Fruits & Vegetables


Botanical Name: Prunus domestica italica
Family: Rosaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales
Genus: Prunus
Species:P. domestica
Subspecies:P. d. ssp. italica

Synonyms: Prunus italica Borkh.

Common Names:Greengage
The name Reine Claude (French for “Queen Claude”), by which they are known in France, is in honour of the French queen Claude (1499–1524), Duchess of Brittany. A greengage is also called la bonne reine (French for “the good Queen”) in France

Habitat:Greengage fruits are commercially grown in France; however they are also found in other European countries like Portugal, Spain and Britain. Some North American countries and the Benelux countries also grow these plums.

Greengage grows in medium sized deciduous trees can grow anywhere between 12 feet and 15 feet. However, one may easily keep them within a height of 6-9 feet by pruning. These trees are capable of self fertilization, bearing fruit every year. They have deep green smooth leaves and small yellowish white flowers.


Greengage fruit are identified by their round-oval shape and smooth-textured, pale green flesh; they are on average smaller than round plums but larger than mirabelle plums (usually between 2 and 4 cm diameter). The skin ranges in colour from green to yellowish, with a pale blue “blush” in some cultivars; a few Reine Claudes, such as ‘Graf Althanns’, are reddish-purple due to crossbreeding with other plums. Greengages are grown in temperate areas and are known for the rich, confectionery flavour. They are considered to be among the finest dessert plums.


Varieties of Greengage:
There are some varieties of these fruits including:

*Golden Transparent
*Cambridge Gage
*Laxton’s Supreme
Laxton’s Gage

Cultivation of Greengage is quite easy to grow these self fertile trees as they require low maintenance. These trees need pruning between April and September to avoid infections and diseases.

Greengages are widely grown in particular in western Europe. The core of their range extends from France to southern England. In Germany, where they are called Reneklode or Ringlotte, numerous cultivars have been developed too. In Poland and the Czech Republic, they are known as ringle, in Hungary as ringló, in Slovakia as ringloty and in Portugal as Raínha Cláudia.

Edible Uses: Greengages are widely grown, typically for stewing in syrup to make a compote. In Portugal, however, they make up a delicacy invented by Dominican nuns in the 16th or 17th century (when confined to their convents) in the town of Elvas, where they are boiled in a sugary syrup several times, over the course of several weeks, to then be preserved whole in syrup or dried, coated in sugar and eaten either with a local dessert, sericaia, made from eggs, sugar, milk, cinnamon and flour or eaten with rich cheeses.

Nutritional Value of Greengage Plum(100g):

Calories 46
Total Fat 0g 0%
Sodium 0mg 0%
Total Carbohydrate 11mg 11%
Dietary Fiber 1g 1%
Sugar 10g
Protein 1g 1%
Vitamin A 0%
Vitamin C 0%
Calcium 0%
Iron 2%

Health Benefits of Greengage:

*Helps in Digestion
Eating greengage plums will build the fiber content in the body and helps in better absorption. Amid the greengage plum season, it’s great to eat these fruits routinely.

*Helps Avoid Constipation
Because greengage plums are rich in vitamin C and absorbable fiber, this component forestalls blockage and bloating.

*Helps in Strengthening of Immune System
Regular utilization of greengage plums will assist your invulnerable framework to be reinforced. This likewise helps in keeping the body fit as a fiddle and maintains a strategic distance from numerous wellbeing issues as well.

*Helps You Maintain Dental Health
Eating greengage plums will keep up the sound health of gums make teeth more solid and more beneficial. Additionally, it helps in lessening the pain and bleeding of gums and evacuates terrible scent.

*Helps Against Anaemia
Greengage plums help in ingestion of iron, which builds the iron levels in the blood. More than that, it keeps from infections connected with the absence of red platelets on account of the rich substance of vitamin C in the greengage plums.

*Helps in Regeneration of Connective Tissue
Vitamin C is a key component that aids in restoring the connective tissues. This keeps the body more beneficial and fit.

*Getting in shape
The extreme measure of fat in the body is diminished because of expansive measure of vitamin C in the greengage plums. Eating more greengage plums in the will offer you some assistance with reducing the stomach fat and extra weight as well.

*Avoid Internal Damage to body
Because greengage plums are rich in cell reinforcements, they counteract internal harm of the mind and the fat in the circulatory system. The body cells stay ensured, sound and youthful.

*Helps in Respiratory issues
It helps in conditions such asthma, lung disease, icy, hack, incessant lung issues and so forth.

*Helps and Prevents muscle degeneration
Greengage plums will help you to battle age-related issues like muscle degeneration.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.



Arrowtooth eel

Bionomical Name: Synaphobranchus kaupii
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Anguilliformes
Family: Synaphobranchidae
Genus: Synaphobranchus
Species: S. kaupii

Synaphobranchus kaupi Johnson, 1862
Nettophichthys retropinnatus Holt, 1891

Common Names:Arrowtooth eel, Kaup’s cut-throat eel, the Gray’s cutthroat, the Longnosed eel, the Northern cutthroat eel, or the Slatjaw cutthroat eel

Habitat:Arrowtooth eel is a marine, deep water-dwelling eel which is known from the Indo-Western Pacific and eastern and western Atlantic Ocean, including the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Cape Verde, the Western Sahara, Nigeria, Namibia, South Africa, Greenland, France, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the United Kingdom, Ireland, the Philippines, Portugal, Spain, the Bahamas, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, Japan, Australia, Mauritania, Morocco, and Hawaii. It dwells at a depth range of 120 to 4,800 metres (390 to 15,750 ft), most often between 400 to 2,200 metres (1,300 to 7,200 ft), and inhabits the upper abyssal zone on the continental slope. It is intolerant of the temperatures of higher waters. Males can reach a maximum total length of 100 centimetres (39 in).

Arrowtooth eel may refer to several species of cutthroat eels:

*Shortbelly eel, Dysomma anguillare
*Deepwater arrowtooth eel, Histiobranchus bathybius
*Kaup’s arrowtooth eel, Synaphobranchus kaupii
*Muddy arrowtooth eel, Ilyophis brunneus
*Pignosed arrowtooth eel, Dysomma brevirostre


Edible Uses:
Arrowtooth eel is edible.Different people eat in different ways of cooking.

It is mostly fried, pickled or smoked.
It is used in Japanese and Korean cuisine.

Nutritional value:
159 grams of cooked Eel fish is loaded with 375 calories, 94.3 grams of moisture, 37.6 grams of protein, 23.77 grams of total lipid fat and 2.86 grams of ash. Rich in nutrients, it grants 258.29% of Vitamin A, 191.67% of Vitamin B12, 103.65% of isoleucine, 103.23% of lysine, 95.68 % of tryptophan, 93.69% of threonine, 91.71% of valine, 89.85% of histidine, 82.68 % of leucine, 75.20% of protein, 67.91% of total lipid fat, 62.86% of phosphorus, 44.59% of niacin, 30.09% of zinc, 24.25% of thiamin, 24% of selenium, 12.75% of iron and 11.81% of potassium.

Health benefits of Eel fish:
Mostly it is consumed in Europe, United States, Korea, Japan, New Zealand, China and other countries as well. Aside from its distinct flavor, it offers various health benefits. Eel fish helps to lower cholesterol, blood pressure and chances of arthritis. It enhances the development of brain, good eyesight and functions of nervous system.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Fruits & Vegetables


Botanical Name: Passiflora ligularis/quadrangularis
Family: Passifloraceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malpighiales
Genus: Passiflora
Species: P. ligularis

Common Names: Granadilla or Sweet granadilla

Habitat: Granadilla is native to the Andes Mountains, mainly Peru, including Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela. It grows as far south as northern Argentina and as far north as Mexico. Outside of its native range it grows in the tropical mountains of Africa and Australia (where they are known as passionfruit or Granadilla), and is now common in local markets of Papua New Guinea, where it is known as ‘sugar fruit’. It likes climates ranging from 15° to 18 °C and between 600 and 1000 mm of annual rain. It lives at altitudes ranging from 1700 to 2600 meters above sea level.They It is grown in Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico and Peru; granadilla común in Guatemala; granadilla de China or parcha dulce in Venezuela and granaditta in Jamaica.

Granadilla is an evergreen climbing shrub, producing stems of up to 5 meters long. The stems scramble over the ground or clamber into the surrounding vegetation, attaching themselves by means of coiling tendrils. It is a herbaceous vine capable of growing to 10-15 m long. The leaves are broad to ovate or oblong to ovate; 3 ¼- 6 inch (8.25-15 cm) wide; 4-8 inch (10-20 cm) long, smooth and bright green. The flower is campanulate, white tinged with pink or purple, filamentous and 7-10 cm in diameter. The fruit is oblong, 20-30 cm long and 10-20 cm wide that contain numerous seeds. Seeds are flattened to oval, 7-10 mm long and purplish to brown. Fruit has white or pink flesh which is 1-1 1/2 inch (2.5-4 cm) thick.

Granadilla have abundant, simple leaves and greenish-white flowers. The fruit is orange to yellow colored with small light markings. It has a round shape with a tip ending in the stem. The fruit is between 6.5 and 8 cm long and between 5.1 and 7 cm in diameter. The outer shell is hard and slippery, and has soft padding on the interior to protect the seeds. The seeds, which are hard and black, are surrounded by a gelatinous sphere of transparent pulp.


Edible Uses: The fruit pulp is the edible part of the fruit and has a soft sweet taste. It is very aromatic and contains vitamins A, C, and K, phosphorus, iron, and calcium. The main producers are Peru, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Brazil (where it is known as maracujá doce or “sweet passion fruit”), South Africa, Rwanda and Kenya. The main importers are the United States, Canada, Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain.

Medicinal Uses & health benefits:
Traditional uses:
*In tropics, the fruit is used as stomachic and antiscorbutic.
*In Brazil, flesh is used to provide relief from nervous headache, diarrhea, asthma, dysentery, insomnia and neurasthenia.
*The decoction made from leaves is used as a vermifuge and treats skin disorder.
*The poultice made from leaf is used for liver complaints.
*Unripe fruits are consumed as vegetable.
*Flowers are used to make syrup.
*It is used to treat headaches, diarrhea, asthma, dysentery, insomnia and neurasthenia.
*The fruit is used to provide relief from stomachic and scurvy.
*The leaf extract helps to treat intestinal problems.
*Traditionally, Giant granadilla is used to treat menstrual pain and dysentery.
*The extract of Giant granadilla flower and hawthorn helps to treat congestive heart failure.
*The mixture of Giant granadilla flower and hawthorn berries helps to lower the digestive problems such as colitis and gastritis.
*The fruit juice is used as eyewash to aid sore eyes.
*An infusion or tincture made from dried leaves is an aid for insomnia.
*The homeopathic practitioners use it as a treatment for whooping cough and asthma.

*One should consult a doctor before eating this fruit.
*The side effects such as vomiting, nausea, rapid heartbeat and drowsiness might be experienced.
*Pregnant women should not consume Giant granadilla because it possesses the substances which promote the uterus contraction.
*The flower of Giant granadilla raises the effect of herbals and drugs that enhance sleepiness.
*It promotes the blood thinning effect of antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Fruits & Vegetables

Governor’s Plum

Botanical Name:Flacourtia indica
Family: Salicaceae
Order: Malpighiales
Genus: Flacourtia
Species: F. indica

Synonyms: Flacourtia ramontchi

Common Names: Governor’s plum, Ramontchi, Batoko plum, Madagascar plum and Indian plum

Names in Other Languages:
Spanish: ciruela de Madagascar, ciruela de gobernador, ciruela gobernadora;
French: marromse, grosse prune-café, jujube Malgache, prune pays, prunier d’Inde, prunier de Madagascar, Flacourtie d’Inde;
China: ci li mu; nuo nuo guo, Cìzi,Dà gu? cì lí mù, Sh?n l?z? , Nuó nuó gu? , Mù gu?n gu?, Xì xiáng lè gu?, Y? l?z?
Germany: Batokopflaume, Madagaskar-Pflaumenbaum, Echte Flacourtie, Ramontchi;
Hungary: batokószilva, maronszilva, kormányzószilva, ramoncsi;
India: bilangra, kandai, cottaikkalaa, katai, kondari, kondai, kukai, sottaikala, kurumuli;
Indonesia: duri rukem, rukem minced, rukam sepat;
Japan: ramonchii, indo rukamu ;
Kenya: mgo, mkingii, michongoma, mkingili, ngovigovi, mugovigovi;
Laos: mak keng, mak ken;
Myanmar: nayuwai;
Philippines: bitongol, palutan, bolong;
Portugal: ameixa da Mauricia, cerezo del gobernador, ameixa de Madagascar;
Sri Lanka: uguressa;
Thailand: ta khop pa, ma kwen pa;
Zimbabwe: munhunguru, mutudza, mutombototo, mutunguru;
Hindi: bilangada, bilangra, ibalaanagara, kañcu;
Marathi: athruna, ambut ,
Tamil: cottai-k-kala, Cottaikkalaa, Sottaikala, Mutunguru, sottaikala;
Malayalam: Kurumuli, Cherumullikkachedi, Aghori, Karimulli, Karkkadappazham, Kodumundi, Kattukara, Mullikkachedi, ramontchi, Oushadakkara, Vayankkaitha, Karimulli
Konkani: babhuli tambat
Sanskrit: shruvavrikksha, Vikankata;
Veitnamese: ân do, muôn quân;
Afrikaans: Goewerneurspruim;
Burmese: Naywe, Nayuwai;
Laotian: Mak keng, Mak ken;
Shona: Munhunguru, Munhunguru, Mududwe, Mutombototo, Mutunguru, Mutudza;
Sinhalese: Uguressa;
Swahili: Mchongoma, Mgo, Michongoma, Mkingii, Mkingili, Mkingila, Ngovigovi, Mugovigovi;
Bengali: Bincha, Bewich, Bainchi;
Burmese: Nayuwai, Naywe;
Laotian: Mak ken, Mak keng

Habitat: Governor’s plum is native to much of Africa and tropical and temperate parts of Asia. F. indica and F. ramontchi are sometimes treated as separate species.

Governor’s plum is a bushy shrub or tree with a spiny trunk and branches. In shrub form it grows up to 25 feet (7.6 m) and as a tree it reaches a maximum height around 50 feet (15 m). The drooping branches bear oval leaves. The seeds are dispersed by birds. The fruit contains ten small seeds having a fleshy inner part which is white or yellow. Usually the fruit is green and it turns purple when it got ripened. It has sweet taste with light acidic tang.
Bark is Rough, pale, powdery, grey, brown, Spines are Spiny, drooping, Leaf is Elliptic, ovate to round, scalloped or toothed, Length: 2.5-5 cm


*Flowering Season :December-April
*Flower : Inconspicuous, greenish to yellow
*Sepals : 5 to 6, ovate, acute-rounded, pubescent, Length and Breadth: 1.5-2.5 mm; white; Diameter: 5 mm

The family Salicaceae includes well-known species such as kei apple (Dovyalis caffra) louvi (Flacourtia inermis), paniala (F. jangomas), and rukam (F. rukam).

The plant is known as an occasionally invasive introduced species in some areas. It has been cultivated in Florida in the United States and today it occurs as a weed in some parts of the state.

Edible Uses:
Governor’s plum fruit itself is a pome about an inch thick and red ripening purple. It is very fleshy and has 6 to 10 seeds in layered carpels. The pulp is yellow or white and sweet with an acidic tang.

*Fruits are consumed raw or stewed.
*It is used to make jellies and jams.
*Ripe fruits are dried and kept for later use.
*It is used to make wines, jelly, preserves or jam.
*The pulp is also used in pie and cakes.

Medicinal Uses:
Most parts of the plant are used for cough, pneumonia, and bacterial throat infection. It has also been used for diarrhea.

Traditional uses:
*The roots and leaves help to treat snakebite.
*The bark is an effective treatment for arthritis.
*It is a cure for cough, bacterial throat infection and pneumonia.
*The bark is used to treat intermittent fever.
*The bark infusion is used as a gargle for the hoarseness.
*It is used for parturition as a tonic and antiviral.
*Leaves are regarded as an antidote for snake bites.

Other Uses: The tree is planted as a living fence; it was one of the species used for the Indian Inland Customs Line. The wood is used for firewood and small wooden tools such as plow handles.

Known Hazards:
*Allergic people should avoid Governor’s plum.
*Some allergic reactions might be experienced.
*It should be consumed in limited amounts

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Fruits & Vegetables

Galia melon

Botanical Name: Cucumis melo
Family: Cucurbitaceae
Order: Cucurbitales
Genus: Cucumis
Species: C. melo

Common Names: Galia melon, Muskmelon

Other names:
In French: Melon de Galia
In Arabic: Galia Shamam
In Latin: Galia Cucumis/Cucumis Melo
In Spanish: Galia Melon
In Tamil: Galia Mul?mpa?am
In Hindi: Galia Tarbooj
In Telegu: Galia Puccak?ya

Habitat: The origin of muskmelons is not known. Research has revealed that seeds and rootstocks were among the goods traded along the caravan routes of the Ancient World. Some botanists consider muskmelons native to the Levant and Egypt, while others place their origin in India or Central Asia.[2] Still others support an African origin, and in modern times wild muskmelons can still be found in some African countries.

Galia melon released in the year 1973 and developed in Israel by Dr. Zvi Karchi at the ‘Ne’ve Yaar Research Center of the Agricultural Research Organization,’ the galia melon is a kind of F1 hybrid melon obtained by crossing a honeydew and cantaloupe melon. With its high nutrition content and total soluble solids, it stands as a healthy dietary choice.


Galia melons or Muskmelons are monoecious plants. They do not cross with watermelon, cucumber, pumpkin, or squash, but varieties within the species intercross frequently. ….CLICK & SEE

In its central seed cavity, it has cream colored edible seeds that are flat and oval in shape.

Varieties of galia melon:
*Arava Galia
*Galia Diplomat

Edible Uses:
*Galia melon makes for an ideal ingredient in salads along with other fruits, cold meats or soft cheeses
*It can also be made into jam or marmalade
*Because of its sweet taste, it makes for a fresh topping in a variety of desserts.
*It is an excellent choice for juices, cocktails, sorbet, and smoothies due to its sugary taste, and high water content

Health Benefits:
Heart Health:
The vasodilation caused by the potassium and beta-carotene present in it keep high blood pressure in check, thereby reducing chances of heart ailments such as strokes. Moreover, its dietary fibers also help to reduce bad cholesterol, decreasing the risk of atherosclerosis. Its Vitamin C, on the other hand, is beneficial in strengthening blood vessel walls, contributing to a sound heart health. Moreover, the anticoagulant properties exhibited by its adenosine content also deters the clotting of blood, that is responsible for heart attacks and

Cancer preventive properties:
The antioxidants along with the Vitamin C also help to reduce the risk of cancer by inhibiting free radical damage. The various organic compounds such as carotenoids present in them have been linked to minimizing the risk of breast, oral, colon, and lung cancer, though this matter needs more research for validation.

As an immunity booster:
Vitamin C plays a crucial role in boosting the immune system, while its bioflavonoids, carotenoids, and Vitamin A content act as antioxidants, curbing free radical damage in the body. This fruit is also a good source of citrulline, which the body converts into arginine, an amino acid that speeds up healing and enhances immune function.

Moreover, since its alkaline properties balance the pH levels of the body by nullifying harmful acids, it has a beneficial effect on bone density, inflammation, muscle mass, and chronic pain. Adding it as a part of your fruit salads on a daily basis would, therefore, contribute to maintaining an overall sound health.

Aids in digestion:
Pectin also promotes good bowel movements besides keeping digestive issues like constipation at bay. Its high water and mineral content contribute to reducing other gastrointestinal problems by neutralizing the body’s acidic contents, which interferes with smooth digestion.

Cancer preventive properties:
The antioxidants along with the Vitamin C also help to reduce the risk of cancer by inhibiting free radical damage. The various organic compounds such as carotenoids present in them have been linked to minimizing the risk of breast, oral, colon, and lung cancer, though this matter needs more research for validation.

For the eyes:
The Vitamin A present in this fruit has an abundance of carotenoid, particularly beta-carotene, thus helping to maintain a good eye health by preventing macular degeneration and cataracts amidst other eye ailments.

Diuretic properties:-
Galia melon acts as a diuretic by flushing out sodium and toxins from the body, thereby helping to fight kidney diseases and eczema. The combination of lemon and galia melons also helps in curing gout.

For skin health:
Vitamin A and C also aid in improving the skin texture. The presence of collagen in them accelerates healing of wounds by promoting tissue growth, making the skin firmer as well as improving its cell structure. Its high water content also keeps the skin hydrated and soft.

Helps in weight loss:
Aside from its low calorie count, its high water content combined with dietary fibers gives one the sensation of being full, lessening the chances of overeating. Since it is also low in sodium, it discourages fluid retention and thereby aids in weight control.

For bodybuilding:
The low fructose levels, high fiber, and mineral content of galia melon make it an excellent choice for those committed to bodybuilding. Having a wedge of the fruit for breakfast and before workouts can help to optimize its benefits.

During pregnancy:
Although the high nutrient and folic acid content in these melons are essential for both the mother and the fetus, it is best to consult your doctor before including it in your diet.

Interestingly, this fruit is one of the first preferences for parents trying out the baby-led weaning method.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider