Plantago media

Botanical Name : Plantago media
Family:Plantaginaceae
Genus:Plantago
Species: P. media
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:Lamiales

Common Name :Hoary plantain

Habitat :Plantago media is native to central and western Europe, including Great Britain and introduced to parts of the north-east United States. Its generic name is derived from the Latin for sole; like other members of Plantago, it should not be confused with the plantain, a starchy banana.It grows fields, meadows and lawns. A common weed of lawns and cultivated land, especially on dry or calcareous soils.It generally grows in damp grassy meadows up to an altitude of 2000 m.

Description:
Plantago media is a perennial herb growing to 0.1m by 0.1m.
It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to August, and the seeds ripen from July to September.  A slender stalk of between 5 to 50 cm develops from a basal rosette of finely-haired leaves. Delicate pink-white flowers are borne between May and September. P. media is hemaphrodite and is pollinated by wind or insects, particularly bees. The plant is self-fertile. It is noted for attracting wildlife.

You may click to see the picture

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

Cultivation :
Succeeds in any moderately fertile soil in a sunny position. Grows well in the spring meadow. An important food plant for the caterpillars of many species of butterflies. The flowers are sweetly scented.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in early summer. A sowing can be made outdoors in situ in mid to late spring if you have enough seeds.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: :Flowers; Leaves.

Young leaves – raw or cooked. The very young leaves have a fairly mild flavour but with a slight bitterness. Used in salads before they become tough. The inflorescence is sweet and is sucked by children.

Medicinal Uses:
Astringent; Demulcent; Deobstruent; Depurative; Diuretic; Expectorant; Haemostatic; Laxative; Odontalgic; Ophthalmic; Refrigerant.

The leaves, flowering stems and roots are somewhat astringent, deobstruent, depurative, diuretic, expectorant, haemostatic, refrigerant and vulnerary. They are applied externally to skin inflammations, malignant ulcers, cuts etc. A mouthwash made from the leaves helps to relieve toothache and a distilled water is a good eyewash. The seeds are demulcent and laxative. Plantain seeds contain up to 30% mucilage which swells up in the gut, acting as a bulk laxative and soothing irritated membranes. Sometimes the seed husks are used without the seeds.

Other Uses
Fungicide.

The leaves are a cure for blight on fruit trees.

Scented Plants
Flowers: Fresh
The flowers are sweetly scented.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plantago_media
http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Plantago+media
http://www.fungoceva.it/erbe_ceb/plantago_media.htm

Plantago maritima

Botanical Name : Plantago maritima
Family:Plantaginaceae
Genus: Plantago
Species: P. maritima
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Common Names :Sea Plantain, Seaside Plantain, Goose Tongue

Habitat :Plantago maritima is  native to most of Europe, northwest Africa, northern and central Asia, northern North America, and southern South America. Like samphires, the plant is commonly harvested in the Maritimes and eaten.It grows in short turf in salt marshes near the sea and by streams in mountains, usually in saline or wet soils

Description:
Plantago maritima is a herbaceous perennial plant with a dense rosette of stemless leaves. Each leaf is linear, 2-22 cm long and under 1 cm broad, thick and fleshy-textured, with an acute apex and a smooth or distantly toothed margin; there are three to five veins. The flowers are small, greenish-brown with brown stamens, produced in a dense spike 0.5-10 cm long on top of a stem 3-20 cm tall.

You may click to see the picture
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It is in flower from June to August, and the seeds ripen from August to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant is self-fertile. It is noted for attracting wildlife.It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soil. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

There are four subspecies:
*Plantago maritima subsp. maritima. Europe, Asia, northwest Africa.

*Plantago maritima subsp. borealis (Lange) A. Blytt and O. Dahl. Arctic regions. All parts of the plant small, compared to temperate plants.

*Plantago maritima subsp. juncoides (Lam.) Hultén. South America, North America (this name to North American plants has been questioned).

*Plantago maritima subsp. serpentina (All.) Arcang. Central Europe, on serpentine soils in mountains.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in any moderately fertile soil in a sunny position. An important food plant for the caterpillars of many species of butterflies.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in early summer. A sowing can be made outdoors in situ in mid to late spring if you have enough seeds

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed.

Young leaves – raw or cooked. A delicious flavour. This is one of the nicer-tasting members of the genus, the leaves are fairly low in fibres and make an acceptable addition to a mixed salad. The leaves are canned for winter use in Alaska. Seed – raw or cooked. The seed can be ground into a powder and used as a flour extender. The seed is very small and tedious to harvest.

Medicinal Uses:
Laxative.

Plantain seeds contain up to 30% mucilage which swells up in the gut, acting as a bulk laxative and soothing irritated membranes . Sometimes the seed husks are used without the seeds.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plantago_maritima
http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Plantago+maritima
http://www.korseby.net/outer/flora/rosopsida/plantaginaceae/plantago_maritima_aehre.jpeg

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Plantago lanceolata

Botanical Name : Plantago lanceolata
Family:Plantaginaceae
Genus: Plantago
Species: P. lanceolata
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Common Names : Ribwort plantain, English plantain, Buckhorn plantain, Narrowleaf plantain, Ribleaf and lamb’s tongue.

Habitat : Plantago lanceolata is native to Europe, including Britain, from Iceland south and east to Spain, northern and central Asia.It grows in Grassland, roadsides etc, a common weed of lawns and cultivated ground, on neutral and basic soils.

Description:
Plantago lanceolata is a rosette-forming perennial herb,growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in), with leafless, silky, hairy flower stems (10–40 cm/3.9–16 in). The basal leaves are lanceolate spreading or erect, scarcely toothed with 3-5 strong parallel veins narrowed to short petiole. Grouping leaf stalk deeply furrowed, ending in an oblong inflorescence of many small flowers each with a pointed bract.It is in flower from Apr to August, and the seeds ripen from Jun to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind, flies, beetles.The plant is self-fertile. Each flower can produce up to two seeds. Flowers 4 mm (calyx green, corolla brownish), 4 bent back lobes with brown midribs, long white stamens. Found in British Isles, scarce on acidic soils (pH < 4.5). It is considered an invasive weed in North America. It is present and widespread in the Americas and Australia as an introduced species.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender.  It is noted for attracting wildlife. bUT  IT IS onsidered to be an indicator of agriculture in pollen diagrams, P. lanceolata has been found in western Norway from the Early Neolithic onwards. Something that is considered to be an indicator of grazing in that area.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

Cultivation:Succeeds in any moderately fertile soil in a sunny position. Plants also succeed in very poor land. An important food plant for the caterpillars of many species of butterflies.

Propagation:Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in early summer. A sowing can be made outdoors in situ in mid to late spring if you have enough seeds.

Edible Uses:

Young leaves – raw or cooked. They are rather bitter and very tedious to prepare, the fibrous strands are best removed prior to eating. The very young leaves are somewhat better and are less fibrous. Seed – cooked. Used like sago. The seed can be ground into a powder and added to flours when making bread, cakes or whatever.

Medicinal Uses:

Antibacterial;  Antidote;  AstringentDemulcent;  Expectorant;  Haemostatic;  Laxative;  Ophthalmic;  Poultice.

Ribwort plantain is a safe and effective treatment for bleeding, it quickly staunches blood flow and encourages the repair of damaged tissue. The leaves contain mucilage, tannin and silic acid. An extract of them has antibacterial properties. They have a bitter flavour and are astringent, demulcent, mildly expectorant, haemostatic and ophthalmic. Internally, they are used in the treatment of a wide range of complaints including diarrhoea, gastritis, peptic ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, haemorrhage, haemorrhoids, cystitis, bronchitis, catarrh, sinusitis, asthma and hay fever. They are used externally in treating skin inflammations, malignant ulcers, cuts, stings etc. The heated leaves are used as a wet dressing for wounds, swellings etc. The root is a remedy for the bite of rattlesnakes, it is used in equal portions with Marrubium vulgare. The seeds are used in the treatment of parasitic worms. Plantain seeds contain up to 30% mucilage which swells up in the gut, acting as a bulk laxative and soothing irritated membranes. Sometimes the seed husks are used without the seeds. A distilled water made from the plant makes an excellent eye lotion.

P. lanceolata is used frequently in tisanes and other herbal remedies. A tea from the leaves is used as a highly effective cough medicine

Other Uses : Dye;  Fibre;  Starch.

A good fibre is obtained from the leaves, it is said to be suitable for textiles. A mucilage from the seed coats is used as a fabric stiffener. It is obtained by macerating the seed in hot water. Gold and brown dyes are obtained from the whole plant.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plantago_lanceolata
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Plantago+lanceolata

 

Plantago coronopus

Botanical Name : Plantago coronopus
Family: Plantaginaceae
Genus: Plantago
Species: P. coronopus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Common Name : Minutina, Erba stella, Buck’s horn plantain

Habitat :Plantago coronopus is native to Eurasia and North Africa but it can be found elsewhere, including the United States, Australia, and New Zealand as an introduced species.It grows in sandy or gravelly soils and cracks in rocks, in sunny places in dry soils usually near the sea.

Description:
Plantago coronopus  is an annual or biennial herb producing a basal rosette of narrowly lance-shaped leaves up to 25 centimeters long. The leaves are edged with small lance-shaped lobes. The inflorescences grow erect to about half a meter in maximum height. They have dense spikes of flowers which sometimes curve.It is in flower from May to July, and the seeds ripen from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind.The plant is self-fertile. Each flower has four whitish lobes each measuring about a millimeter long.

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It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender.  It is noted for attracting wildlife.

This plant is suitable for   light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

Edible Uses:
Young leaves – raw or cooked. High yielding. One of the nicer tasting members of this genus, the leaves are fairly tender and have a slight bitterness. Some people blanch the leaves in boiling water for a few seconds before using them in salads in order to make them more tender. This leaf is one of the ingredients of ‘misticanze’, a salad mixture of wild and cultivated leaves that originated in the Marche region of Italy.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in any moderately fertile soil in a sunny position. A polymorphic species. This plant has sometimes been cultivated for its edible leaves. An important food plant for many caterpillars.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in early summer. A sowing can be made outdoors in situ in mid to late spring if you have enough seeds.

Medicinal Uses:
Antiperiodic;  Laxative;  Ophthalmic.

The leaves are antiperiodic and ophthalmic. They are used as a remedy for ague and sore eyes. Plantain seeds contain up to 30% mucilage which swells up in the gut, acting as a bulk laxative and soothing irritated membranes. Sometimes the seed husks are used without the seeds.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plantago_coronopus
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Plantago+coronopus

Plantago australis

Plantago-altissima_1

Plantago-altissima_1 (Photo credit: amadej2008)

Botanical Name : Plantago australis
Family: Plantaginaceae– Plantain family
Genus: Plantago L.– plantain
Species:Plantago australis Lam.– Mexican plantain
Subspecies: Plantago australis Lam. ssp. hirtella (Kunth) Rahn– Mexican plantain
Kingdom: Plantae– Plants
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta– Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta– Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta– Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida– Dicotyledons
Subclass: Asteridae
Order: Plantaginales

Synonyms:
*Plantago australis Lam. ssp. hirtella (Kunth) Rahn
*PLHI4 Plantago hirtella Kunth
*PLHIG2 Plantago hirtella Kunth ssp. galeottiana (Decne.) Thorne
*PLHIG Plantago hirtella Kunth var. galeottiana (Decne.) Pilg.
*PLHIM Plantago hirtella Kunth var. mollior Pilg.

Common Name: Mexican Plantain

Habitat : Plantago australis is Native to
NORTHAN AMERICA:
*South-Central U.S.A.: United States – New Mexico [s.]
*Southwestern U.S.A.: United States – Arizona [s.]
*Northern Mexico: Mexico – Baja Sur, Chihuahua, Durango, Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi, Sonora
*Southern Mexico: Mexico – Chiapas, Federal District, Hidalgo, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, Veracruz

SOUTHERN AMERICA :
*Mesoamerica: Costa Rica; El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Nicaragua; Panama
*Northern South America: Venezuela
*Brazil: Brazil
*Western South America: Bolivia; Colombia; Ecuador; Peru
*Southern South America: Argentina; Chile; Paraguay [s.]; Uruguay

It grows in Cultivated Beds.

Description:
Plantago australis is a Perennial plant growing to 0.2m by 0.2m.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
It is hardy to zone 0. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant is self-fertile.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species but it has been growing successfully with us since 1990 and seems to be fully hardy. It succeeds in any moderately fertile soil in a sunny position.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in early summer. A sowing can be made outdoors in situ in mid to late spring if you have enough seeds

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Leaves.

Young leaves – raw or cooked.

Medicinal Uses:
Laxative; Poultice.

Plantain seeds contain up to 30% mucilage which swells up in the gut, acting as a bulk laxative and soothing irritated membranes. Sometimes the seed husks are used without the seeds. A poultice of the leaves has been used in the treatment of cuts and boils.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Plantago_australis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Plantago+australis
http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Plantago+australis
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PLAUH
http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?316970

Goodyera pubescens

Botanical Name:Goodyera pubescens
Family:Orchidaceae
Subfamily:Orchidoideae
Genus:Goodyera
Species:G. pubescens
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:Asparagales

Common Name :Rattlesnake Plantain

Habitat :Goodyera pubescens is native to eastern N. America – Maine to Florida, west to Alberta and Quebec. It grows in almost any wooded habitat with acid soils, mainly on moist humus soils in shady, upland woods of hemlock, pine, oak, or maple, less frequent in lowland woods, bogs, swamps; 0 -1600 metres

Description:
Goodyera pubescens is an evergreen Perennial orchid growing to 0.4m. It is of terrestrial species with variegated leaves. The variegation is in the form of a densely-reticulated network of veins that are a much lighter green than the rest of the leaf tissue. It is a creeping plant that divides on the ground surface and sends out short stolons. It may be terrestrial or, occasionally, epipetric, growing on rock shelves. It prefers mildly to moderately acidic soils, such as in oak-heath forests

Plant pubescent above the leaves, 10-40 cm tall (including inflorescence), arising from a branching rhizome supported by a cluster of slightly fleshy, fibrous roots, often forming dense clusters of rosettes. Leaves 4-8, forming a basal rosette, petiolate, oblong-elliptical to elliptical-lanceolate, 3-9 cm long and 1-3.5 cm wide, dark green or blue-green with a prominent white stripe along the midrib and a prominent network of reticulate white markings. Inflorescence a downy, dense spicate raceme 10-40 cm tall, 20-50 flowered, typically cylindrical, each flower subtended by a small, lanceolate bract. Sepals ovate to ovate-lanceolate, concave, 4-5 mm long and 3-4 mm wide, white and smooth inside, the outer surfaces pubescent and often marked with green, lateral sepals typically smaller than dorsal sepal and slightly spreading; dorsal sepal connivent with petals to form a hood over the column. Petals oblong or spatulate, 3.5-6 mm long and about 3 mm wide, closely appressed to the dorsal sepal, white. Labellum deeply globular-saccate to scrotiform, the apex prolonged into an blunt point (looking somewhat like a spout), 3.5-4.5 mm long and 3-3.5 mm wide, white, pubescent outside.

It is hardy to zone 6. It is in leaf all year, in flower from July to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.
The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires dry or moist soil.

SIMILAR SPECIES: Goodyera pubescens can easily be confused with G. tesselata or perhaps G. repens var. ophioides. G. pubescens can be separated from G. tesselata by the labellum, which is concave in G. tesselata, but is deeply globular-saccate in G. pubescens. Also, the leaves of G. tesselata are smaller than those of G. pubescens, and typically lack the thick white central vein of G. pubescens. G. pubescens can be separated fromG. repens var. ophioides by the inflorescence, which is secund or loosely spiraled in G. repens var. ophioides, but is a cylindrical, densely-packed spike in G. pubescens.

Cultivation:
Requires a somewhat shady site and a well-drained compost of peat, leafmold and sand. Does well in the woodland garden. Orchids are, in general, shallow-rooting plants of well-drained low-fertility soils. Their symbiotic relationship with a fungus in the soil allows them to obtain sufficient nutrients and be able to compete successfully with other plants. They are very sensitive to the addition of fertilizers or fungicides since these can harm the symbiotic fungus and thus kill the orchid. This species is closely related to the British native species, G. repens. This plant is too rare in the wild to be harvested.

Propagation:
Seed – surface sow, preferably as soon as it is ripe, in the greenhouse and do not allow the compost to dry out. The seed of this species is extremely simple, it has a minute embryo surrounded by a single layer of protective cells. It contains very little food reserves and depends upon a symbiotic relationship with a species of soil-dwelling fungus. The fungal hyphae invade the seed and enter the cells of the embryo. The orchid soon begins to digest the fungal tissue and this acts as a food supply for the plant until it is able to obtain nutrients from decaying material in the soil. It is best to use some of the soil that is growing around established plants in order to introduce the fungus, or to sow the seed around a plant of the same species and allow the seedlings to grow on until they are large enough to move

Medicinal Uses:
Appetizer; Miscellany; Odontalgic; Ophthalmic; Poultice.

A tea made from the roots is used in the treatment of pleurisy and snakebites. A tea made from the leaves is taken to improve the appetite, as a treatment for colds, kidney ailments, rheumatism and toothaches. Externally, a poultice of the wilted leaves is used to cool burns, treat skin ulcers and relieve rheumatic joints. An ooze from the plant (this probably means the sap or the juice of the bulb) has been used as eye drops to treat sore eyes.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Goodyera+pubescens
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goodyera_pubescens
http://www.botany.wisc.edu/orchids/Gpubescens.html

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Goodyera oblongifolia

Botanical Name :Goodyera oblongifolia
Family:Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Orchidoideae
Tribe: Cranichideae
Subtribe: Goodyerinae
Genus: Goodyera
Species: G. oblongifolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:Asparagales

Synonyms: Goodyera decipiens – (Hook.)Hubbard.,Goodyera menziesii – Lindl.,Peramium decipiens – (Hook.) Piper.

Common Name :Western rattlesnake plantain or Giant rattlesnake plantain

Habitat :Goodyera oblongifolia is native to much of North America, particularly the western side of the continent from Alaska to Mexico, and to eastern Canada. It is most commonly found in deep leaf litter and shade of moist or dry coniferous or mixed woods, in East infrequent in cedar swamps, in s Rocky Mountains confined to high elevation spruce-fir forests; 0 – 3400 m

Description:
Goodyera oblongifolia is a perennial orchid plant growing to 0.3m.
It is hardy to zone 7. It is in flower in August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
This orchid forms a patch of broad lance-shaped to oval-shaped leaves at the ground, each 4 to 9 centimeters long. The leaf is dark green and in this species the midrib is streaked with white. The netlike veining on the leaf is also white, but not as thick as the midrib stripes. The plant produces an erect inflorescence up to about 30 centimeters tall. The top of the inflorescence has many white orchid flowers which may all face the same direction on the stalk, or be spirally arranged about it.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires dry or moist soil.

Cultivation:
Requires a somewhat shady site and a well-drained compost of peat, leafmold and sand. Does well in the woodland garden. This species is not very hardy in Britain, it is suitable for cultivation in a cool greenhouse or, perhaps, for a select position outdoors. It is closely related to the British native species G. repens. Orchids are, in general, shallow-rooting plants of well-drained low-fertility soils. Their symbiotic relationship with a fungus in the soil allows them to obtain sufficient nutrients and be able to compete successfully with other plants. They are very sensitive to the addition of fertilizers or fungicides since these can harm the symbiotic fungus and thus kill the orchid.

Propagation:
Seed – surface sow, preferably as soon as it is ripe, in the greenhouse and do not allow the compost to dry out. The seed of this species is extremely simple, it has a minute embryo surrounded by a single layer of protective cells. It contains very little food reserves and depends upon a symbiotic relationship with a species of soil-dwelling fungus. The fungal hyphae invade the seed and enter the cells of the embryo. The orchid soon begins to digest the fungal tissue and this acts as a food supply for the plant until it is able to obtain nutrients from decaying material in the soil. It is best to use some of the soil that is growing around established plants in order to introduce the fungus, or to sow the seed around a plant of the same species and allow the seedlings to grow on until they are large enough to move. Division is best carried out in the spring. Each division should have a leading point and two, or preferably three, joints of the rhizome. More propagating material can be obtained by cutting halfway through the rhizome during the previous growing season at the point where you wish to divide. This will stimulate the production of growth buds at the point of division

Edible Uses:
Edible Uses: Gum.

An exudation from the plant is used as a chewing gum.

Medicinal Uses:
Poultice; Tonic.

An infusion of the plants has been used as a tonic. A poultice of the softened leaves has been applied to cuts and sores[257]. An infusion of the leaves has been used in the bath water for treating stiff muscles.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Goodyera+oblongifolia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goodyera_oblongifolia
http://www.portlandnursery.com/plants/natives/goodyera.shtml

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Alisma plantago-aquatica

Botanical Name :Alisma plantago-aquatica
Family:Alismataceae
Genus: Alisma
Species:A. plantago-aquatica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:Alismatales

Synonyms: Alisma parviflorum – Pursh.,Alisma subcordatum – Raf.,Alisma triviale – Pursh.

Common Name :Mad-dog weed

Habitat :Alisma plantago-aquatica is native to northern temperate regions of Europe, including Britain, Asia and America. It grows in ditches, damp ground and shallow pond margins in water up to 15cm deep

Description;
Alisma plantago-aquatica is a perennial hairless plant growing to 0.9m by 0.45m. It grows in shallow water, consists of a fibrous root, several basal long stemmed leaves 15–30 cm long, and a triangular stem up to 1 m tall.

 

It has branched inflorescence bearing numerous small flowers, 1 cm across, with three round or slightly jagged, white or pale purple, petals. The flowers open in the afternoon. There are 3 blunt green sepals, and 6 stamens per flower. The carpels often exist as a flat single whorle. It flowers from June until August.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The word alisma is said to be a word of Celtic origin meaning “water”, a reference to the habitat in which it grows. Early botanists named it after the Plantago because of the similarity of their leaves

It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower from June to August, and the seeds ripen from July to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Flies.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires wet soil and can grow in water.

Similar species  :Narrow leaved water plantain Alisma lanceolatum differs only in that the leaf tips are acuminate and shape is narrow lanceolate.

Cultivation :
Succeeds in a sunny position in boggy ground or shallow water up to 25cm deep. Plants often self-sow aggressively when in a suitable position. The subspecies A. plantago-maritima orientale. Sam. is the form used medicinally in China. The subspecies A. plantago-maritima parviflorum (Syn A. parviflorum, A. subcordatum) is the form used medicinally in America. Plants are very attractive to slugs.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Place the pot in about 3cm of water to keep the soil wet. Pot up the seedlings when large enough to handle and keep in the cold frame for the first winter, planting out in late spring. Division in spring or autumn. Fairly easy, the divisions can be planted straight out into their permanent positions.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Leaves; Root.

Root – cooked. Rich in starch. Caution is advised, the root is acrid if it is not dried or well cooked before use[2, 183]. Leaves and petioles – must be thoroughly cooked. They require long boiling and have a salty flavour.

Chemical constituents:   Alismatis—rhizomes of Alisma orientale (syn. Alisma plantago-aquatica var. orientale) as a traditional Chinese medicine—include alisol A 24-acetate and alisol B 23-acetate. The content of these two compounds are significantly different in Rhizoma Alismatis of different areas.

Medicinal Uses:
Antibacterial; Anticholesterolemic; Astringent; Contraceptive; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Hypoglycaemic; Hypotensive; Rubefacient.

The leaves are antibacterial, anticholesterolemic, diaphoretic, diuretic, hypoglycaemic and hypotensive. They are used in the treatment of cystitis, dysentery, renal calculus, gravel etc. The fresh leaf is rubefacient. It is used in the treatment of leprosy and is also applied locally to bruises and swellings. Dried stem bases eaten, or grated and taken with water in treating digestive disorders such as heartburn, cramps and stomach flu. The powdered seed is an astringent, used in cases of bleeding. The seed is also said to promote sterility. The root contains an essential oil and has a wide range of medicinal uses. It is antibacterial, anticholesterolemic, diuretic and hypotensive. It is said to lower blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar levels whilst it also has an antibacterial action on Staphylococcus, Pneumococci and Mycobacterium. The root is used in the treatment of oliguria, oedema, nephritis, acute diarrhoea, cholesterolaemia and fatty liver. It has been thought of as a cure for rabies, though this has not been substantiated. The whole plant is believed to promote conception. The root is harvested before the plant comes into flower and is dried for later use. A homeopathic remedy is obtained from the fresh root.

According to Flora of the U.S.S.R. (1934, translated 1968), “A powder prepared from dried roots is used in popular medicine as a cure for rabies and crushed leaves are used against mammary congestion; fresh leaves are employed in homeopathy. Since this species is often confounded or identified with others of the genus, the reported data may also refer to [Alisma orientale or Alisma lanceolatum].” Indeed, Alisma plantago-aquatica is also known as mad-dog weed, as if it could be used to cure rabies. Do not confuse this with Scutellaria lateriflora (mad-dog skullcap), which is also sometimes called mad-dog weed.

Alisma orientale was initially—and is occasionally still—treated as a variety of this species (Alisma plantago-aquatica var. orientale). The rhizomes of A. orientale have been used as a traditional Chinese medicine, ze xie. Several scientific studies indicate that ze xie does have medicinal properties such as anti-allergic effects. However, like many other medicines, it could also have serious side effects or even toxic effects

Known Hazards:The fresh leaves and roots are toxic but the toxic principal is destroyed by heat or by drying .

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Alisma+plantago-aquatica
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alisma_plantago-aquatica

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Plantago major

English: Plantago major, Plantaginaceae, Great...

English: Plantago major, Plantaginaceae, Greater Plantain, Common Plantain, habitus. Deutsch: Plantago major, Plantaginaceae, Breitwegerich, Habitus. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Botanical Name :Plantago major
Family:Plantaginaceae
Genus:Plantago
Species:P. major
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:Lamiales

Common Name :Broadleaf plantain” or “Greater plantain“,Common Plaintain

Habitat :Plantago major is native to most of Europe, including Britain, to northern and central Asia  but has widely naturalised elsewhere in the world.  It grows as a  common garden weed, particularly in lawns. Rarely in grassy places

Description:
Plantago major is an herbaceous perennial plant with a rosette of leaves 15–30 cm in diameter.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

 

Each leaf is oval-shaped, 5–20 cm long and 4–9 cm broad, rarely up to 30 cm long and 17 cm broad, with an acute apex and a smooth margin; there are five to nine conspicuous veins.It is in flower from May to September, and the seeds ripen from July to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind. The flowers are small, greenish-brown with purple stamens, produced in a dense spike 5–15 cm long on top of a stem 13–15 cm tall (rarely to 70 cm tall).

Plaintain is wind-pollinated, and propagates primarily by seeds, which are held on the long, narrow spikes which rise well above the foliage.[8][9] Each plant can produce up to 20,000 seeds, which are very small and oval-shaped, with a bitter taste.

The plant is hardy to zone 5 is not frost tender. It is self-fertile. It is noted for attracting wildlife.

There are three subspecies
*Plantago major subsp. major.
*Plantago major subsp. intermedia (DC.) Arcang.
*Plantago major subsp. winteri (Wirtg.) W.Ludw.

Cultivation :
Succeeds in any moderately fertile soil in a sunny position[200]. Although this species is a common garden weed, some named forms have been selected for their ornamental value. An important food plant for the caterpillars of many species of butterflies.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in early summer. A sowing can be made outdoors in situ in mid to late spring if you have enough seeds.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves; Root; Seed.

Edible Uses: Tea.

Young leaves – raw or cooked. They are rather bitter and tedious to prepare because the fibrous strands need to be removed before use[9]. It is best not to use the leaf-stalk since this is even more fibrous than the leaf. Many people blanch the leaves in boiling water before using them in salads in order to make them more tender. A Chinese form has more palatable leaves – it contains about 2.7% protein, 0.4% fat, 2.2% ash. Seed – raw or cooked. Very tedious to harvest. The seed can be ground into a meal and mixed with flour. It is very rich in vitamin B1. The whole seeds can be boiled and used like sago. The dried leaves make an acceptable tea. Root. No further details.

Medicinal Uses
Antidote; Astringent; Demulcent; Deobstruent; Depurative; Diuretic; Expectorant; Haemostatic; Laxative; Ophthalmic; Poultice; Refrigerant; Vermifuge.

Plantago major quickly staunches blood flow and encourages the repair of damaged tissue.  It may be used instead of comfrey in treating bruises and broken bones.  An ointment or lotion may be used to treat hemorrhoids, fistulae and ulcers.  Taken internally, common plantain is diuretic, expectorant, and decongestant. It is commonly prescribed for gastritis, peptic ulcers, diarrhea, dysentery, irritable bowel syndrome, respiratory congestion, loss of voice and urinary tract bleeding.   The seeds are closely related to psyllium seeds and can be used similarly, a tablespoon or two soaked in hot sweetened water or fruit juice until a mucilage is formed and the whole gruel drunk as a lubricating laxative.  The fresh juice can be made into a douche for vaginitis by combining two tablespoons and a pint of warm water with a pinch of table salt.  Proteolytic enzymes found in the fresh leaf and the fresh or dried root make plantain useful as a gentle internal vasoconstrictor for milk intestinal inflammation.  The fresh juice or dried leaves in tea can help bladder inflammations.  The fresh juice can be preserved with 25% vodka or 10% grain alcohol.  Take one teaspoon in warm water one hour before every meal for mild stomach ulcers.  For bed-wetting plantain leaf can be given as a beverage-strength tea throughout the day (but not right before bedtime).

Plantain roots are an old-time cure for toothaches.  Fresh, the roots used to be chewed, dried and powdered and placed in a hollow tooth as a painkiller.  The Chippewa used plantain leaves to draw out splinters from inflamed skin, and as vulnerary poultices.  They favored the fresh leaves, spreading the surface of these with bear grease before applying them and renewing the poultices when the leaves became dry or too heated.  Sometimes they replaced the bear grease with finely chopped fresh roots, or else applied the chopped roots directly to the wound.  For winter use, they greased fresh leaves and tightly wrapped stacks of them I leather.  The Iroquois used the fresh leaves to treat wounds, as well as coughs, colds, and bronchitis.  The Shoshone applied poultices made from the entire plant to battle bruises, while the Meskawaki treated fevers with a tea made from the root.
Traditional Chinese medicine uses plantain to treat urinary problems, dysentery, hepatitis and lung problems, especially asthma and bronchitis.  The seeds are used for bowel ailments.  Plantain is also found in African and southeast Asian folk medicine.  Research in India has shown its beneficial effects in treating coughs and colds.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Plantago+major
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plantago_major
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_OPQ.htm

http://www.rolv.no/urtemedisin/medisinplanter/plan_maj.htm

Pulsatilla vulgaris

Botanical Name : Pulsatilla vulgaris
Family:Ranunculaceae
Genus:Pulsatilla
Species:P. vulgaris
Kingdom:Plantae
Division:Magnoliophyta
Class:Magnoliopsida
Order:Ranunculales

Common Name :Pasque flower, Pasqueflower, Common pasque flower, Dane’s blood

Habitat:Pulsatilla vulgaris native to Europe.It is found locally on calcareous grassland.It grows in sparsely wooded pine forests or meadows, often on a sunny sloping side with calcium-rich soil. A large colony occurs on publicly accessible land in the Cotswolds, at the Gloucestershire Wildlife Trust‘s Pasqueflower reserve.

Description:
Pulsatilla vulgaris is an herbaceous perennial plant. It develops upright rhizomes, which function as food-storage organs. Its leaves and stems are long, soft, silver-grey and hairy. It grows to 15–30 cm high and when it is fruit-bearing up to 40 cm. The roots go deep into the soil (to 1 m). The finely-dissected leaves are arranged in a rosette and appear with the bell-shaped flower in early spring. The purple flowers are followed by distinctive silky seed-heads which can persist on the plant for many months. The flower is ‘cloaked in myth'; one legend has it that Pasque flowers sprang up in places that had been soaked by the blood of Romans or Danes because they often appear on old barrows and boundary banks.
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This plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Society‘s Award of Garden Merit

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Different varities of Pulsatilla vulgaris are available, while the main variety of Pulsatilla vulgaris has purplish flowers; variants include red (Rubra) and white (Alba) forms (see images).

Medicinal Uses:
In Traditional Chinese Medicine, pulsatilla is used as an anti-inflammatory and is considered specific for amoebic and bacterial dysentery. Externally, it is used as a douche for trichomonas.
Western herbalists and homeopaths, on the other hand, use minute doses of pulsatilla as an important remedy for premenstrual syndrome. Curiously, mainly fair and blue-eyed women are responsive to this remedy. It is generally used as an emmenagogue and to increase blood and energy circulation for both men and women. It strengthens sexual sensitivity while lessening the tendency towards morbid preoccupation. It is a good remedy to consider for disorders of the reproductive organs and the prostate, associated with nervous and emotional problems. Characteristically, the symptoms treated are nervousness, restlessness and an active imagination or fear of impending danger or disease. For menstrual irregularity or delayed menstruation, it is used to treat simple suppression due to atropy or shock. It is also good for some cases of heart disease, again with strong mental symptoms.

Pulsatilla is used for various inflammatory conditions, but especially if accompanied by nervousness, despondency, sadness, unnatural fear, weepiness and depression. It is used also for headache, insomnia, neuralgia in the anemic, thick tongue coating with a greasy taste, stomach disorders from over-indulgence in fats and pastries, various alternating and shifting signs such as diarrhea/constipation, amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea, pain from exposure to wind, toothache and styes.
In France, it has traditionally been used for treating coughs and as a sedative for sleep difficulties. Pulsatilla is also used to treat eye problems such as cataracts.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

 

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulsatilla_vulgaris
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_OPQ.htm

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