : Although originally only native to Eurasia and North Africa, some species have since become established in other countries, including the United States and New Zealand.It grows on meadows, roadside verges etc, usually on calcareous soils and avoiding shade

Leontodon hispidus is a perennial plant growing to a height of 4 to 16 in. Stem is leafless, unbranched with a single capitulum, usually densely covered with star-shaped hairs (sometimes almost or completely glabrous). The leaves are basal rosette. Blades are narrowly elliptic, pinnately lobed–large-toothed, lobes wide.

The  flowers are 0.8 to 1.6 in. wide, single flower-like capitula surrounded by involucral bracts. Capitulum’s ray-florets bright yellow (outermost red-streaked), tongue-like, 5-toothed at tip. Stamens 5. Gynoecium composed of 2 fused carpels. Involucral bracts overlapping, hairy, green. Capitula solitary, terminating scape. Scape thickening only slightly at most. Buds are nodding.Flowering time is June–July.The fruit is achene, crowned by a pappus of yellowish-white feathery hairs.


It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower from Jun to September, and the seeds ripen from Jul to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, beetles, lepidoptera, self.The plant is self-fertile.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.

An easily grown and tolerant plant, it prefers a sunny position in a well-drained soil and does well on clay. A good bee and butterfly plant[108, 200], it grows well in the spring meadow.

Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in situ, only just covering the seed. Very fast germination. The seed can also be sown in the spring. If you are short of seed it can be sown in a pot in the cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in early summer.

Edible Uses :  
Edible Parts: Leaves.
Edible Uses: Coffee.

Young leaves – raw or cooked. Neither the taste nor the texture are by any means wonderful, but the leaves are acceptable raw, particularly since they can be available in the late winter. The roasted root is a coffee substitute

Medicinal Uses:
The herb is diuretic. An infusion is used in the treatment of kidney complaints and as a remedy for dropsy and jaundice.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

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