Cynanchum glaucescens

Botanical Name : Cynanchum glaucescens
Family: Asclepiadaceae
Genus :  Cynanchum

Common Name ;

Habitat : Cynanchum glaucescens is native to  E. Asia – China. It grows in  Mountains, riversides; 100-800. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang

Description:
Cynanchum glaucescens is a perennial Climber growing to 0.6m.
It is hardy to zone 0. It is in flower from June to October, and the seeds ripen from July to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)
YOU MAY CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES OF …..Cynanchum glaucescens….
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it could succeed outdoors in many parts of this country. It probably does not have any special cultivation requirements and will probably succeed in most soils in a sunny position.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in the greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in spring.

Medicinal Uses:

Antitussive; Expectorant.

The fragrant root is used in Chinese medicine.  The roots and stems are used to treat coughs, pneumonia, uneasy breathing, and lung diseases.  They are also used in the treatment of asthma with profuse sputum, coughs etc.

The dried root and stem are antitussive and expectorant. They are used in the treatment of asthma with profuse sputum, coughs etc.

Known Hazards:There are some reports of toxins in this genus

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:

http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Cynanchum+glaucescens

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

http://www.showyourplant.com/Cynanchum_glaucescens/

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Medeola virginiana

Botanical Name : Medeola virginiana
Family: Liliaceae
Genus: Medeola
Species: M. virginiana
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Liliales

Common Names :Medeola virginiana or Indian Cucumber-root

Habitat : Medeola virginiana is native to  Eastern N. AmericaNova Scotia to Ontario, Minnesota, Florida and Tennessee. It grows in rich woods, margins of swamps and bogs .

Description:
Medeola virginiana is a perennial plant, growing to 0.25m.It occurs with either a single tier or two tiers of leaves. The upper tier consists of from three to five whorled leaves on the stem above a lower tier of five to nine (also whorled). Only the two-tiered plants produce flowers which are green-to-yellow and appear from May to June. When two-tiered, it grows up to 30 inches high. The waxy leaves are typically 2.5 inches long and about an inch wide, but can be as long as five inches. The leaves have an entire margin. It typically produces three dark blue to purple, inedible berries above the top tier of leaves in September.
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It is hardy to zone 3.  The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)
The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland). It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
Prefers light shade and plenty of leaf mould in a slightly acid soil. Prefers a rich sandy soil. The rootstock has a pleasant refreshing smell of cucumber.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame in a well-drained soil-less medium. Fully remove the fleshy seed covering because this contains germination inhibitors. The seed should germinate in the spring. Spring sown seed can be slow to germinate and may take 12 months or more. The seed should be sown thinly so that the seedlings can be grown on undisturbed in the pot for their first year. If necessary apply a liquid feed at intervals through the growing season to ensure that the plants grow on well. Prick the roots out into individual pots in the autumn and grow them on in a shady part of the greenhouse for at least the next growing season, planting them out into their permanent positions when they are dormant. Division in spring as the plant comes into growth

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Root.

Root – raw or cooked. Crisp and tender with the aroma and taste of cucumbers. A sweet flavour. The root is up to 8cm long.

Medicinal Uses:

Antispasmodic; Diuretic; Hydrogogue.
The root is diuretic and hydrogogue. It is used in the treatment of dropsy. An infusion of the crushed dried berries and leaves has been used to treat babies with convulsions.

Other Uses:
Scented Plants
Root: Fresh
The rootstock has a pleasant refreshing smell of cucumber.This plant produces a crisp, edible tuber that smells and tastes like garden cucumber. It is listed as an endangered plant in Florida and in Illinois.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medeola_virginiana

http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Medeola+virginiana

http://www.nps.gov/plants/pubs/chesapeake/plant/2000.htm

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Anthriscus sylvestris

Botanical Name : Anthriscus sylvestris
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Anthriscus
Species: A. sylvestris
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Apiales

Common Names : Cow Parsley, Wild Chervil, Wild Beaked Parsley, Keck, or Queen Anne’s lace

Habitat :Anthriscus sylvestris is native to Europe, western Asia and northwestern Africa; in the south of its range in the Mediterranean region, it is limited to higher altitudes. It is related to other diverse members of Apiaceae such as parsley, carrot, hemlock and hogweed.A very common plant of roadsides, hedges etc.

Description:
Anthriscus sylvestris is a herbaceous biennial or short-lived perennial plant.The hollow stem grows to a height of between 60–170 cm, branching to umbels of small white flowers. It is in flower from April to June,The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees. The plant is self-fertile. and the seeds ripen from June to July.The tripinnate leaves are 15–30 cm long and have a triangular form. The leaflets are ovate and subdivided.

It is hardy to zone 7 and is not frost tender. .
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires dry or moist soil.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in most soils. Shade tolerant. The root has been recommended for improvement by selection and breeding as an edible crop. This plant looks quite similar to some poisonous species, make sure that you identify it correctly.

Propagation:
Seed – sow as soon as ripe (June/July) in situ. The seed can also be sown April/May in situ. It usually germinates in 1 – 3 months at 20°c.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Leaves; Root.

The leaves are eaten raw, cooked as a potherb or used as a flavouring. They taste somewhat less than wonderful. Root – cooked.

Medicinal Uses:
Tonic.

The root is soaked for several days in rice washings and then cooked with other foods as a tonic for general weakness.

Other Uses:
Dye.

A beautiful green dye is obtained from the leaves and stem but it is not very permanent.

Cow Parsley is rumoured to be a natural mosquito repellent when applied directly to the skin. However cow parsley can be confused with giant cow parsley/giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum), the sap of which can cause severe burns after coming in contact with the skin.

Known Hazards:  This plant is suspected of being poisonous to mammals. It also looks very similar to some very poisonous species so great care must be taken when identifying it

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:

http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Anthriscus+sylvestris

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthriscus_sylvestris

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Eriophorum angustifolium

Botanical Name : Eriophorum angustifolium
Family: Cyperaceae
Genus: Eriophorum
Species: E. angustifolium
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales

Synonyms : Eriophorum polystachyon – L.

Common Name:Cotton Grass

Habitat :Eriophorum angustifolium is native to  Arctic and temperate regions of Europe, including Britain, to Siberia and N. America.It is common in the Manchester area of the United Kingdom, officially the County flower of the Greater Manchester region. Grows in peat bogs, acid meadows and marshes

Description:
Eriophorum angustifolium is a perennial plant growing to 0.6m by 1m. It looks like a form of grass, technically it is not.

You may click to see the pictures>—–(1)—-(2)
It is hardy to zone 4 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to June,and the seeds ripen from July to August.The flowering stem is 20–70 cm tall, and has three to five cotton-like inflorescences hanging from the top. It is also sometimes referred to as multi-headed bog cotton.   The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. The plant prefers acid soils and can grow in very acid soil. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires wet soil and can grow in water.

Cultivation:
Requires boggy conditions or a pond margin and an acid soil. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Quite invasive.

Propagation:
Seed – sow in situ in spring in a moist soil in light shade. Germination usually takes place within 2 – 6 weeks at 15°c. If the seed is in short supply it can be sown in pots in a cold frame. Place the pots in a try of water to keep the compost moist. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. Division in spring or autumn. Very easy, the divisions can be replanted direct into their permanent positions.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Root; Stem.

Young stem bases – raw or cooked. Usually cooked and eaten with oil. Root – raw or cooked. The blackish covering should be removed.

Medicinal Uses:

Astringent.

The leaves and roots are considerably astringent and have been used in the past as a treatment for diarrhoea. Some native North American Indian tribes would eat the stems raw in order to restore good health to people in generally poor health.

Other Uses
Paper; Stuffing; Tinder; Weaving; Wick.

The cottony seed hairs are used to make candle wicks. They are also used for stuffing pillows[4, 74, 141], paper making etc and as a tinder. Experiments have been made in using the hairs as a cotton substitute, but they are more brittle than cotton and do not bear twisting so well. The dried leaves and stems have been woven into soft mats or covers.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eriophorum_angustifolium

http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Eriophorum+angustifolium

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Erythrina herbacea (Coral Bean)

Botanical Name :Erythrina herbacea
Family: Fabaceae
Genus: Erythrina
Species: E. herbacea
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales

Synonyms: Erythrina arborea – Small.

Common Names :Coralbead, Coral Bean, Cherokee Bean, Red Cardinal or Cardinal Spear

Habitat :Erythrina herbacea is native to south-eastern N. AmericaNorth Carolina to Texas. It grows on  andy soils in hummocks, the coastal plain and pinelands.

Description:
Erythrina herbacea is a Perennial low shrub or small tree, reaching around 5 m (16 ft) in height in areas that do not kill it back by freezing; elsewhere it may only reach 1.2 m (3.9 ft). Stems are covered in curved spines. The leaves are yellowish-green, 15–20 cm (5.9–7.9 in) long and 6 cm (2.4 in) wide. The leaves are divided into three 2.5–8 cm (0.98–3.1 in) arrowhead-shaped leaflets. The bark is smooth and light gray. The tubular flowers are bright red and grow in long spikes, each flower being 4–6.5 cm (1.6–2.6 in) long; the tree blooms from April to July.It is hardy to zone 8 and is frost tender. It is in flower from July to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects. They are followed by 5–10 cm (2.0–3.9 in) pods containing bright red seeds, from which the tree gets its name. Toxic alkaloids, including erysopine, erysothiopine, erysothiovine, erysovine, erythrinine, erythroresin, coralin, erythric acid, and hypaphorine, are found throughout the plant. These cause paralysis upon ingestion, much like curare.

click to see the pictures
Coral Bean grows best in sandy soils and has moderate salt tolerance. It can be found in open woods, forest clearings, hammocks, and disturbed areas.

Cultivation:
Requires a moderately fertile well-drained soil in a very sunny position[200]. Best if given the protection of an east, south or south-west facing wall. Becoming a tree in the south of its range, this species is shrubby or even herbaceous towards the limits of its northerly range. It is not very hardy outdoors in Britain though the rootstock can tolerate temperatures down to about -10°c provided the stem bases are thickly mulched with organic matter such as leaf litter or sawdust and covered with bracken. Alternatively, the roots can be lifted in the autumn and stored in a cool frost-free place, replanting in the spring. Plants take 3 – 4 years to flower from seed. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby.

Propagation:
Seed – pre-soak for 12 hours in warm water and sow spring in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Overwinter in a greenhouse and plant out in late spring or early summer. Heeled cuttings of young growth in the spring in a frame. Overwinter in a greenhouse and plant out in late spring or early summer.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves.

Flowers – cooked. An acceptable vegetable when boiled. Some caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity. Young leaves – occasionally cooked and eaten[.

Medicinal Uses:

Antiemetic; Diuretic; Narcotic; Purgative; Tonic.

The plant is narcotic and purgative. A cold infusion of the root has been used to treat bowel pain in women. A decoction of the roots or berries has been used to treat nausea, constipation and blocked urination. A decoction of the ‘beans’ or inner bark has been used as a body rub and steam for numb, painful limbs and joints. A decoction of the leaves has been used as a general tonic.

Native American people had many medicinal uses for this plant, varying between nations and localities. Creek women used an infusion of the root for bowel pain; the Choctaw used a decoction of the leaves as a general tonic; the Seminole used an extract of the roots for digestive problems, and extracts of the seeds, or of the inner bark, as an external rub for rheumatic disorders.

Other Uses:
E. herbacea can be readily grown in gardens within its natural range. Although its use in gardens is not particularly common, it is popular among those who do grow it as a source of early season color, for its hardiness (USDA Zones 7-10), and because it attracts hummingbirds.

In Mexico, the seeds are used as a rat poison, while a fish poison is made from the bark and leaves

Known Hazards : The plant contains alkaloids that have powerful narcotic and purgative effects.  The seeds contain numerous toxic alkaloids, including erysodine and erysopine. They have an action similar to curare and have been used as a rat poison

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Erythrina+herbacea:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erythrina_herbacea

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

http://www.wildflower.org/gallery/result.php?id_image=15191

http://crackerboy.us/pics/flora/

http://www.quintamazatlan.com/birds/hummingbirds/hummingbirdplants.aspx

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Mitella diphylla

Botanical Name : Mitella diphylla
Family: Saxifragaceae
Genus: Mitella
Species: M. diphylla
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Saxifragales

Common Names :Coolwort,Two-leaf Miterwort,  Mitrewort

Habitat : Mitella diphylla is native to Eastern N. AmericaQuebec to Minnesota, North Carolina and Missouri.It grows in rich woodlands, meadows and swamps.

Description:
Mitella diphylla is an evergreen Perennial  and a spring blooming plant with lacy, white flowers produced on stems growing from 20 to 50 centimeters tall.
It is hardy to zone 3. It is in leaf all year, in flower from May to June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)The seeds are produced in small green cups and when ripe are black and released by mid summer.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in moist woodlands and in pockets in rock gardens. Requires a moist humus-rich soil. Self-sows when grown in a rich soil and usually spreads quickly by this means.

Propagation:
Seed – we have no information for this species but suggest sowing it as soon as it is ripe or in early spring in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.

Medicinal Uses:
Febrifuge; Ophthalmic.

An infusion of the leaves is used to treat fevers. The infusion can also be used as eye drops for sore eyes.

Other Uses:
A good ground cover in moist woodland. Plants form a carpet and should be spaced about 45cm apart each way.This species is grown as an ornamental plant in shade gardens.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Mitella+diphylla

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitella_diphylla

http://www.plantdelights.com/Mitella-diphylla-Perennial-Two-leaf-Miterwort/productinfo/8798/

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Rudbeckia hirta

Botanical Name : Rudbeckia hirta
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Rudbeckia
Species: R. hirta
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Names :Brown-eyed Susan, Brown Betty, Brown Daisy (Rudbeckia triloba), Gloriosa Daisy, Golden Jerusalem, Poorland Daisy, Yellow Daisy, and Yellow Ox-eye Daisy, Coneflower

Habitat :Rudbeckia hirta is native to most of North America.An occasional garden escape in Britain. Grows in the disturbed soils in Texas

There are three regional varieties of Rudbeckia hirta, the wild black-eyed Susan, with one occurring naturally throughout much of North America from British Columbia to Newfoundland and south to Texas and Florida. The species is absent only from the Southwest. Black-eyes Susans grow in prairies, dry fields, open woods, along road shoulders and in disturbed areas.

Description:
Rudbeckia hirta is a biennial/Perennial plant, that  can reach a height of 1 m. It has alternate, mostly basal leaves 10-18 cm long, covered by coarse hair. It flowers from June to August, with inflorescences measuring 5-8 cm in diameter (up to 15 cm in some cultivars), with yellow ray florets circling a brown, domed center of disc florets.

click to see the pictures.>....(01)......(1).……..(2).……(3)……….

It is hardy to zone 4. It is in flower from July to October, and the seeds ripen from August to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, hoverflies.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

Cultivation :
Succeeds in an ordinary medium soil in sun or shade. Requires a moist soil. Prefers a well-drained soil[188]. Dormant plants are hardy to about -25°c. This species is a biennial or short-lived perennial. Some named forms have been selected for their ornamental value. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation:
Seed – sow April in a greenhouse. Only just cover the seed. Germination should take place within 2 weeks, prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer. The seed can also be sown in situ

Medicinal Uses:

Traditional medicine:
The roots but not seedheads of Rudbeckia hirta can be used much like the related Echinacea purpurea. It is an astringent used as in a warm infusion as a wash for sores and swellings. The Ojibwa used it as a poultice for snake bites and to make an infusion for treating colds and worms in children. The plant is diuretic and was used by the Menominee and Potawatomi.  Juice from the roots had been used as drops for earaches.

The plant contains anthocyanins.

Other Uses
*A yellow dye is obtained from the flowers.

*The Black-eyed Susan was designated the state flower of Maryland in 1918.

*Butterflies are attracted to Rudbeckia hirta when planted in large color-masses.

*Numerous cultivars have been selected for garden planting; some popular ones include ‘Double Gold’, ‘Indian Summer’, and ‘Marmalade’.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudbeckia_hirta

http://www.floridata.com/ref/r/rudb_hir.cfm

http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Rudbeckia+hirta

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

Catalpa bignonioides

Botanical Name : Catalpa bignonioides
Family: Bignoniaceae
Genus: Catalpa
Species: C. bignonioides
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Synonyms:  Bignonia catalpa – L., Catalpa syringaefolia – Sims.

Common Names:Southern Catalpa,Common Catalpa, Cigartree, and Indian Bean Tree

Habitat : Catalpa bignonioides is native to the southeastern United States in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Despite its southern origins, it has been able to grow almost anywhere in the United States and southernmost Canada, and has become widely naturalized outside its restricted native range.
It grows in rich moist soils by the sides of streams and rivers.

Description:
It is a medium-sized deciduous tree growing to 15-18 meters tall, with a trunk up to 1 m diameter with brown to gray bark, maturing into hard plates or ridges. The short thick trunk supports long and straggling branches which form a broad and irregular head. The roots are fibrous and branches are brittle. Its juices are watery and bitter.
click to see the pictures……>…....(1).…….(2).…...(3)…...(4)...
The leaves are large and heart shaped, being 20-30 cm long and 15-20 cm broad. The bright green leaves appear late and as they are full grown before the flower clusters open, add much to the beauty of the blossoming tree. They secrete nectar, a most unusual characteristic for leaves, by means of groups of tiny glands in the axils of the primary veins.

The flowers are 2.5-4 cm across, trumpet shaped, white with yellow spots inside; they grow in panicles of 20-40. In the northern states of the USA, it is a late bloomer, putting forth great panicles of white flowers in June or early in July when the flowers of other trees have mostly faded. These cover the tree so thickly as almost to conceal the full grown leaves. The general effect of the flower cluster is a pure white, but the individual corolla is spotted with purple and gold, and some of these spots are arranged in lines along a ridge, so as to lead directly to the honey sweets within. A single flower when fully expanded is two inches long and an inch and a half wide. It is two-lipped and the lips are lobed, two lobes above and three below, as is not uncommon with such corollas. The flower is perfect, possessing both stamens and pistils; nevertheless, the law of elimination is at work and of the five stamens that we should expect to find, three have aborted, ceased to bear anthers and have become filaments simply. Then, too, the flowers refuse to be self-fertilized. Each flower has its own stamens and its own stigma but the lobes of the stigma remain closed until after the anthers have opened and discharged their pollen; after they have withered and become effete then the stigma opens and invites the wandering bee. The entire Pink family behave in this way.

The fruit is a long, thin bean like pod 20-40 cm long and 8-10 mm diameter; it often stays attached to tree during winter. The pod contains numerous flat light brown seeds with two papery wings.

It is closely related to the Northern Catalpa (C. speciosa), and can be distinguished by the flowering panicles, which bear a larger number of smaller flowers, and the slightly slenderer seed pods.

*Bark: Light brown tinged with red. Branchlets forking regularly by pairs, at first green, shaded with purple and slightly hairy, later gray or yellowish brown, finally reddish brown. Contains tannin.

*Wood: Light brown, sapwood nearly white; light, soft, coarse-grained and durable in contact with the soil.

*Winter buds: No terminal bud, uppermost bud is axillary. Minute, globular, deep in the bark. Outer scales fall when spring growth begins, inner scales enlarge with the growing shoot, become green, hairy and sometimes two inches long.

*Leaves: Opposite, or in threes, simple, six to ten inches long, four to five broad. Broadly ovate, cordate at base, entire, sometimes wavy, acute or acuminate. Feather-veined, midrib and primary veins prominent. Clusters of dark glands, which secrete nectar are found in the axils of the primary veins. They come out of the bud involute, purplish, when full grown are bright green, smooth above, pale green, and downy beneath. When bruised they give a disagreeable odor. They turn dark and fall after the first severe frost. Petioles stout, terete, long.

*Flowers: June, July. Perfect, white, borne in many-flowered thyrsoid panicles, eight to ten inches long. Pedicels slender, downy.

*Calyx: Globular and pointed in the bud; finally splitting into two, broadly ovate, entire lobes, green or light purple.

*Corolla: Campanulate, tube swollen, slightly oblique, two-lipped, five-lobed, the two lobes above smaller than the three below, imbricate in bud; limb spreading, undulate, when fully expanded is an inch and a half wide and nearly two inches long, white, marked on the inner surface with two rows of yellow blotches and in the throat on the lower lobes with purple spots.

*Stamens: Two, rarely four, inserted near the base of the corolla, introrse, slightly exserted; anthers oblong, two-celled, opening longitudinally; filaments flattened, thread-like. Sterile filaments three, inserted near base of corolla, often rudimentary.

*Pistil: Ovary superior, two-celled; style long, thread-like, with a two-lipped stigma. Ovules numerous.

*Fruit: Long slender capsule, nearly cylindrical, two-celled, partition at right angles to the valves. Six to twenty inches long, brown; hangs on the tree all winter, splitting before it falls. Seeds an inch long, one-fourth of an inch wide, silvery gray, winged on each side and ends of wings fringed

Cultivation:
Prefers a good moist loamy soil and a sunny position that is not exposed. Tolerates heavy clay soils. Very resistant to atmospheric pollution[188]. Plants become chlorotic on shallow alkaline soils. Plants are hardy to about -15°c, probably more in continental climates, they grow best in areas with hot summers. Protect plants from late frosts when they are young. A very ornamental plant, it is fast-growing in the wild where it often flowers when only 6 – 8 years old. The sweetly-scented flowers are borne in forked panicles at the end of branches. There are some named varieties selected for their ornamental value. The trees transplant easily. The crushed foliage has an unpleasant smell. Another report says that the leaves are attractively scented when bruised. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown outdoors, or in a cold frame, as soon as it is ripe. Stratify stored seed for 3 weeks at 1°c and sow in spring. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Softwood cuttings, 10cm long, in a frame. They should be taken in late spring to early summer before the leaves are fully developed. Root cuttings in winter

Medicinal Uses:
Antidote; Antiseptic; Cardiac; Laxative; Ophthalmic; Sedative; Vermifuge.

A tea made from the bark has been used as an antiseptic, antidote to snake bites, laxative, sedative and vermifuge. As well as having a sedative effect, the plant also has a mild narcotic action, though it never causes a dazed condition. It has therefore been used with advantage in preparations with other herbs for the treatment of whooping cough in children, it is also used to treat asthma and spasmodic coughs in children. The bark has been used as a substitute for quinine in treating malaria. The leaves are used as a poultice on wounds and abrasions. A tea made from the seeds is used in the treatment of asthma and bronchitis and is applied externally to wounds. The pods are sedative and are thought to have cardioactive properties. Distilled water made from the pods, mixed with eyebright (Euphrasia officinalis) and rue (Ruta graveolens) is a valuable eye lotion in the treatment of trachoma and conjunctivitis.

Other Uses:
Wood.
A fast-growing tree with an extensive root system, it has been planted on land that is subject to landslips or erosion in order to stabilize the soil. Wood – coarse and straight-grained, soft, not strong, moderately high in shock resistance, very durable in the soil. It weighs about 28lb per cubic foot. It is highly valued for posts and fencing rails, and is also used for interior finishes, cabinet work etc.

Scented Plants:
Flowers: Fresh
The flowers have a sweet perfume.
Leaves: Crushed
The crushed foliage has an unpleasant smell. Another report says that the bruised leaves have an attractive aroma.

Known Hazards: The roots are highly poisonous

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Catalpa+bignonioides

http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Catalpa+bignonioides

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

http://www.duke.edu/~cwcook/trees/cabi.html

http://woodyplants.nres.uiuc.edu/plant/catbi70

http://www.plantcare.com/encyclopedia/catalpa-2150.aspx

http://www.vilmorin-tree-seeds.com/seeds/broadleaved-trees/entry-12923-catalpa-bignonioides.html

http://www.rarewoodsandveneers.com/images/productimages/rarewood/Catalpa%20bignonioides,%20Southern%20Catalpa.jpg

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Petasites palmatus

Botanical Name :Petasites palmatus
Family : Asteraceae – Aster family
Genus : Petasites Mill. – butterbur
Species : Petasites frigidus (L.) Fr. – arctic sweet coltsfoot
Variety : Petasites frigidus (L.) Fr. var. palmatus (Aiton) Cronquist – arctic sweet coltsfoot
Kingdom : Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom : Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision : Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division:  Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class : Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass:  Asteridae
Order : Asterales

Common Names :Sweet Butterbur ,Western Coltsfoot,Sweet Coltsfoot

Habitat :Petasites palmatus is native to  N. America – Newfoundland to Massachusetts, west to Alaska and south to California. It grows in Low woods, glades and damp clearings. Swamps and along the sides of streams.

Description:
Petasites palmatus is a deciduous  perennial plant growing to 1′h x 3′w   at a fast rate. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is not self-fertile.


Leaves – round to heart- or kidney-shaped at stem base. 5 – 20 cm wide, deeply divided (more than halfway to centre), into 5 to 7 toothed lobes, green, essentially hairless above, thinly white-woolly below; stem leaves reduced to alternate bracts.

Flowers – in clusters of several to many white, 8 – 12 mm wide heads on glandular, often white-woolly stalks, mostly female or mostly male; ray flowers creamy white; disc flowers whitish to pinkish; involucres 7 – 16 mm high, bracts lance-shaped, hairy at base.; appearing early-summer.

Fruit – hairless, linear achenes, about 2 mm long, 5 to 10 ribs; pappus soft, white; appearingmid-summer.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.It requires moist or wet soil.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in ordinary garden soil, but prefers a deep fertile humus-rich soil that is permanently moist but not stagnant, succeeding in shade, semi-shade or full sun. Requires a moist shady position. Plants can be grown in quite coarse grass, which can be cut annually in the autumn. Plants are hardy to about -20°c. A very invasive plant, too rampant for anything other than the wild garden. Dioecious, male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Propagation:   
Seed – we have no information on this species but suggest sowing the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe or in early spring. Only just cover the seed and do not allow the compost to dry out. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. Division succeeds at almost any time of the year. Very easy, larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is better to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame until they are well established before planting them out in late spring or early summer.

Edible Uses   :
Edible Parts: Flowers;  Stem.
Edible Uses: Salt.

Young flower stalks, used before the flower buds appear, are boiled until tender and seasoned with salt[172, 177, 183]. Flower buds – cooked[183]. Leafstalks – peeled and eaten raw[105, 177, 183, 257]. The ash of the plant is used as a salt substitute[46, 61, 95, 102, 183]. To prepare the salt, the stems and leaves are rolled up into balls whilst still green, and after being carefully dried they are placed on top of a very small fire on a rock and burned[213].

Medicinal Uses:

Pectoral;  Salve;  TB.

The roots have been used in treating the first stages of grippe and consumption. The dried and grated roots have been applied as a dressing on boils, swellings and running sores. An infusion of the crushed roots has been used as a wash for sore eyes. A syrup for treating coughs and lung complaints has been made from the roots of this species combined with mullein(Verbascum sp.) and plum root (Prunus sp.).

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Petasites+palmatus

http://www.borealforest.org/herbs/herb27.htm

http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=pefrp

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Mirabilis multiflora

Botanical Name : Mirabilis multiflora
Family: Nyctaginaceae
Genus: Mirabilis
Species: M. multiflora
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Caryophyllales

Common name : Colorado four o’clock

Habitat ;Mirabilis multiflora is native to the southwestern United States from California to Colorado and Texas, as well as far northern Mexico, where it grows in mostly dry habitat types in a number of regions. Habitat ;Mirabilis multiflora is native to the southwestern United States from California to Colorado and Texas, as well as far northern Mexico, where it grows in mostly dry habitat types in a number of regions. Semi-desert, foothills. Roadsides, open canyons. Late spring, summer, fall.

Description:
Mirabilis multiflora is a perennial herb growing upright to about 80 centimeters in maximum height. The leaves are oppositely arranged on the spreading stem branches. Each fleshy leaf has an oval or rounded blade up to 12 centimeters long and is hairless or sparsely hairy. The flowers occur in leaf axils on the upper branches. Usually six flowers bloom in a bell-shaped involucre of five partly fused bracts. Each five-lobed, funnel-shaped flower is 4 to 6 centimeters wide and magenta in color.


It is hardy to zone 8 and is frost tender. It is in flower from July to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation :
Requires a fertile well-drained soil in full sun or part-day shade. Plants flower in their first year from seed and, although they are not very hardy in Britain, tolerating temperatures down to about -10°c when in a suitable situation, they can either be grown as half-hardy annuals or the tubers can be harvested in the autumn and stored overwinter in a cool frost-free place in much the same manner as dahlias. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in early summer, after the last expected frosts. The seed remains viable for several years. Division in spring as the plant comes into growth.

Edible Uses:
The dried root can be ground into a powder, mixed with cereal flours and used to make a bread[257]. This bread is eaten to reduce the appetite[257].

Medicinal Uses:

Hallucinogenic; Poultice; Stomachic.

The root is used in the treatment of stomach complaints. A pinch of the powdered root is said to relieve hunger, it can also be used after overeating to relieve the discomfort. A poultice of the powdered root can be applied to swellings. Large quantities of the root are said to cause intoxication. The root was chewed by native North American Medicine men to induce visions whilst making a diagnosis.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Mirabilis+multiflora

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mirabilis_multiflora

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

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