Botanical Name: Asarum europaeum
Family: Aristolochiaceae
Order: Piperales
Genus: Asarum

Synonyms: Hazelwort. Wild Nard.

Common Name: Asarabacca

Other Common Names: Hazelwort, wild nard, false coltsfoot, snakeroot, wild ginger, hasselurt (Danish), Haselwurz (German), asaro (Spanish), asaret d’Europe (French).

Habitat: Asarabacca is endemic to the deciduous forests of Southern and Central Europe, Siberia, and the Caucasus.

The plant prefers shaded areas and moist humus-rich, calcareous soil.

The plant has become popular as an ornamental plant in many parts of the world with temperate climates, as it is an evergreen and can form a beautiful ground cover.

Found in woods and very rare.

The herbs belonging to this order are chiefly plants or shrubs of a tropical habitat, very abundant in South America; but rare elsewhere.

Asarabacca is a creeping, evergreen rhizomatous soft-wooded perennial plant that grows about 10-15 cm (4 to 6 inches) tall. The plant normally grows in open woodland and waterside thickets, especially in beech woodlands, river-bank, broad-leaved forests and stream valleys. It is a curious plant consisting of a very short fleshy stem, bearing two large, dark-green, kidney-shaped evergreen leaves, and a solitary purplish-green drooping flower.

The flowering occurs between May and June. The bell shaped flowers have three broad petals that are reddish-brown. Because the flowers are usually located under the leaves they are often difficult to detect. After flowering, the formation of a round and fleshy seed capsule follows.


Constituents–-The root and leaves are acrid and contain a volatile oil, a bitter matter, and a substance like camphor. Asarabacca was formerly used as a purgative and emetic also to promote sneezing – but it is now rarely used, having been supplanted by safer and more certain remedies.

Active Ingredient and Substances: The rootstock of the plant contains resin, starch, tannins, flavonoids, aristolochic acid and up to 4% essential oil. The essential oil contains a variety of different substances, mostly asarone (30%), methyleugenol (20%) and bornyl acetate (15%).

Medicinal Uses-–Tonic and stimulant, sometimes acrid or aromatic. The dried and powdered leaves of Asarabacca (Asarum Europaeum) are used in the preparation of cephalic snuffs, exciting sneezing and giving relief to headache and weak eyes.

Mixed with Ribwort, this herb is used to remove mucous from the respiratory passages.

Virginian Snake-root (Aristolochia serpentaria) and other allied species are used as antidotes to the bite of venomous snakes.

The juice extracted from a South American species is said to have the power of stupefying serpents if placed in their mouths; and African species are used by Egyptian jugglers for this purpose.

The British variety is said to be found wild in Westmorland and other places in the north of England.

Other Uses:
Since the plant grows best in shaded places it is now widely used for ornamental purposes as a ground cover or vegetation in gardens and parks.

Asarabacca has also been used as a dye plant and can provide a beautiful apple green color.

Known Hazards:
If the plant is consumed it can cause burning in the mouth, heartburn, vomiting, severe abdominal pain, diarrhea, and kidney inflammation.

It can cause bleeding in the uterus and may have an abortifacient effect. Asarabacca should never be used by pregnant or nursing women.

The essential oil is highly toxic and can cause kidney damage and respiratory system failure. It is corrosive to the mucous membranes and can irritant the skin and can cause blistering.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Ailmemts & Remedies

Eye Cancer

There are a number of different types of cancer that affect the eyes, including:

*eye melanoma
*squamous cell carcinoma
*retinoblastoma – a childhood cancer

Cancer can also sometimes develop in the tissues surrounding your eyeball or spread to the eye from other parts of the body, such as the lungs or breasts.

This topic focuses on melanoma of the eye, one of the most common types of eye cancer. The Cancer Research UK website has more information about other types of eye cancer.

Eye cancer doesn’t always cause obvious symptoms and may only be picked up during a routine eye test.

Symptoms of eye cancer can include:

*shadows, flashes of light, or wiggly lines in your vision
*blurred vision
*a dark patch in your eye that’s getting bigger
*partial or total loss of vision
*bulging of one eye
*a lump on your eyelid or in your eye that’s increasing in size
*pain in or around your eye, although this is rare

These symptoms can also be caused by more minor eye conditions, so they’re not necessarily a sign of cancer. However, it’s important to get the symptoms checked by a doctor as soon as possible.


The exact cause of most eye cancers is not known. But scientists have found that the disease is linked with some other conditions, which are described in Risk Factors for Eye Cancer. A great deal of research is being done to learn more about the causes.

Scientists are learning how certain changes in the DNA inside cells can cause the cells to become cancer. DNA is the chemical in each of our cells that makes up our genes, the instructions for how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are the source of our DNA. But DNA can also influence our risk for developing certain diseases, such as some kinds of cancer.

Some genes control when our cells grow, divide into new cells, and die.

*Genes that help cells grow, divide, or stay alive are called oncogenes.
*Genes that slow down cell division or cause cells to die at the right time are called tumor suppressor genes.

Cancers can be caused by DNA changes that turn on oncogenes or turn off tumor suppressor genes.

Some people with cancer have DNA changes they inherited from a parent that increase their risk for the disease. For example, some people inherit a mutation (change) in the BAP1 tumor suppressor gene, which raises their risk of eye melanoma and some other cancers. When the BAP1 gene is mutated, it doesn’t work normally, which can allow cells with this change to grow out of control.

Most DNA changes linked to cancer are acquired during a person’s life rather than inherited before birth. For example, about half of uveal eye melanomas have changes in either of 2 related oncogenes, GNA11 or GNAQ.

Scientists are studying these and other DNA changes to learn more about them and how they might lead to eye cancer. But it is still not exactly clear what causes these changes to occur in some people and not others.

Risk factors:
*Light eye color. People with blue eyes or green eyes have a greater risk of melanoma of the eye.

*Being white. White people have a greater risk of eye melanoma than do people of other races.

*Age. …

*Certain inherited skin disorders. …

*Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. …

*Certain genetic mutations.

For most types of cancer, the diagnosis is made by removing a small piece of the tumor and looking at it in the lab for cancer cells. This is known as a biopsy.

A biopsy is often not needed to diagnose eye melanomas because almost all cases can be accurately diagnosed by the eye exam and imaging tests. Sometimes, a biopsy may be useful to check for certain gene mutations (changes) that can predict outcomes (prognosis) as well as help choose targeted drugs for your cancer. Also, certain eye melanomas can spread for many years before they are diagnosed so doing a biopsy of a worrisome area early may be helpful.

If a biopsy is needed, it can be done either with sedation and local anesthesia (numbing medicine) or while a person is under general anesthesia (in a deep sleep). Different types of biopsies can be done for eye melanoma depending on where it is located including:

A FNA (fine needle aspiration): Using a thin needle to remove a small sample of aqueous humor (the liquid between the cornea and the lens)
An incisional or excisional biopsy (cutting out either part of or all of the tumor)
A fine needle biopsy of the tumor: Cells from the tumor are sucked up into a syringe through a small needle and examined in the lab.
Newer techniques help to lower the chances of tumor cells leaking and spreading along the needle path during these biopsies so the cancer doesn’t spread within or outside the eye.

While most people with melanoma of the eye are treated without having a biopsy first, your doctor may recommend a biopsy depending on your specific situation. They can discuss the risks and benefits of the procedure they feel is best for you. Some doctors have started using biopsies to get a sample of the tumor for gene testing (DecisionDx-UM). They have found that certain patterns of genes in tumor cells are a good way to tell if an eye melanoma is likely to spread. Based on these gene patterns, a little more than half of eye melanomas are shown to be Class 1 (1A or 1B) tumors which have a low risk of spreading. The remaining eye melanomas fall into the Class 2 category, which have a very high risk of spreading. See What’s New in Eye Cancer Research? for more information.

Liquid biopsy
A new type of biopsy called a liquid biopsy is being looked at more often. Instead of having to make a cut or put a needle into the eye, melanoma tumor cells can be collected from a blood sample. These cancer cells can then be tested for certain traits, including genetic changes, that can help predict how likely the cancer is to spread or come back after treatment.. Liquid biopsies might help diagnose tumor spread earlier, or help the doctors know if treatment is working. This could be very helpful in people who did not have a biopsy of the tumor and want to preserve their vision. However, the equipment needed for this test is not readily available so this type of biopsy is not done routinely and is mainly done as part of a clinical trial.

Blood tests
Blood tests can’t be used to diagnose melanoma of the eye, but they may be done once a diagnosis is made.

Liver function tests:
If you have been diagnosed with eye melanoma, your doctor may order blood tests to see how well your liver is working. Abnormal test results can sometimes be a sign that the cancer has spread to the liver.

A staging system is a standard way to describe how far a cancer has spread. The most common systems used to describe the stages of eye cancer are the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM system and the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) group classification system.

The AJCC TNM system is based on three key pieces of information:9

*The size and extent of the main tumor (T)
*The spread to nearby lymph nodes (N)
*The spread (metastasis) to distant sites (M)

The staging system devised by the COMS group is simpler, and divides eye melanomas into small, medium, and large:

*Small: Between 1 mm and 3 mm in height and between 5 mm and 16 mm across
*Medium: Between 3.1 mm and 8 mm in height and no more than 16 mm across
*Large: More than 8 mm in height or more than 16 mm across

Treatments for eye cancer depend a lot on the size and stage of your cancer, where it is located, and how fast the cancer is growing. Some cancers grow very slowly and rarely spread. In these cases, your healthcare provider may choose to monitor the cancer closely without performing any invasive procedures.

When more significant treatment is needed, options include:

*Surgery can remove small parts of, or even the entire eye10

*Radiation therapy using implanted seeds or external radiation beams can target and destroy cancer cells11

*Laser therapy using infrared beams can heat or burn cancerous tissue12

*Chemotherapy is not often used in eye cancers unless it has spread to other parts of the body13

*Immunotherapy and other targeted treatments have become very effective at training the immune system or managing genetic mutations to fight eye cancers14

The focus of treatment is on preserving vision, so a small cancer that is already impacting vision could lead to complete removal of the eye. In other cases, a large area of cancer that is not impacting vision may be treated without removing the eye. Treatment choices should be a shared decision between you and your healthcare provider.

ACS recommends limiting exposure to intense sunlight, wearing protective clothing and hats in the sun, using sunscreen and wearing wraparound sunglasses with 99 percent to 100 percent UVA and UVB absorption to protect the eyes and the skin around the eyes.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.


Ailmemts & Remedies

Ectopic pregnancy


Pregnancy begins with a fertilized egg. Normally, the fertilized egg attaches to the lining of the uterus. An ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg implants and grows outside the main cavity of the uterus.That is when a fertilised egg develops outside the womb.

An ectopic pregnancy most often occurs in a fallopian tube, which carries eggs from the ovaries to the uterus. This type of ectopic pregnancy is called a tubal pregnancy. Sometimes, an ectopic pregnancy occurs in other areas of the body, such as the ovary, abdominal cavity or the lower part of the uterus (cervix), which connects to the vagina.

An ectopic pregnancy can’t proceed normally. The fertilized egg can’t survive, and the growing tissue may cause life-threatening bleeding, if left untreated.

An ectopic pregnancy most often occurs in a fallopian tube, which carries eggs from the ovaries to the uterus. This type of ectopic pregnancy is called a tubal pregnancy. Sometimes, an ectopic pregnancy occurs in other areas of the body, such as the ovary, abdominal cavity or the lower part of the uterus (cervix), which connects to the vagina.

An ectopic pregnancy can’t proceed normally. The fertilized egg can’t survive, and the growing tissue may cause life-threatening bleeding, if left untreated.
This usually happens in one of the fallopian tubes which lead from your ovaries to your womb. If an egg implants there, it can’t develop into a baby.

Ectopic pregnancy puts your health at risk too, and can be very serious if it isn’t treated.

About 1 in 100 pregnancies are an ectopic pregnancy.


Symptoms usually start when you’re about 6 weeks pregnant and can include:

*pain low down and on one side of your abdomen
*bleeding from your vagina
*pain in the tip of your shoulder
*discomfort when going to the toilet
*a brown watery discharge from your vagina

You might also have:

other more general symptoms such as pale skin and sweating
missed a period.

some of the early signs of being pregnant, such as feeling tired or having sore breasts
It’s important to get medical help quickly if you have any of these

As the fertilized egg continues to grow in the fallopian tube, it can cause the tube to rupture. Heavy bleeding inside the abdomen is likely. Symptoms of this life-threatening event include extreme lightheadedness, fainting and shock.

The cause of an ectopic pregnancy isn’t always clear. In some cases, the following conditions have been linked with an ectopic pregnancy:

*inflammation and scarring of the fallopian tubes from a previous medical condition, infection, or surgery
*hormonal factors
*genetic abnormalities
*birth defects

medical conditions that affect the shape and condition of the fallopian tubes and reproductive organs
Your doctor may be able to give you more specific information about your condition.

It occurs often because the fallopian tube is damaged by inflammation or is misshapen. Hormonal imbalances or abnormal development of the fertilized egg also might play a role.

Risk Factors::
All sexually active women are at some risk for an ectopic pregnancy. Risk factors increase with any of the following:

*maternal age of 35 years or older
*history of pelvic surgery, abdominal surgery, or multiple abortions
*history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
*history of endometriosis

*conception occurred despite tubal ligation or intrauterine device (IUD)
*conception aided by fertility drugs or procedures
*history of ectopic pregnancy
*history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), such as gonorrhea or chlamydia
*having structural abnormalities in the fallopian tubes that make it hard for the egg to travel

If you have any of the above risk factors, talk to your doctor. You can work with your doctor or a fertility specialist to minimize the risks for future ectopic pregnancies.

A pelvic exam can help your doctor identify areas of pain, tenderness, or a mass in the fallopian tube or ovary. However, your doctor can’t diagnose an ectopic pregnancy by examining you. You’ll need blood tests and an ultrasound.

Pregnancy test:
Your doctor will order the human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) blood test to confirm that you’re pregnant. Levels of this hormone increase during pregnancy. This blood test may be repeated every few days until ultrasound testing can confirm or rule out an ectopic pregnancy — usually about five to six weeks after conception.Another step to diagnosis is a transvaginal ultrasound. This involves inserting a special wand-like instrument into your vagina so that your doctor can see if a gestational sac is in the uterus.

Your doctor may also use a blood test to determine your levels of hCG and progesterone. These are hormones that are present during pregnancy. If these hormone levels start to decrease or stay the same over the course of a few days and a gestational sac isn’t present in an ultrasound, the pregnancy is likely ectopic.

If you’re having severe symptoms, such as significant pain or bleeding, there may not be enough time to complete all these steps. The fallopian tube could rupture in extreme cases, causing severe internal bleeding. Your doctor will then perform an emergency surgery to provide immediate treatment.


A fertilized egg can’t develop normally outside the uterus. To prevent life-threatening complications, the ectopic tissue needs to be removed. Depending on your symptoms and when the ectopic pregnancy is discovered, this may be done using medication, laparoscopic surgery or abdominal surgery.

Your doctor may decide that immediate complications are unlikely. In this case, your doctor can prescribe several medications that could keep the ectopic mass from bursting. According to the AAFP, one common medication for this is methotrexate (Rheumatrex).

Methotrexate is a drug that stops the growth of rapidly dividing cells, such as the cells of the ectopic mass. If you take this medication, your doctor will give it to you as an injection. You should also get regular blood tests to ensure that the drug is effective. When effective, the medication will cause symptoms that are similar to that of a miscarriage. These include:

*the passing of tissue

Further surgery is rarely required after this occurs. Methotrexate doesn’t carry the same risks of fallopian tube damage that come with surgery. You won’t be able to get pregnant for several months after taking this medication, however.

Salpingostomy and salpingectomy are two laparoscopic surgeries used to treat some ectopic pregnancies. In these procedure, a small incision is made in the abdomen, near or in the navel. Next, your doctor uses a thin tube equipped with a camera lens and light (laparoscope) to view the tubal area.

In a salpingostomy, the ectopic pregnancy is removed and the tube left to heal on its own. In a salpingectomy, the ectopic pregnancy and the tube are both removed.

Which procedure you have depends on the amount of bleeding and damage and whether the tube has ruptured. Also a factor is whether your other fallopian tube is normal or shows signs of prior damage.

If the ectopic pregnancy is causing heavy bleeding, you might need emergency surgery. This can be done laparoscopically or through an abdominal incision (laparotomy). In some cases, the fallopian tube can be saved. Typically, however, a ruptured tube must be removed.

Home care:

Your doctor will give you specific instructions regarding the care of your incisions after surgery. The chief goals are to keep your incisions clean and dry while they heal. Check them daily for infection signs, which could include:

*bleeding that won’t stop
*excessive bleeding
*foul-smelling drainage from the site
*hot to the touch

You can expect some light vaginal bleeding and small blood clots after surgery. This can occur up to six weeks after your procedure. Other self-care measures you can take include:

*don’t lift anything heavier than 10 pounds
*drink plenty of fluids to prevent constipation
*pelvic rest, which means refraining from sexual intercourse, tampon use, and douching
*rest as much as possible the first week postsurgery, and then increase activity in the next weeks as tolerated
Always notify your doctor if your pain increases or you feel something is out of the ordinary.

Prediction and prevention aren’t possible in every case. You may be able to reduce your risk through good reproductive health maintenance. Have your partner wear a condom during sex and limit your number of sexual partners. This reduces your risk for STDs, which can cause PID, a condition that can cause inflammation in the fallopian tubes.

Maintain regular visits with your doctor, including regular gynecological exams and regular STD screenings. Taking steps to improve your personal health, such as quitting smoking, is also a good preventive strategy.

The prognosis an ectopic pregnancy depends on whether it caused any physical damage. Most people who have ectopic pregnancies go on to have healthy pregnancies. If both fallopian tubes are still intact, or even just one, the egg can be fertilized as normal. However, if you have a preexisting reproductive problem, that can affect your future fertility and increase your risk of future ectopic pregnancy. This is especially the case if the preexisting reproductive problem has previously led to an ectopic pregnancy.

Surgery may scar the fallopian tubes, and it can make future ectopic pregnancies more likely. If the removal of one or both fallopian tubes is necessary, speak to your doctor about possible fertility treatments. An example is in vitro fertilization that involves implanting a fertilized egg into the uterus.

Pregnancy loss, no matter how early, can be devastating. You can ask your doctor if there are available support groups in the area to provide further support after loss. Take care of yourself after this loss through rest, eating healthy foods, and exercising when possible. Give yourself time to grieve.

Remember that many women go on to have healthy pregnancies and babies. When you’re ready, talk to your doctor about ways you can ensure that your future pregnancy is a healthy one.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.


Ailmemts & Remedies

Earwax build-up

Earwax blockage occurs when earwax (cerumen) builds up in your ear or becomes too hard to wash away naturally.But Earwax is a helpful and natural part of your body’s defenses.Your ear canal produces a waxy oil called cerumen, which is more commonly known as earwax. This wax protects the ear from dust, foreign particles, and microorganisms. It also protects ear canal skin from irritation due to water. It cleans, coats and protects your ear canal by trapping dirt and slowing the growth of bacteria.

It becemes a problem when your ear canal makes more earwax than needed, the wax may get hard and block the ear. When cleaning the ear, you can accidentally push the wax deeper, causing a blockage.

In typical circumstances, excess wax finds its way out of the canal and into the ear opening naturally and then is washed away. Sometimes, however, too much wax can build up.

You should take great caution when treating earwax buildup at home, especially because wax buildup is a common reason for temporary hearing loss.

If the problem persists, visit your doctor. Treatment is generally quick and painless, and hearing can be fully restored.


The appearance of earwax varies from light yellow to dark brown. Darker colors don’t necessarily indicate that there’s a blockage.

Signs of earwax buildup include:

*sudden or partial hearing loss, which is usually temporary
*tinnitus, which is a ringing or buzzing in the ear
*a feeling of fullness in the ear

Unremoved earwax buildup can lead to infection. Contact your doctor if you experience the symptoms of infection, such as:

*severe pain in your ear
*pain in your ear that doesn’t subside
*drainage from your ear
*persistent hearing loss
*an odor coming from your ear

It’s important to note that hearing loss, dizziness, and earaches also have many other causes. See your doctor if any of these symptoms are frequent. A full medical evaluation can help determine whether the problem is due to excess earwax or another health issue entirely.

Earwax in children:
Children, like adults, naturally produce earwax. While it may be tempting to remove the wax, doing so can damage your child’s ears.

If you suspect your child has earwax buildup or a blockage, it’s best to see a pediatrician. Your child’s doctor may also notice excess wax during regular ear exams and remove it as needed. Also, if you notice your child sticking their finger or other objects in their ear out of irritation, you might want to ask their doctor to check their ears for wax buildup.

Earwax in aged persons:
Earwax can also be problematic in older adults. Some adults may let wax buildup go until it begins obstructing hearing. In fact, most cases of conductive hearing loss in older adults are caused by earwax buildup. This makes sounds seem muffled. A hearing aid can also contribute to a wax blockage.

The wax in your ears is made by glands in the skin of your outer ear canal. The wax and tiny hairs in these passages trap dust and other materials that could damage deeper parts of your ear, such as your eardrum.

In most people, a small amount of earwax regularly makes its way to the ear opening. At the opening, it’s washed away or falls out as new wax replaces it. If your ears make too much wax or if earwax isn’t cleared well enough, it may build up and block your ear canal.

Earwax blockages often happen when people try to get earwax out on their own by using cotton swabs or other items in their ears. This usually just pushes wax deeper into the ear, rather than removing it.

The wax in your ears is made by glands in the skin of your outer ear canal. The wax and tiny hairs in these passages trap dust and other materials that could damage deeper parts of your ear, such as your eardrum.

In most people, a small amount of earwax regularly makes its way to the ear opening. At the opening, it’s washed away or falls out as new wax replaces it. If your ears make too much wax or if earwax isn’t cleared well enough, it may build up and block your ear canal.

Earwax blockages often happen when people try to get earwax out on their own by using cotton swabs or other items in their ears. This usually just pushes wax deeper into the ear, rather than removing it.

How to get rid of excess earwax:
You should never attempt to dig out earwax buildup yourself. This can cause major damage to your ear and lead to infection or hearing loss.

However, you’ll often be able to get rid of the excess earwax yourself. Only use cotton swabs on the outer portion of your ears if necessary.

Softening earwax:
To soften earwax, you can purchase over-the-counter drops made specifically for this purpose. You can also use the following substances:

*mineral oil
*hydrogen peroxide
*carbamide peroxide
*baby oil
*Ear irrigation

Another way to remove earwax buildup is by irrigating the ear. Never attempt to irrigate your ear if you have an ear injury or have had a medical procedure done on your ear. Irrigation of a ruptured eardrum could cause hearing loss or infection.

Never use products that were made for irrigating your mouth or teeth. They produce more force than your eardrum can safely tolerate.

To properly irrigate your ear, follow the directions provided with an over-the-counter kit, or follow these steps:

1.Stand or sit with your head in an upright position.

2.Hold the outside of your ear and pull it gently upward.

3.With a syringe, send a stream of body-temperature water into your ear. Water that’s too cold or too warm can cause dizziness.

4.Allow water to drain by tipping your head.

It might be necessary to do this several times. If you often deal with wax buildup, routine ear irrigations may help prevent the condition.

For anykind of treatment if required it is always wise to co consult an ENT spacilist doctor who might suggest some medication required to solve your problen,

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.


Ailmemts & Remedies

Dysphagia (swallowing problems)

Dysphagia is difficulty swallowing — taking more time and effort to move food or liquid from your mouth to your stomach. People who have a hard time swallowing may choke on their food or liquid when trying to swallow. Dysphagia is the medical name for difficulty swallowing.It can be painful. In some cases, swallowing is impossible.

Occasional difficulty swallowing, such as when you eat too fast or don’t chew your food well enough, usually isn’t cause for concern. Difficulty swallowing doesn‘t always indicate a medical condition. It may be temporary and go away on its own. But persistent dysphagia can be a serious medical condition requiring treatment.

Dysphagia can occur at any age, but it’s more common in older adults. The causes of swallowing problems vary, and treatment depends on the cause.



.If you think you may have dysphagia, there are certain symptoms that may be present along with difficulty swallowing.

They include:

*hoarse voice
*feeling like something is lodged in your throat
*unexpected weight loss
*coughing or choking when swallowing
*pain when swallowing
*difficulty chewing solid foods
*recurrent pneumonia
*food may come out of the nose

These sensations may cause a person to:

*avoid eating
*skip meals
*lose their appetite

Children who have difficulty swallowing when eating may:

*refuse to eat certain foods
*have food or liquid leaking from their mouths
*regurgitate during meals
*have trouble breathing when eating
*lose weight without trying


Swallowing is complex, involving many muscles and nerves. Any condition that weakens or damages the muscles and nerves used for swallowing or leads to a narrowing of the back of the throat or esophagus can cause dysphagia.

According to the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD)Trusted Source, there are 50 pairs of muscles and nerves used to help you swallow. In other words, there are lots of things that can go wrong and lead to problems swallowing.

Some conditions related to difficulty swallowing include:

*Acid reflux and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Acid reflux symptoms are caused when stomach contents flow up from the stomach back into the esophagus, causing symptoms like heartburn, stomach pain, and burping. Learn more about the causes, symptoms, and treatment of acid reflux and GERD.

*Heartburn. Heartburn is a burning sensation in your chest that often occurs with a bitter taste in your throat or mouth. Find out how to recognize, treat, and prevent heartburn.

Epiglottitis. Epiglottitis is characterized by inflamed tissue in your epiglottis. It’s a potentially life threatening condition. Learn who gets it, why, and how it’s treated. This condition is considered a medical emergency. Urgent care may be required.

*Goiter. Your thyroid is a gland found in your neck just below your Adam’s apple. A condition that increases the size of your thyroid is called a goiter. Read more about the causes and symptoms of goiter.
Esophagitis. Esophagitis is inflammation of the esophagus that can be caused by acid reflux or certain medications. Learn more about the types of esophagitis and their treatments.

*Esophageal cancer. Esophageal cancer occurs when a malignant (cancerous) tumor forms in the lining of the esophagus, which can cause difficulty swallowing. Read more about esophageal cancer, its causes, diagnosis, and treatment.

*Herpes esophagitis. Herpes esophagitis is caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The infection can cause some chest pain and difficulty swallowing. Learn more about how herpes esophagitis is diagnosed and treated.

*Recurrent herpes simplex labialis. Recurrent herpes simplex labialis, also known as oral or orolabial herpes, is an infection of the mouth area caused by the herpes simplex virus. Read about symptoms, treatment, and prevention of this infection.

*Thyroid nodule. A thyroid nodule is a lump that can develop in your thyroid gland. It can be solid or filled with fluid. You can have a single nodule or a cluster of nodules. Learn what causes thyroid nodules and how they are treated.

*Infectious mononucleosis. Infectious mononucleosis, or mono, refers to a group of symptoms usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Learn about the symptoms and treatments for infectious mononucleosis.

*Zenker’s diverticulum. A rare instance in which a pouch-like structure forms between the pharynx and the esophagus, making it difficult to swallow. Learn more about the symptoms and causes of Zenker’s diverticulum.

*Snake bites. A bite from a venomous snake should always be treated as a medical emergency. Even a bite from a harmless snake can lead to an allergic reaction or infection. Read more about what to do in the event of a snake bite.

Other medical conditions that may produce swallowing problems as a result of either the condition or its treatment include:

*head, neck, or throat cancer
history of radiation or chemotherapy in the neck or throat for cancer
*head injury
*neurological disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease
*muscular dystrophy

Risk factors:
The following are risk factors for dysphagia:

*Aging. Due to natural aging and normal wear and tear on the esophagus as well as a greater risk of certain conditions, such as stroke or Parkinson’s disease, older adults are at higher risk of swallowing difficulties. But dysphagia isn’t considered a normal sign of aging.

*Certain health conditions. People with certain neurological or nervous system disorders are more likely to have difficulty swallowing.

Difficulty swallowing can lead to:

*Malnutrition, weight loss and dehydration. Dysphagia can make it difficult to take in enough nourishment and fluids.

*Aspiration pneumonia. Food or liquid entering the airway during attempts to swallow can cause aspiration pneumonia as a result of the food introducing bacteria into the lungs.

*Choking. Food stuck in the throat can cause choking. If food completely blocks the airway and no one intervenes with a successful Heimlich maneuver, death can occur.

At first Doctor talk with the patient and check his or her mouth to check for abnormalities or swelling.

After that the doctor may ask for the following test to be done:

Barium X-ray
A barium X-ray is often used to check the inside of the esophagus for abnormalities or blockages. During this examination, you will swallow liquid or a pill containing a dye that shows up on an abdominal X-ray.

The doctor or technician will look at the X-ray image as you swallow the liquid or pill to see how the esophagus functions. This will help them identify any weaknesses or abnormalities.

Video fluoroscopy
A videofluoroscopic swallowing evaluation is a radiologic exam that uses a type of X-ray called fluoroscopy. This test is performed by a speech-language pathologist. It shows the oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal phases of the swallow.

During this examination, the patient wll swallow a variety of consistencies, ranging from purees to solids and thin and thickened liquid. This process uses a radiopaque dye in the foods. This will show the ingestion of food and liquid into the trachea, or windpipe.The medical team can use this information to diagnose muscle weakness and dysfunction.

Functional endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES):
This procedure assesses how well a person is able to swallow. This tool allows a doctor to test different food textures, fluid consistencies, and more. This will allow the doctor determine the severity of the swallowing issues and how to treat it.

An endoscopy may be used to check all areas of your esophagus. During this examination, the doctor will insert a very thin flexible tube with a camera attachment down into your esophagus. This allows the doctor to see the esophagus in detail. It can also be done using a rigid tube, during which a doctor would use sedation. A doctor will often take biopsies during this procedure.

Manometry is another invasive test that can be used to check the inside of your esophagus. More specifically, this test checks the pressure of the muscles in your throat when you swallow. The doctor will insert a tube into your esophagus to measure the pressure in your muscles when they contract.

Some swallowing difficulties can’t be prevented, and dysphagia treatment is necessary. A speech-language pathologist will perform a swallowing evaluation to diagnose your dysphagia. Once the evaluation is completed, the speech-language pathologist may recommend:

dietary changes
oropharyngeal swallowing exercises to strengthen muscles
alternative swallowing strategies
posture changes that you should follow while eating
However, if swallowing problems are persistent, they can result in malnutrition and dehydration, especially in the very young and in older adults.

Recurrent respiratory infections and aspiration pneumonia are also likely. All of these complications are serious and life threatening and must be treated definitively.

Various treatments may be prescribed depending on the medical condition causing swallowing difficulty:

Achalasia. If this is causing swallowing problem, a procedure called esophageal dilation may be used to expand the esophagus. During this procedure, a small balloon is placed into the esophagus to widen it. The balloon is then removed.

Abnormal growths in the esophagus. Surgery may be necessary to remove them. Surgery may also be used to remove scar tissue.

Acid reflux or ulcers. You may be given prescription medication to treat these conditions and encouraged to follow a reflux diet.

Medications. If swallowing difficulty is related to GERD, prescription oral medications can help reduce stomach acid. Corticosteroids might be recommended for eosinophilic esophagitis. For esophageal spasm, smooth muscle relaxants might help.
In severe cases or acute cases of swallowing difficulty, you may be admitted to the hospital. Treatments you may receive there include:

Feeding tube. The patient may receive enteral feeding, which is when he or she receive food through a tube that goes directly into the stomach and bypasses the esophagus.

Modified diets. A dietary change, such as a liquid diet, may be necessary to prevent dehydration and malnutrition until your swallowing difficulty improves.

Home treatment:

Muscle exercises. You may be shown exercises to do at home to strengthen weak facial muscles or to improve coordination.
Eating in a specific position. Sometimes the position of your head makes it easier to swallow. For example, when you eat, you may need to turn your head to one side or look straight ahead.
Preparing food differently. You may need to prepare food in particular ways to make them safe for you to swallow. For example, if you can’t swallow thin liquids, you may need to add thickeners to your drinks.

Avoiding certain foods. You may need to avoid hot or cold foods or drinks.
For examples of exercises that doctors or speech therapists might prescribe to strengthen swallowing, see this selection of five exercises from the Napa Center.

There are many texture-modified foods for people with dysphagia. Because the consistencies of these foods vary so much, the International Dysphagia Diet Standardization Initiative (IDDSI) has created standardized worldwide terminology and definitions for texture-modified liquids and thickened foods.

The IDDSI standards have five levels or grades of thickening that range from grade 0, which is thin liquid, to grade 4, which is a pudding-like consistency.

The Nutrition Care Manual, the standard dietary resource for professionals established by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND), adopted the IDDSI standards effective October 2021.

Elaine Achilles, author of “The Dysphagia Cookbook,“ gives helpful tips and recipes in her book on how to cook and present food for someone with swallowing difficulty.

She learned how to cook this way firsthand when her partner of 17 years was diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which makes swallowing progressively difficult. Achilles gives tips like these in her book:

Downsize dish, cup, and utensil size. This will necessitate smaller bites, which is important for people with swallowing difficulty.

Always think about texture. Make it appealing. For example, put meringue on custard.
Emphasize taste and aroma. This will overpower unappealing soft textures and help make food appetizing.
Make the environment nice. A pretty table setting, flowers, and a simple attractive environment can do wonders for the appetite.
It’s important to note that dysphagia with a neurologic cause may present differently than dysphagia with other causes.

The Montana Department of Public Health and Human Services summarizes which foods to eat and which to avoid if you have swallowing difficulty. Here are some of its recommendations for foods to avoid or use only when carefully prepared:

Peas and corn. These can roll to the back of the throat and create a choking hazard unless carefully prepared into a puree or porridge.

Meat. Meats can be tiring to chew and can get stuck in the throat or esophagus. Again, proper preparation is necessary.

Rice. It can get stuck in the throat and fall into the airway. It is usable if properly prepared.
Ice cream. Its consistency changes when it melts, and it may become too thin for some people with swallowing difficulty.

Bread. People tend to swallow it too soon, and balls of it become lodged in airways. Gelled bread can be used instead.
Peanut butter. It can be hard for people with swallowing difficulty to process peanut butter, and it may block the airways if aspirated (inhaled into the airway). It cannot be removed by a Heimlich maneuver.

Fibrous cooked vegetables. Some examples include cabbage, Brussels sprouts, and asparagus.

Fresh fruits. Fruits like apples and pears can be hard to chew. Stringy, high pulp fruits like pineapple or oranges are also best avoided unless properly prepared.


The prognosis of dysphagia depends upon underlying etiology. Dysphagia in stroke patients normalizes gradually and may take from three weeks to approximately six months or longer. In the case of achalasia pneumatic dilatation and laparoscopic myotomy are effective.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.