Convolvulus Scammonia

Botanical Name: Convolvulus Scammonia
Family:
Convolvulaceae
Genus:
Convolvulus
Species:
C. scammonia
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Solanales

Common Names: Syrian Bindweed, Scammony

Habitat:Convolvulus Scammonia is native to the countries of the eastern part of the Mediterranean basin; it grows in bushy waste places, from Syria in the south to the Crimea in the north, its range extending westward to the Greek islands, but not to northern Africa or Italy.

Description:
Convolvulus Scammonia is a twining perennial plant,growing to 0.8 m (2ft 7in). It bears flowers like those of Convolvulus arvensis, and having irregularly arrow-shaped leaves and a thick fleshy root. It is in flower in July, and the seeds ripen in September. It has flowers of a very delicate tint of sulphur yellow and leaves of a similar shape to some native species.The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, self.The plant is self-fertile.

The roots are 3 to 4 feet long and from 9 to 12 inches in circumference; tapering, covered with a light grey bark and containing a milky juice. Scammony is a gummy resin, obtained from this milky juice of the root by clearing away the earth from the upper part of the root and cutting off the top obliquely, about 2 inches below where the stalks spring. Then a vessel is fixed in such a position as to receive the exuding juice, which gradually hardens and becomes the Scammony of commerce. The best Scammony is black, resinous and shining when in the lump, but of a whitish-ash colour when powdered, with a strong cheesy smell and a somewhat acrid taste, turning milky when touched by the tongue. It occurs in commerce in irregular pieces 1 to 2 inches or more in diameter.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES 

Cultivation:
Prefers a light basic sharply drained soil of low to medium fertility. Prefers a sunny sheltered position. Thrives in dry soils and succeeds in ordinary garden soils. The root can be up to 1.2 metres long, so for best results a deep soil is required.

Your ads will be inserted here by

Easy Plugin for AdSense.

Please go to the plugin admin page to
Paste your ad code OR
Suppress this ad slot.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse. Germination can be slow and erratic, a period of cold stratification might help reduce the germination period. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in spring. Cuttings of young shoots, August in a frame in sand
Medicinal Uses:
The dried juice, virgin scammony, obtained by incision of the living root, has been used in medicine as scammonium, but the variable quality of the drug has led to the employment of scammoniae resina, which is obtained from the dried root by digestion with alcohol.

It is a drastic cathartic, closely allied in its operation to Jalap; though not so nauseous, it is more active and irritating, and in inflammatory conditions of the alimentary canal should not be used.

The root itself is seldom used: the resin prepared from it is generally combined with other cathartics to diminish its action and prevent griping.

The active principle is the glucoside scammonin or jalapin, C34H114O6. The dose of scammonium is 5 to 10 grains, of scammony resin 3 to 8 grains. Like certain other resins, scammony is inert until it has passed from the stomach into the duodenum, where it meets the bile, a chemical reaction occurring between it and the taurocholate and glycocholate of sodium, whereby it is converted into a powerful purgative. Its action is essentially that of a hydragogue, and is exercised upon practically the entire length of the alimentary canal. The drug is not a cholagogue, nor does it markedly affect the muscular coat of the bowel, but it causes a great increase of secretion from the intestinal glands. It acts in about four hours. In large doses it is a violent gastrointestinal irritant. In consonance with the statement that scammony acts only after admixture with the bile, is the fact that hypodermic or intravenous injection of the drug produces no purgation, or indeed any other result. The drug frequently kills both roundworm and tapeworm, especially the former, and is therefore an anthelmintic. It is not largely used, but is very effective in the treatment of severe constipation, especially in children

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convolvulus_scammonia
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/b/binwsy42.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Convolvulus+scammonia

Cypripedium acaule

Botanical Name : Cypripedium acaule
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Cypripedioideae
Genus: Cypripedium
Species: C. acaule
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Common Names: Nerve Root, Moccasin flower, Ladyslipper Orchid, Pink Lady’s Slipper, Stemless lady’s-slipper

Habitat :Cypripedium acaule is native to Eastern N. America – Nova Scotia to Nebraska, south to Mississippi and Alabama. It is usually found in the higher and dryer parts of coniferous woods, often in a thin layer of pine needles over rocks, it is also sometimes found in bogs and wet places.

Description:
Cypripedium acaule is a perennial orchid plant. It grows to 0.4 m (1ft 4in) at a slow rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 5. It is in flower from May to June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Unlike most other members of “Cypripedium”, the pouch of C. acaule opens in a slit that runs down the front of the labellum rather than a round opening. The plant consists of two plicate leaves near the ground. From between those leaves sprouts a long, pubescent stalk that bears a single pink flower. The sepals and petals tend to be yellowish-brown to maroon with a large pouch that is usually some shade of pink but can be nearly magenta. The white pouched-green petaled forma alba can occasionally be found mixed in with normal populations.
Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Container, Woodland garden. Requires a position in semi-shade on a damp acid soil that is rich in humus. Plants grow well in a woodland garden or shady border. Orchids are, in general, shallow-rooting plants of well-drained low-fertility soils. Their symbiotic relationship with a fungus in the soil allows them to obtain sufficient nutrients and be able to compete successfully with other plants. They are very sensitive to the addition of fertilizers or fungicides since these can harm the symbiotic fungus and thus kill the orchid. Resents root disturbance. A very ornamental plant, it is quite difficult in cultivation and plants will often flower well in their first year then disappear. This is possibly because the plants are sold bare-rooted and do not have the necessary fungal symbiant they need in order to thrive. Only buy pot-grown plants in order to try and ensure that the symbiant is present. The plants are subject to damage by slugs. Special Features:North American native, Wetlands plant.

Propagation :
Seed – surface sow, preferably as soon as it is ripe, in the greenhouse and do not allow the compost to dry out. The seed of this species is extremely simple, it has a minute embryo surrounded by a single layer of protective cells. It contains very little food reserves and depends upon a symbiotic relationship with a species of soil-dwelling fungus. The fungal hyphae invade the seed and enter the cells of the embryo. The orchid soon begins to digest the fungal tissue and this acts as a food supply for the plant until it is able to obtain nutrients from decaying material in the soil. It is best to use some of the soil that is growing around established plants in order to introduce the fungus, or to sow the seed around a plant of the same species and allow the seedlings to grow on until they are large enough to move. Division with care in early spring, the plants resent disturbance. Remove part of the original rootball with the soil intact. Division is best carried out towards the end of the growing season, since food reserves are fairly evenly distributed through the rhizome. Small divisions of a lead and two buds, or divisions from the back (older) part of the rhizome without any developed buds, establish quickly using this method. Replant immediately in situ.

Medicinal Uses:
Antispasmodic; Kidney; Nervine; Sedative; Tonic.

The root is antispasmodic, nervine, sedative, tonic. It is said to be the equivalent of Valerian, Valeriana officinalis, in treating nervous complaints, sleeplessness etc. The roots have also been used in the treatment of menstrual disorders, stomach aches, kidney and urinary tract disorders and venereal disease. An infusion of the dried tuber is used, the tubers are harvested in the autumn. The active ingredients are not water-soluble.

Known Hazards : Contact with the fresh plant can cause dermatitis in sensitive people. Hairs on the leaves can cause a rash similar to poison ivy rash in some people.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cypripedium_acaule
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Cypripedium+acaule

Corallorhiza maculata

Botanical Name : Corallorhiza maculata
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Epidendroideae
Tribe: Maxillarieae
Subtribe: Corallorhizinae
Genus: Corallorhiza
Species: C. maculata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Common Name : Summer Coralroot, Spotted coralroot, Varieties are also known as western coralroot and summer coralroot

Habitat :Corallorhiza maculata is native to N. America – Nova Scotia to British Columbia, south to Florida, New Mexico and California ?ows on leaf mold in woods. Moist to dry coniferous and deciduous woods, and conifer plantations, often in florests with little other herbaceous cover at elevations of 0 – 3700 metres.

Description:
Corallorhiza maculata is a perennial orchid plant, growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It is in flower from Jun to August. The flowers are small and emerge regularly from all sides of the stem. The sepals are dark red or brown tinged with purple, long and pointed. The side petals are reddish, and the lip petal is bright clean white with deep red spots. It is usually lobed or toothed on the side and 7–10 mm. In some varieties, the lip is plain white without spots.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Corallorhiza maculata is a myco-heterotroph; it lacks chlorophyll and gets food by parasitizing the mycelium of fungi in the family Russulaceae. The rhizome and lower stem are often knotted into branched coral shapes. The stem is usually red or brown in color, but occasionally comes in a light yellow or cream color. There are no leaves and no photosynthetic green tissues. The stems bear dark red scales and intricate orchid flowers. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Flies.
Medicinal Uses:
An infusion of the plant has been used as a lotion in the treatment of ringworm and skin diseases. An infusion of the dried, whole plant bits has been used in the treatment of colds. A decoction of the stalks has been used to ‘build up the blood’ of people suffering from pneumonia.Several Native American groups historically used the orchid’s stems dried and brewed as a tea for such maladies as colds, pneumonia, and skin irritation. Corallorhiza macluata is also the topic of the poem On Going Unnoticed by Robert Frost.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corallorhiza_maculata
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Corallorhiza+maculata

Calypso bulbosa

Botanical Name : Calypso bulbosa
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Epidendroideae
Tribe: Calypsoeae
Genus: Calypso
Species: C. bulbosa
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms : C. borealis. Cytherea bulbosa.

Common Names: Calypso orchid, Fairy slipper orchid or Venus’s slipper orchid

Habitat : Calypso bulbosa is native to N. Europe, N. America – Alaska to California, east to New York. It grows in Soils rich with decaying leaves and wood, in moist pine or spruce woods and by cool shady streams from sea level to the mid-montane zone.

Description:
Calypso bulbosa is a parennial orchid plant. It grows to 10 to 14 cm in height.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 5. It is in leaf 7-Oct and it is in flower from May to June. It’s little purple blooms can be a pleasant sporadic sight on hiking trails from late March onwards, though in the more northerly parts of their range they do not bloom until May and June. The plants live no more than five years.The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by InsectsCLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

.
Cultivation:  Grows well in half shade in a light moist organic-rich soil. Requires a lime-free soil, doing best in full shade. The plant comes into growth in the autumn and, although fairly hardy, is best grown in a frame or unheated greenhouse. Orchids are, in general, shallow-rooting plants of well-drained low-fertility soils. Their symbiotic relationship with a fungus in the soil allows them to obtain sufficient nutrients and be able to compete successfully with other plants. They are very sensitive to the addition of fertilizers or fungicides since these can harm the symbiotic fungus and thus kill the orchid. Plants can be naturalized in the woodland or bog garden. Apply a good organic mulch in the winter. Plants do not always grow every year, the bulb can remain dormant in the soil for 2 years.

Propagation :
Seed – we have no information on this species but, like all members of the orchid family, the seed of this species is extremely simple, it has a minute embryo surrounded by a single layer of protective cells. It contains very little food reserves and depends upon a symbiotic relationship with a species of soil-dwelling fungus. The fungal hyphae invade the seed and enter the cells of the embryo. The orchid soon begins to digest the fungal tissue and this acts as a food supply for the plant until it is able to obtain nutrients from decaying material in the soil. Surface sow the seed, preferably as soon as it is ripe, in the greenhouse and do not allow the compost to dry out. It is best to use some of the soil that is growing around established plants in order to introduce the fungus, or to sow the seed around a plant of the same species and allow the seedlings to grow on until they are large enough to move. Division in autumn. Make sure that you keep plenty of soil with each plant. It is also said to be possible to transplant orchids after they have flowered but whilst they are still in leaf. Grow on for at least the first year before potting up and do not plant out until the plants are 2 – 4 years old. Division of the tubers as the flowers fade. This species produces a new tuber towards the end of its growing season. If this is removed from the plant as its flowers are fading, the shock to the plant can stimulate new tubers to be formed. The tuber should be treated as being dormant, whilst the remaining plant should be encouraged to continue in growth in order to give it time to produce new tubers. Division can also be carried out when the plant has a fully developed rosette of leaves but before it comes into flower. The entire new growth is removed from the old tuber from which it has arisen and is potted up, the cut being made towards the bottom of the stem but leaving one or two roots still attached to the old tuber. This can often be done without digging up the plant. The old tuber should develop one or two new growths, whilst the new rosette should continue in growth and flower normally.

Edible Uses: Bulb – raw or cooked. Rather small. The corms have a rich, butter-like quality. They were usually boiled by the North American Indians before being eaten, though young maidens would eat them raw as they were believed to increase the size of the bust.

Medicinal Uses : Antispasmodic……The bulbs have been chewed or the flowers sucked in the treatment of mild epilepsy.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calypso_bulbosa
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Calypso+bulbosa

Bulbophyllum inconspicuum

Botanical Name : Bulbophyllum inconspicuum
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Epidendroideae
Genus: Bulbophyllum
Species: B. inconspicuum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms: Inconspicuous Bulbophyllum

Habitat : Bulbophyllum inconspicuum is native to E. AsiaChina and Japan. It grows on Epiphytic on tree trunks in central and southern Japan.
Description: Bulbophyllum inconspicuum is an evergreen perennial orchid plant. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES :

Cultivation : Epiphytes grow on another plant such as a tree, non-parasitically or other object such as a building or a telegraph wire. They derive moisture and nutrients from the air and rain and sometimes from debris accumulating around them. Epiphytes are usually found in the temperate zone (e.g., many mosses, liverworts, lichens and algae) or in the tropics (e.g., many ferns, cacti, orchids, and bromeliads). This plant can be mounted on a slab of treefern, a piece of cork bark or something similar.
Medicinal Uses:
Expectorant. It is used in the treatment of stomach cancers.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulbophyllum_inconspicuum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Bulbophyllum+inconspicuum

Anacamptis pyramidalis

 

Botanical Name : Anacamptis pyramidalis
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily:Orchidoideae
Genus: Anacamptis
Species: A. pyramidalis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Common Names: Pyramidal orchid or Pyramidal Orchid

Habitat : Anacamptis pyramidalis is native to southwestern Eurasia, from western Europe through the Mediterranean region eastwards to Iran. In Germany, it is rare and was declared Orchid of the Year in 1990 to heighten awareness of this plant. This orchid is somewhat common on the Isle of Wight in the South of England, and was designated the county plant in 2008. It grows in grassland, on chalk or limestone and on calcareous dunes, mainly in the southern part of Britain.

Description:
Anacamptis pyramidalis is a perennial hardy orchid plant reaches on average 10–25 centimetres (3.9–9.8 in) of height, with a maximum of 60 centimetres (24 in). The stem is erect and unbranched. The basal leaves are linear-lanceolate with parallel venation, up to 25 centimetres (9.8 in) long, the cauline ones are shorter and barely visible on the stem. The arrangement of hermaphroditic flowers in a compact pyramidal shape is very distinctive and gives the orchid its common name. The colour of the flower varies from pink to purple, or rarely white, and the scent is described as “foxy”. The flowers have six tepals, being three small sepals and three petals. Two small petals are on the sides, while the third and lower (labellum) is large and bilobate. At the back of the flower there is a tubular spur of about 1.5 centimetres (0.59 in) long, while the labellum bears two lateral small flaps. The flowering period extends from April through July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Lepidoptera….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Requires a deep rich soil. Prefers a hot well-drained bank, growing well in a sunny dry border or on a scree. Orchids are, in general, shallow-rooting plants of well-drained low-fertility soils. Their symbiotic relationship with a fungus in the soil allows them to obtain sufficient nutrients and be able to compete successfully with other plants. They are very sensitive to the addition of fertilizers or fungicides since these can harm the symbiotic fungus and thus kill the orchid. Plants can be grown in lawns in calcareous soils, they should not be cut down until the leaves are dying down in the summer. During the day the flowers have a pronounced aroma of vanilla in order to attract pollinating butterflies. In the evening, when damp with dew, the smell is more goat-like and this acts as a repellent to moths.
Propagation:
Seed – surface sow, preferably as soon as it is ripe, in the greenhouse and do not allow the compost to dry out. The seed of this species is extremely simple, it has a minute embryo surrounded by a single layer of protective cells. It contains very little food reserves and depends upon a symbiotic relationship with a species of soil-dwelling fungus. The fungal hyphae invade the seed and enter the cells of the embryo. The orchid soon begins to digest the fungal tissue and this acts as a food supply for the plant until it is able to obtain nutrients from decaying material in the soil. It is best to use some of the soil that is growing around established plants in order to introduce the fungus, or to sow the seed around a plant of the same species and allow the seedlings to grow on until they are large enough to move. Division of the tubers as the flowers fade. This species produces a new tuber towards the end of its growing season. If this is removed from the plant as its flowers are fading, the shock to the plant can stimulate new tubers to be formed. The tuber should be treated as being dormant, whilst the remaining plant should be encouraged to continue in growth in order to give it time to produce new tubers. Division can also be carried out when the plant has a fully developed rosette of leaves but before it comes into flower. The entire new growth is removed from the old tuber from which it has arisen and is potted up, the cut being made towards the bottom of the stem but leaving one or two roots still attached to the old tuber. This can often be done without digging up the plant. The old tuber should develop one or two new growths, whilst the new rosette should continue in growth and flower normally.

Edible Uses :
Edible Parts: Root.
Edible Uses: Drink.

Tuber – cooked. It is a source of ‘salep‘, a fine white to yellowish-white powder that is obtained by drying the tuber and grinding it into a powder. Salep is a starch-like substance with a sweetish taste and a faint somewhat unpleasant smell. It is said to be very nutritious and is made into a drink or can be added to cereals and used in making bread etc. One ounce of salep is said to be enough to sustain a person for a day.
Medicinal Uses :
Demulcent; Nutritive.
salep‘, a fine white to yellowish-white powder that is obtained by drying the tuber and grinding it into a powder  of Anacamptis pyramidalis   is very nutritive and demulcent. It has been used as a diet of special value for children and convalescents, being boiled with water, flavoured and prepared in the same way as arrowroot. Rich in mucilage, it forms a soothing and demulcent jelly that is used in the treatment of irritations of the gastro-intestinal canal. One part of salep to fifty parts of water is sufficient to make a jelly. The tuber, from which salep is prepared, should be harvested as the plant dies down after flowering and setting seed.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anacamptis_pyramidalis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Anacamptis+pyramidalis

Rhododendron chrysanthum

 

Botanical Name : Rhododendron chrysanthum
Family: Ericaceae
Subfamily: Ericoideae
Tribe: Rhodoreae
Genus: Rhododendron
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ericales

Synonyms: Rosebay. Snow Rose. Rosage Alpenrose.
Part Used: Leaves.

Habitat: Rhododendron chrysanthum grows on the mountains of Siberia.

Description:
A small bush, stem 1 to 1 1/2 foot high, spreading, much branched, often concealed by moss, tips of shoots only being visible. Leaves alternate like laurel, ovate, somewhat acute, tapering to stalk, reticulated, rough above, paler and smoother underneath. Flowers large, showy, nodding, on clustered terminal, loose peduncles emerging from large downy scales. Corolla campanulate, five cleft, rounded segments, three upper largest and streaked with livid dots next the tube, lower unspotted. Stamens ten, unequal deflexed; anthers oblong, incumbent, without appendages, opening by two terminal pores, capsule ovate, rather angular,five-celled, five-valved, septicidal; seeds numerous, minute. The leaves should be gathered directly the capsules have ripened. They have a faint odour when first gathered and a bitter, acrid, astringent taste…...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Constituents: The leaves contain a stimulant narcotic principle, which they yield to water or alcohol.
Medicinal Uses:   (In homoeopathic medicine a tincture of the fresh leaves is said to be curative of diarrhoea, amenorrhoea, chorea, affections of the eyes and ears, and neuralgia. – EDITOR.) Much used in Siberia as a remedy for rheumatism. Also useful in gout and syphilis.

click & see…> Homeopathic Remedy – Rhododendron Chrysanthum…... (1) …....(2) 
Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/r/rhodod13.html

Sisymbrium sophia

Botanical Name: Sisymbrium sophia
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Sisymbrium
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Brassicales

Synonyms: Descurainia sophia

Common names: Flixweed, Fluxweed, Ferb-Sophia and Tansy mustard.

Habitat:Sisymbrium sophia is native to Eurasia; it prefers disturbed areas. The non-native Flixweed is an uncommon plant that occurs primarily in NE and west central Illinois; it is rare or absent elsewhere. However, it is probably spreading into other areas of the state. It grows on gravelly or sandy areas along railroads and roadsides, barnyards and pastures, construction sites, and miscellaneous waste areas that are sunny and dry.

Description:
Sisymbrium sophia is a biennial or annual plant is ½–2½’ tall. It branches occasionally, and is more or less erect. The stems are greyish or bluish green and pubescent; sometimes the lower stem is nearly glabrous and light purplish green. During the 1st year, biennial plants consist of a low-growing rosette of basal leaves spanning up to 1′ across. The cauline leaves of annual and 2nd-year biennial plants alternate along the flowering stems, spanning up to 8″ long and 4″ across and becoming progressively smaller higher up on the stems. Both the basal and cauline leaves are double or triple pinnately lobed, greyish or bluish green, and finely pubescent. The basal and lower cauline leaves have long petioles, while the petioles of the upper cauline leaves are shorter.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The upper stems terminate in racemes of flowers about 2-12″ in length. The flowers bloom near the apex of each raceme, while the siliques (slender seedpods) develop below. Each small flower is about 1/8″ across, consisting 4 pale yellow petals, 4 green sepals, 6 stamens with yellow anthers, and a pistil with a single style. Both the sepals and petals are quite narrow (especially the latter); the petals are about the same length as the sepals or a little shorter. The blooming period occurs from late spring to mid-summer and lasts about 2 months. There is no noticeable floral scent. Each flower is replaced by a silique about 1″ in length. This silique is narrowly cylindrical (about 1 mm. in diameter) and its contains 10-20 tiny seeds in a single row. The slender pedicels of the siliques (or flowers) are about ½” in length. The siliques and their pedicels are spreading-ascending in relation to the stalk of the raceme. Each tiny seed is somewhat flattened and oblongoid; it is some shade of orange-brown. The root system consists of a stout taproot. This plant spreads by reseeding itself; the seeds are small enough to be blown about by the wind.

The nectar and pollen of the flowers attract flower flies and possibly other insects. The caterpillars of the butterflies Pieris rapae (Cabbage White), Pontia protodice (Checkered White), and Anthocharis midea (Falcate Orangetip) feed on the foliage. The relationship of Descurainia spp. (Tansy Mustards) to birds and mammalian herbivores is poorly understood in the eastern states, although in the western states the seedpods are eaten by various species of quail and the foliage is eaten sparingly by Bighorn sheep, elk, and mule deer. However, all parts of the plant have been found to be somewhat toxic to livestock, especially horses and cattle (sheep and goats are more tolerant). The tiny seeds become sticky when wet, and may be carried about in the feathers of birds, fur of animals, or shoes of humans.

Cultivation: Flixweed flourishes in full sun, mesic to dry conditions, and almost any kind of soil. It is taller and more robust on fertile loam, and much smaller in size on dry sterile soil containing gravel or sand. During hot dry weather, the lower leaves may wither away.

Propagation: Seed – sow spring in situ.

Edible Uses: .….Young leaves and shoots – cooked. A bitter flavour. Used as a potherb. Seed – raw or cooked. A pungent taste, it is used as a mustard substitute. The seed can be ground into a powder, mixed with cornmeal and used to make bread, or as a thickening for soups etc. It can also be sprouted and added to salads etc. A nourishing and cooling beverage can be made by mixing the ground up seeds with water to make a thin batter. The seed contains 25.5 – 29.9% protein, 26.9 – 39.7% fat and 3.6 – 3.9% ash on a zero moisture basis.

Composition:
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.
Seed (Dry weight)
0 Calories per 100g
*Water : 0%
*Protein: 27.5g; Fat: 33g; Carbohydrate: 0g; Fibre: 0g; Ash: 3.7g;
*Minerals – Calcium: 0mg; Phosphorus: 0mg; Iron: 0mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 0mg; Potassium: 0mg; Zinc: 0mg;
*Vitamins – A: 0mg; Thiamine (B1): 0mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0mg; Niacin: 0mg; B6: 0mg; C: 0mg;

Medicinal Uses:
Antiasthmatic; Antiscorbutic; Antitussive; Astringent; Cardiotonic; Demulcent; Diuretic; Febrifuge; Laxative; Poultice; Vermifuge.

A poultice of the plant has been used to ease the pain of toothache. The juice of the plant has been used in the treatment of chronic coughs, hoarseness and ulcerated sore throats. A strong decoction of the plant has proved excellent in the treatment of asthm. The flowers and the leaves are antiscorbutic and astringent. The seed is considered to be cardiotonic, demulcent, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, laxative, restorative and tonic. It is used in the treatment of asthma, fevers, bronchitis, oedema and dysentery. It is also used in the treatment of worms and calculus complaints. It is decocted with other herbs for treating various ailments. The seeds have formed a special remedy for sciatica. A poultice of the ground up seeds has been used on burns and sores.

Other Uses:….A semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed. Yields are not given. The leaves have been stored with corn to prevent it from going bad.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sisymbrium
http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/weeds/plants/flixweed.htm
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Descurainia+sophia

Portulaca oleracea

Botanical Name: Portulaca oleracea
Family: Portulacaceae
Genus: Portulaca
Species: P. oleracea
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Caryophyllales

Synonyms: Garden Purslane. Pigweed.
Common Name: Green Purslane, Little hogweed ,Common purslane, Verdolaga, Pigweed, Little hogweed, Red root, Pursley, and Moss rose

Parts Used: Herb, juice, seeds.

Habitat:The Purslanes are distributed all over the world. Portulaca oleracea, the Garden, or Green Purslane, is a herbaceous annual, native of many parts of Europe, found in the East and West Indies, China, Japan and Ascension Island, and though found also in the British Isles is not indigenous there.It grows in fields, waste ground, roadside verges, cultivated ground and by the sea

Description:
Portulaca oleracea is an annual succulent plant growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in) at a fast rate.It has smooth, reddish, mostly prostrate stems and alternate leaves clustered at stem joints and ends. The yellow flowers have five regular parts and are up to 6 mm wide. Depending upon rainfall, the flowers appear at anytime during the year. The flowers open singly at the center of the leaf cluster for only a few hours on sunny mornings. Seeds are formed in a tiny pod, which opens when the seeds are mature. Purslane has a taproot with fibrous secondary roots and is able to tolerate poor, compacted soils and drought.The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects, self.The plant is self-fertile. It is frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to September, and the seeds ripen from Jul to September.

CLICK &  SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Requires a moist light rich well-drained soil in a sunny position. Plants will not produce good quality leaves when growing in dry conditions. A perennial plant in warmer climates than Britain, purslane is killed by frost but can be grown as a half-hardy annual in this country. It can become an aggressive weed in areas where the climate suits it. The flowers only open in full sunlight. Purslane is occasionally cultivated for its edible leaves, there are some named varieties. The plants take about six to eight weeks to produce a crop from seed and can then be harvested on a cut and come again principle, providing edible leaves for most of the summer.

Propagation:
Seed – for an early crop, the seed is best sown under protection in early spring and can then be planted out in late spring. Outdoor sowings in situ take place from late spring to late summer, successional sowings being made every two to three weeks if a constant supply of the leaves is required.

Edible Uses :
Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed.

Leaves and stems – raw or cooked. The young leaves are a very acceptable addition to salads, their mucilaginous quality also making them a good substitute for okra as a thickener in soups. Older leaves are used as a potherb. The leaves have a somewhat sour flavour. A spicy and somewhat salty taste. The leaves are a source of omega-3 fatty acids, though seed sources such as walnuts are magnitudes richer. The leaves can be dried for later use. They contain about 1.8% protein, 0.5% fat, 6.5% carbohydrate, 2.2% ash. Another analysis gives the following figures per 100g ZMB. 245 – 296 calories, 17.6 – 34.5g protein, 2.4 – 5.3g fat, 35.5 – 63.2g carbohydrate, 8.5 – 14.6g fibre, 15.9 – 24.7g ash, 898 – 2078mg calcium, 320 – 774mg phosphorus, 11.2 – 46.7mg iron, 55mg sodium, 505 – 3120mg potassium, 10560 – 20000ug B-carotene equivalent, 0.23 – 0.48mg thiamine, 1.12 – 1.6mg riboflavin, 5.58 – 6.72mg niacin and 168 – 333mg ascorbic acid. Seed – raw or cooked. The seed can be ground into a powder and mixed with cereals for use in gruels, bread, pancakes etc. The seed is rather small and fiddly to utilize. In arid areas of Australia the plants grow quite large and can produce 10, 000 seeds per plant, a person can harvest several pounds of seed in a day. The seeding plants are uprooted and placed in a pile on sheets or something similar, in a few days the seeds are shed and can be collected from the sheet. In Britain, however, yields are likely to be very low, especially in cool or wet summers. The seed contains (per 100g ZMB) 21g protein, 18.9g fat 3.4g ash. Fatty acids of the seeds are 10.9% palmitic, 3.7% stearic, 1.3% behenic, 28.7% oleic, 38.9% linoleic and 9.9% linolenic. The ash of burnt plants is used as a salt substitute.

Constituents:
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.
Leaves (Dry weight) 270 Calories per 100g
*Water : 0%
*Protein: 26g; Fat: 4g; Carbohydrate: 50g; Fibre: 11.5g; Ash: 20g;
*Minerals – Calcium: 1500mg; Phosphorus: 550mg; Iron: 29mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 55mg; Potassium: 1800mg; Zinc: 0mg;
*Vitamins – A: 15000mg; Thiamine (B1): 0.35mg; Riboflavin (B2): 1.4mg; Niacin: 6mg; B6: 0mg; C: 250mg;
*Notes: The figures given here are the median of a very wide range quoted in the report.

Medicinal Uses:
Antiscorbutic; Depurative; Diuretic; Febrifuge; Skin; Tonic; Vermifuge.

The plant is antibacterial, antiscorbutic, depurative, diuretic and febrifuge. The leaves are a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids, which is thought to be important in preventing heart attacks and strengthening the immune system. Seed sources such as walnuts, however, are much richer sources. The fresh juice is used in the treatment of strangury, coughs, sores etc. The leaves are poulticed and applied to burns, both they and the plant juice are particularly effective in the treatment of skin diseases and insect stings. A tea made from the leaves is used in the treatment of stomach aches and headaches. The leaf juice is applied to earaches, it is also said to alleviate caterpillar stings. The leaves can be harvested at any time before the plant flowers, they are used fresh or dried. This remedy is not given to pregnant women or to patients with digestive problems. The seeds are tonic and vermifuge. They are prescribed for dyspepsia and opacities of the cornea.

The sticky, broken leaves of fresh purslane sooth burns, stings and swellings.  The juice was once used for treating earaches and to  fasten   teeth and soothe sore gums.  Purslane has been considered valuable in the treatment of urinary and digestive problems.  The diuretic effect of the juice makes it useful in the alleviation of bladder ailments-for example, difficulty in passing urine. The plant’s mucilaginous properties also make it a soothing remedy for gastrointestinal problems such as dysentery and diarrhea.  In Chinese herbal medicine, purslane is employed for similar problems and for appendicitis.  The Chinese also use the plant as an antidote for wasp stings and snake bite.  Clinical trials in China indicate that purslane has a mild antibiotic effect.  In one study, the juice was shown to be effective in treating hookworms.  Other studies suggest that it is valuable against bacillary dysentery.  When injected, extracts of the herb induce powerful contractions of the uterus.  Taken orally, purslane juice weakens uterine contractions.    In Europe it’s been turned into a cough syrup for sore throats.  Purslane is the richest known plant source of Omega-3 acids, found mostly in fish oils.  These fatty acids reduce blood cholesterol and pressure, clotting, and inflammation and may increase immunity.   Recommended medicinal dosage is 15-30 grams.   Use for scours in goats.

Use is contraindicated during pregnancy and for those with cold and weak digestion. Purslane is a clinically effective treatment for oral lichen planus,

Other uses: Portulaca oleracea efficiently removes bisphenol A, an endocrine-disrupting chemical, from a hydroponic solution.

Companion plant: It is used as a companion plant, Purslane provides ground cover to create a humid microclimate for nearby plants, stabilising ground moisture. Its deep roots bring up moisture and nutrients that those plants can use, and some, including corn, will “follow” purslane roots down through harder soil that they cannot penetrate on their own (ecological facilitation). It is known as a beneficial weed in places that do not already grow it as a crop in its own right.

Popular culture:    Purslane also finds mention in a translation of the Bible as a repulsive food. Job’s question in Job 6:6 is translated in the RSV as, “Can that which is tasteless be eaten without salt or is there any taste in the slime of the purslane?”
The name verdolaga, associated with the plant that grows in South America is a nickname for Football clubs with green-white schemes in their uniforms, such as Colombia’s Atletico Nacional and Argentina’s Ferrocarril Oeste.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portulaca_oleracea
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/p/prugol77.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Portulaca+oleracea

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_OPQ.htm

Muskmelon

Botanical Name: Cucumis dudaim
Family: Cucurbitaceae
Genus: Cucumis
Species: C. melo
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Cucurbitales

Common Names: Muskmelon (Cucumis melo), Pickling Melon

Habitat:Probably Cucumis dudaim is native of Asia, though it has been in cultivation for so long its native habitat is obscure. Derived through cultivation, it is not known in a truly wild location.

Description:
Cucumis melo conomon is an annual creeping plant, growing to 1.5 m (5ft). It is frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile…….CLICK  &  SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Requires a rich, well-drained moisture retentive soil and a warm, very sunny position. A frost-tender annual plant, the pickling melon is occasionally cultivated in gardens and commercially, especially in warmer climates than Britain, for its edible fruit. This form is also of value in breeding programmes for disease resistance. Some varieties may succeed outdoors in Britain in hot summers but in general it is best to grow melons under protection in this country. This form of the melon probably has a better chance of succeeding outdoors than the other forms – see the list of cultivars for suggested forms to grow. Grows well with corn and sunflowers but dislikes potatoes. The weeds fat hen and sow thistle improve the growth and cropping of melons.

Propagation:
Seed – sow early to mid spring in a greenhouse in a rich soil. Germination should take place within 2 weeks. Sow 2 or 3 seeds per pot and thin out to the best plant. Grow them on fast and plant out after the last expected frosts, giving them cloche or frame protection for at least their first few weeks if you are trying them outdoors.

Edible Uses :
Edible Parts: Fruit; Oil; Seed.
Edible Uses:….> Oil.

Fruit – raw or cooked. The fruit is more often cooked, often as a savoury dish. They can be chopped finely and used as a seasoning in salads and soups. Both mature and immature fruits are made into sweet or sour pickles. Seed – raw. Rich in oil with a nutty flavour but very fiddly to use because the seed is small and covered with a fibrous coat. The seed contains between 12.5 – 39.1% oil. An edible oil is obtained from the seed…..CLICK &  SEE..>…....FRUITS.……....SEEDS
Medicinal Uses:
The fruits can be used as a cooling light cleanser or moisturiser for the skin. They are also used as a first aid treatment for burns and abrasions. The flowers are expectorant and emetic. The fruit is stomachic. The seed is antitussive, digestive, febrifuge and vermifuge. When used as a vermifuge, the whole seed complete with the seed coat is ground into a fine flour, then made into an emulsion with water and eaten. It is then necessary to take a purge in order to expel the tapeworms or other parasites from the body. The root is diuretic and emetic.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muskmelon
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Cucumis+melo+conomon