Lactuca formosana


Botanical Name:
Lactuca formosana
Family :
Asteraceae
Tribe:
Cichorieae
Genus:
Lactuca/Ixeris
Class :
Magnoliopsida
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Asterales

Common Names: Lactuca morii Hayata; L. sonchus H. Léveillé & Vaniot; Pterocypsela formosana (Maximowicz) C. Shih; P. sonchus (H. Léveillé & Vaniot) C. Shih.

Habitat:
Lactuca formosana is native to E. Asia – China. It grows in grasslands on mountain slopes and in valleys, thickets or forests on mountain slopes, fields, along trails; 100-2000 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang.

Description:

Lactuca formosana is an annual or perennial herb 0.5-1.5 m tall. Roots ramose. Stem solitary, erect, loosely branched apically, ± hirsute, glabrescent. Lower and middle stem leaves with narrow petiole-like amplexicaul basal portion to 5 cm or with conspicuously expanded and semiamplexicaul base; leaf blade elliptic, lanceolate, or oblanceolate, 8-18 × 4-8 cm, hirsute, main rib echinulate, undivided and with coarsely dentate margin or pinnatifid with 2-5 pairs of elliptic to broadly falcate lateral lobes, faintly to strongly dentate on margin, and a lanceolate or triangular terminal lobe. Upper stem leaves similar to middle stem leaves, margin mostly ± entire. Synflorescence loosely corymbose, with ca. 10 to many capitula. Capitula with usually 25-30 florets. Involucre cylindric, 1-1.1 cm at anthesis, to 1.8 × 0.8 cm in fruit. Phyllaries acute to acuminate at apex; outer phyllaries broadly obovate to lanceolate, longest ca. 8 × 1-2 mm; inner phyllaries 8. Florets yellow. Achene 4.5-6.5 mm; body reddish brown, dark brown, or blackish brown, ellipsoid, compressed, broadly winged, 2-2.3 mm wide, with 1 prominent rib on either side, apically contracted into a usually pale to greenish filiform 2-3.5 mm beak. Pappus 7-8 mm, caducous. Fl. and fr. Apr-Nov.
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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it could succeed outdoors in many parts of this country. We are not sure if it is an annual or perennial but assume that it can be grown as a spring-sown annual. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Prefers a light sandy loam.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in situ and only just cover the seed. Germination is usually fairly quick.

Edible Uses: Leaves – cooked. A famine food, they are only used when all else fails.

Medicinal Uses:
Although we have seen no specific reports for this species, most if not all members of the genus have a milky sap that contains the substance ‘lactucarium‘ and can probably be used as the report below details. The whole plant is rich in a milky sap that flows freely from any wounds. This hardens and dries when in contact with the air. The sap contains ‘lactucarium’, which is used in medicine for its anodyne, antispasmodic, digestive, diuretic, hypnotic, narcotic and sedative properties. Lactucarium has the effects of a feeble opium, but without its tendency to cause digestive upsets, nor is it addictive. It is taken internally in the treatment of insomnia, anxiety, neuroses, hyperactivity in children, dry coughs, whooping cough, rheumatic pain etc. Concentrations of lactucarium are low in young plants and most concentrated when the plant comes into flower. It is collected commercially by cutting the heads of the plants and scraping the juice into china vessels several times a day until the plant is exhausted. An infusion of the fresh or dried flowering plant can also be used. The plant should be used with caution, and never without the supervision of a skilled practitioner. Even normal doses can cause drowsiness whilst excess causes restlessness and overdoses can cause death through cardiac paralysis. Some physicians believe that any effects of this medicine are caused by the mind of the patient rather than by the medicine. The sap has also been applied externally in the treatment of warts.

Known Hazards: Although no specific mention of toxicity has been seen for this species, many plants in this genus contain a narcotic principle, this is at its most concentrated when the plant begins to flower. This principle has been almost bred out of the cultivated forms of lettuce but is produced when the plant starts to go to seed.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=242328013

Lactuca debilis


http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Lactuca+formosana

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Lactuca debilis

 

Botanical Name: Lactuca debilis
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Cichorieae
Genus: Lactuca/Ixeris
Class :Magnoliopsida
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms:
*Chondrilla debilis (Thunb.) Poir.
*Prenanthes debilis Thunb. ex Murray
*Youngia debilis (Thunb.) DC.

Common Names: ShaTanKuMaiCai (Chinese)

Habitat:Lactuca debilis is native to E. Asia – Japan, Korea.(Distribution: Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Zhejiang, Fujian, Henan, Guangdong) It grows in the cultivated fields and waste ground in lowlands all over Japan.

Description:
Lactuca debilis is a perennial herb growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in). The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

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Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in this country, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in many parts of the country. We suggest growing it in a sunny position and a well-drained soil.

Propagation :
Seed – we have no information on this species but suggest sowing the seed in a cold frame in spring and only just covering the seed. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division can be tried in spring or autumn.

Edible Uses: Young plant – cooked

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.catalogueoflife.org/col/details/species/id/7cf42c4435ead3c7f10126700ea8fbbf/synonym/4c5e1ce197569dd01df2de2365c372cc
http://base.sp2000.cn/colchina_e15/show_species_details.php?name_code=d42d47c8-8b3d-4898-bc07-ca1d6ac74bf4
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Lactuca+debilis

Lactuca capensis

Botanical Name: Lactuca capensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Cichorieae
Genus: Lactuca

Habitat:Lactuca capensis is native to S. Africa. It grows on lower mountain slopes, Lion’s Head to Constantia.

Description:
Lactuca capensis is a perennial herb growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in). The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES : 
Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Prefers a light sandy loam.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame and only just cover the seed. Germination is usually quick, prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out in early summer. Division in spring.
Edible Uses: Young plant – cooked.

Medicinal Uses :
Although we have seen no specific reports for this species, most if not all members of the genus have a milky sap that contains the substance ‘lactucarium‘ and can probably be used as the report below details. The whole plant is rich in a milky sap that flows freely from any wounds. This hardens and dries when in contact with the air. The sap contains ‘lactucarium’, which is used in medicine for its anodyne, antispasmodic, digestive, diuretic, hypnotic, narcotic and sedative properties. Lactucarium has the effects of a feeble opium, but without its tendency to cause digestive upsets, nor is it addictive. It is taken internally in the treatment of insomnia, anxiety, neuroses, hyperactivity in children, dry coughs, whooping cough, rheumatic pain etc. Concentrations of lactucarium are low in young plants and most concentrated when the plant comes into flower. It is collected commercially by cutting the heads of the plants and scraping the juice into china vessels several times a day until the plant is exhausted. An infusion of the fresh or dried flowering plant can also be used. The plant should be used with caution, and never without the supervision of a skilled practitioner. Even normal doses can cause drowsiness whilst excess causes restlessness and overdoses can cause death through cardiac paralysis. Some physicians believe that any effects of this medicine are caused by the mind of the patient rather than by the medicine. The sap has also been applied externally in the treatment of warts.

Known Hazards:  Although no specific mention of toxicity has been seen for this species, many plants in this genus contain a narcotic principle, this is at its most concentrated when the plant begins to flower. This principle has been almost bred out of the cultivated forms of lettuce but is produced when the plant starts to go to seed

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactuca
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Lactuca+capensis

Lactuca canadensis

 

Botanical Name : Lactuca canadensis
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Cichorieae
Genus: Lactuca
Species: L. canadensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms:
*Cicerbita canadensis (L.) Wallr.
*Cicerbita elongata (Willd.) Wallr.
*Galathenium elongatum (Muhl. ex Willd.) Nutt.
*Galathenium salicifolium Nutt.
*Lactuca sagittifolia Elliott
*Lactuca steelei Britton
*Mulgedium canadense (L.) Farw.
*Mulgedium integrifolium Cass.
*Wiestia canadensis (L.) Sch.Bip.
*Wiestia elongata (Willd.) Sch.Bip.

Common Names: Canada lettuce, Canada wild lettuce, tall lettuce, and Florida blue lettuce.

Habitat: Lactuca canadensis is native to Eastern N. America – Nova Scotia to British Columbia, south to Georgia and Colorado. It grows in thickets, woodland borders and clearings. Moist open places. Usually found in sandy soils.

Description:
Lactuca canadensis is a bienneial growing to 3 m (9ft 10in). The leaves are deeply lobed and occasionally toothed. The top of the stem bears an inflorescence with many flower heads, each up to 1 cm (0.5 in) wide when open. It is in flower from Jul to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. The heads have many pale yellow ray florets but no disc florets. The fruit is a dark-colored achene about half a centimeter (0.2 inches) long with a white pappus.
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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Prefers a light sandy loam. Hybridizes in the wild with L. ludoviciana and the two species can sometimes be difficult to separate.

Propagation :
Seed – sow spring in situ and only just cover the seed. Germination is usually fairly quick.
Edible Uses: Young leaves and stems – raw or cooked. Cooked and eaten as greens.

Medicinal Uses :
The whole plant is rich in a milky sap that flows freely from any wounds. This hardens and dries when in contact with the air[4]. The sap contains ‘lactucarium’, which is used in medicine for its anodyne, antispasmodic, digestive, diuretic, hypnotic, narcotic and sedative properties. Lactucarium has the effects of a feeble opium, but without its tendency to cause digestive upsets, nor is it addictive. It is taken internally in the treatment of insomnia, anxiety, neuroses, hyperactivity in children, dry coughs, whooping cough, rheumatic pain etc. Concentrations of lactucarium are low in young plants and most concentrated when the plant comes into flower. It is collected commercially by cutting the heads of the plants and scraping the juice into china vessels several times a day until the plant is exhausted. An infusion of the fresh or dried flowering plant can also be used. The plant should be used with caution, and never without the supervision of a skilled practitioner. Even normal doses can cause drowsiness whilst excess causes restlessness and overdoses can cause death through cardiac paralysis. Some physicians believe that any effects of this medicine are caused by the mind of the patient rather than by the medicine. The sap has also been applied externally in the treatment of warts.

Known Hazards : Although no specific mention of toxicity has been seen for this species, many plants in this genus contain a narcotic principle, this is at its most concentrated when the plant begins to flower. This principle has been almost bred out of the cultivated forms of lettuce but is produced when the plant starts to go to seed.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactuca_canadensis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Lactuca+canadensis

Lactuca biennis

Botanical Name: Lactuca biennis
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Cichorieae
Genus: Lactuca
Species: L. biennis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonymy:
*Sonchus biennis Moench 1794
*Agathyrsus floridanus D.Don
*Agathyrsus leucophaeus Beck
*Cicerbita leucophaea Wallr.
*Cicerbita spicata (Lam.) Beauverd
*Galathenium multiflorum (DC.) Nutt.
*Lactuca leucophaea A.Gray
*Lactuca spicata (Lam.) Kuntze
*Lactuca spicata Hitchc.
*Lactuca terrae-novae Fernald
*Mulgedium leucophaeum DC.
*Mulgedium spicatum (Lam.) Small
*Sonchus leucophaeus Willd.
*Sonchus spicatus Lam.

Common Names: Tall blue lettuce and Blue wood lettuce.

Habitat:Lactuca biennis is native to Eastern N. America. It is widespread across much of the United States and Canada from Alaska and Yukon south as far as California, New Mexico, and Georgia. It grows on damp thickets.

Description:
Lactuca biennis is a biennial herb in the dandelion tribe within the daisy family growing from a taproot to heights anywhere from one half to four meters (20 inches to over 13 feet). There are deeply lobed, toothed leaves all along the stem. The top of the stem bears a multibranched inflorescence with many flower heads. Each head is just over a centimeter (0.4 inches) wide and has many whitish to light blue ray florets but no disc florets. The fruit is a mottled achene about half a centimeter (0.2 inches) long with a brownish pappus.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Medicinal Uses:
The root is analgesic, antiemetic and haemostatic. A decoction has been used in the treatment of body pain, but not pain in the limbs. The decoction has also been used in the treatment of haemorrhages, heart troubles, diarrhoea and vomiting.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactuca_biennis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Lactuca+biennis