Ailmemts & Remedies

Bowel incontinence

Other Names: Uncontrollable passage of feces; Loss of bowel control; Fecal incontinence; Incontinence – bowel


Bowel incontinence, is a loss of bowel control that results in involuntary bowel movements (fecal elimination). This can range from an infrequent involuntary passage of small amounts of stool to a total loss of bowel control.

Some people with bowel incontinence feel the urge to have bowel movements but are unable to wait to reach a bathroom. Other people don’t feel the sensation of a pending bowel movement, passing stool unknowingly.

Bowel incontinence can be an uncomfortable condition, but it can improve with treatment.


Bowel incontinence is normally manifested through the following symptoms-

*Accidental leakage of stool and mucous

*Loss of sensation of the passage of fecal matter

*Frequent urge to defecate and often passing small quantities of stool even before reaching the toilet

*Frequent passage of wind and loss of control of wind passage

*Difficulty passing stool

*Feeling of stool retention even after a bowel movement

*Supporting the muscles with the hand while trying to defecate

*Slimy sensation in the anus even after wiping and often requiring a lot of toilet tissues to completely clean the anus

*Stains left in underwear due to the passage of liquid stool unknowingly

*Urinary incontinence

Normal bowel control relies on the proper function of the:

*pelvic muscles
*rectum, part of the lower end of the large intestine
*anal sphincter muscles, the muscles in the anus
*nervous system
*Injury to any of these areas can result in fecal incontinence.

Fecal impaction
Chronic constipation can lead to a fecal impaction. This happens when a hard stool gets stuck in the rectum. The stool can stretch and weaken the sphincter, which makes the muscles incapable of stopping normal passage.

Another complication of fecal impaction is leakage of liquid fecal matter through the anus.

Diarrhea is the result of loose or liquid stools. These loose stools can cause an immediate need for a bowel movement. The need can be so sudden that you don’t have enough time to reach a bathroom.

External hemorrhoids can block the sphincter from closing completely. This allows loose stool and mucus to pass involuntarily.

Muscle damage:
Damage to the anal sphincter will prevent the muscles from keeping the anus tightly closed. Surgery in or near the anorectal region, trauma, and constipation can damage the sphincter muscles.

Nerve damage
If the nerves that control sphincter movement are damaged, the sphincter muscles won’t close properly. When this happens, you may also not feel the urge to go to the bathroom.

Some causes of nerve damage include:

*trauma from giving birth
*chronic constipation
*diabetes mellitus
*multiple sclerosis (MS)

Pelvic floor dysfunction:
Women can undergo damage to the muscles and nerves in their pelvis while giving birth, but symptoms of pelvic floor dysfunction may not be immediately noticeable. They may occur years later. Complications include:

*weakness of the pelvic muscles that are used during bowel movements
*rectal prolapse, which is when the rectum protrudes through the anus
*rectocele, which is when the rectum bulges down into the vagina
*Some men may also develop pelvic floor dysfunction.

Risk Factors:

Anyone can experience bowel incontinence, but certain people are more likely to get it than others. Persons may be at risk if:

*If he or she is over the age of 65
*If the person is a woman
*If a woman who has given birth to more than two children
*If the person has chronic constipation
*If she or he has a disease or injury that caused nerve damage
*If her or his rectal muscles

The helth care provider will take a thorough medical history and physical evaluation to diagnose fecal incontinence.He or she will ask the patient about the frequency of the incontinence and when it occurs, as well as the patient’s regular diet, medications, and health issues.

The following tests may help reach a diagnosis:

*digital examination of the rectal area
*stool culture
*barium enema (fluoroscopic X-ray of the large intestine, including the colon and rectum, with barium contrast)
*blood tests
*electromyography (to test the function of muscles and related nerves)
anorectal ultrasound
*proctography (X-ray video imaging during a bowel movement)


The treatment for fecal incontinence depends on the cause. Some of the treatment options include:

Foods that cause diarrhea or constipation are identified and eliminated from the diet. This can help normalize and regulate bowel movements. The health care provider many recommend an increase in fluids and certain types of fiber.

For diarrhea, antidiarrheal medications such as loperamide (Imodium), codeine, or diphenoxylate/atropine (Lomotil) may be prescribed to slow down large intestine movement, allowing stool passage to be slower. The patient may be adviced to take more fiber supplements for constipation.

Bowel retraining:
Following a bowel retraining routine can encourage normal bowel movements. Aspects of this routine may include:

*sitting on the toilet on a regular schedule
*using rectal suppositories to stimulate bowel movements

Incontinence undergarments:
The patient can wear specially designed undergarments for added protection. These garments are available in disposable and reusable forms, and some brands use technology that minimizes odors.

Kegel exercises:
Kegel exercises strengthen the pelvic floor muscles. These exercises involve a routine of repeatedly contracting the muscles that are used when going to the bathroom. The patient should consulthis or her doctor to learn the correct way to do the exercises.

Biofeedback is an alternative medical technique. With it, he or she learns to use his or her mind to control the bodily functions with the help of sensors.

If one has bowel incontinence, biofeedback will helphim or her to learn how to control and strengthen the sphincter muscles. Sometimes medical equipment used for training is placed in the anus and rectum.The health care provider will then test the rectum and anal sphincter muscle function.

The muscle tone measured is visually displayed on a computer screen so that the patient can observe the strength of the muscle movements. By watching the information (the “feedback”), he or she learns how to improve rectal muscle control (the “bio”).

Surgical treatment is generally reserved for severe cases of fecal incontinence. There are several surgical options available:

*Sphincteroplasty. The torn ends of the anal sphincter are brought back together so that the muscle is strengthened and anal sphincter is tightened.

*Gracilis muscle transplant. The gracilis muscle is transferred from the inner thigh and placed around the anal sphincter muscle to add strength and support.

*Artificial sphincter. An artificial sphincter is a silicone ring that is implanted around the anus. You manually deflate the artificial sphincter to allow for defecation and inflate it to close the anus, which prevents leakage.

*Colostomy. Some people who have severe fecal incontinence choose to undergo surgery for a colostomy. During a colostomy surgery, your surgeon redirects the end of the large intestine to pass through the abdominal wall. A disposable bag is attached to the abdomen around the stoma, which is the portion of the intestine that is attached to the opening made through the abdomen. After the surgery is complete, stools no longer pass through the anus but instead empty from the stoma into a disposable bag.

Solesta is an injectable gel that was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011 for the treatment of fecal incontinence. The goal of Solesta therapy is to increase the amount of rectal tissue.

The gel is injected into the wall of the anus and effectively reduces or completely treats fecal incontinence in some people. It works by causing increased bulk and thickness of the anal tissue, which narrows the anal opening and helps it stay more tightly closed.

Solesta must be administered by a healthcare professional.

For Proper Bowel Movement – Easy Ayurvedic Remedies are:
*Drink Lots of Warm or Hot Water and Herbal Tea: Drink no less than 80 ounce of water or natural tea every day. …

*Expand the Quantity of Organic Oils in Your Diet: Top notch oils grease up the tissues so that a fitting measure of oil or fat can stay in the stool.

Regular Yoga exercise & meditation under the guidance of a proper trainer will cure Bowel incontinence permanently.

Aging, past trauma, and certain medical conditions can lead to fecal incontinence. The condition isn’t always preventable. The risk, however, can be reduced by maintaining regular bowel movements and by keeping the pelvic muscles strong.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.


Ailmemts & Remedies

Mascular Atrophy

Muscle atrophy is the loss of muscle tissue.

Muscle atrophy can occur after long periods of inactivity. If a muscle does not get any use, the body will eventually break it down to conserve energy.

Muscle atrophy that develops due to inactivity can occur if a person remains immobile while they recover from an illness or injury. Getting regular exercise and trying physical therapy may reverse this form of muscle atrophy.

People can treat muscle atrophy by making certain lifestyle changes, trying physical therapy, or undergoing surgery.

Muscle atrophy results from an imbalance between protein synthesis and protein degradation, although the mechanisms are incompletely understood and are variable depending on the cause. Muscle loss can be quantified with advanced imaging studies but this is not frequently pursued. Treatment depends on the underlying cause but will often include exercise and adequate nutrition. Anabolic agents may have some efficacy but are not often used due to side effects. There are multiple treatments and supplements under investigation but there are currently limited treatment options in clinical practice. Given the implications of muscle atrophy and limited treatment options, minimizing immobility is critical in injury or illness.


The hallmark sign of muscle atrophy is loss of lean muscle mass. This change may be difficult to detect due to obesity, changes in fat mass or edema. Changes in weight, limb or waist circumference are not reliable indicators of muscle mass changes.

The predominant symptom is increased weakness which may result in difficulty or inability in performing physical tasks depending on what muscles are affected. Atrophy of the core or leg muscles may cause difficulty standing from a seated position, walking or climbing stairs and can cause increased falls. Atrophy of the throat muscles may cause difficulty swallowing and diaphragm atrophy can cause difficulty breathing. Muscle atrophy can be asymptomatic and may go undetected until a significant amount of muscle is lost.

Skeletal muscle serves as a storage site for amino acids that can be used for energy production when demands are high or supplies are low. If metabolic demands remain greater than protein synthesis, muscle mass is lost. Many diseases and conditions can lead to this imbalance, either through the disease itself or disease associated appetite-changes. Causes of muscle atrophy, include immobility, aging, malnutrition, certain systemic diseases (cancer, congestive heart failure; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; AIDS, liver disease, etc.), deinnervation, intrinsic muscle disease or medications (such as glucocorticoids)

Disuse is a common cause of muscle atrophy and can be local (due to injury or casting) or general (bed-rest). The rate of muscle atrophy from disuse (10-42 days) is approximately 0.5–0.6% of total muscle mass per day although there is considerable variation between people. The elderly are the most vulnerable to dramatic muscle loss with immobility. Much of the established research has investigated prolonged disuse (>10 days), in which the muscle is compromised primarily by declines in muscle protein synthesis rates rather than changes in muscle protein breakdown. There is evidence to suggest that there may be more active protein breakdown during short term immobility (<10 days}

Cachexia:….CLICK & SEE
Certain diseases can cause a complex muscle wasting syndrome known as cachexia. It is commonly seen in cancer, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease and AIDS although it is associated with many disease processes, usually with a significant inflammatory component. Cachexia causes ongoing muscle loss that is not entirely reversed with nutritional therapy. The pathophysiology is incompletely understood but inflammatory cytokines are considered to play a central role. In contrast to weight loss from inadequate caloric intake, cachexia causes predominantly muscle loss instead of fat loss and it is not as responsive to nutritional intervention. Cachexia can significantly compromise quality of life and functional status and is associated with poor outcomes.

Sarcopenia:CLICK & SEE
Sarcopenia is the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength associated with aging. This involves muscle atrophy, reduction in number of muscle fibers and a shift towards “slow twitch” or type I skeletal muscle fibers over “fast twitch” or type II fibers. The rate of muscle loss is dependent on exercise level, co-morbidities, nutrition and other factors. There are many proposed mechanisms of sarcopenia and is considered to be the result of changes in muscle synthesis signalling pathways and gradual failure in the satellite cells which help to regenerate skeletal muscle fibers, but is incompletely understood.

Sarcopenia can lead to reduction in functional status and cause significant disability but is a distinct condition from cachexia although they may co-exist. In 2016 an ICD code for sarcopenia was released, contributing to its acceptance as a disease entity.

Intrinsic muscle diseases:……..CLICK & SEE
Muscle diseases, such as muscular dystrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or myositis such as inclusion body myositis can cause muscle atrophy.

Central nervous system damage:…….CLICK & SEE
Damage to neurons in the brain or spinal cord can cause prominent muscle atrophy. This can be localized muscle atrophy and weakness or paralysis such as in stroke or spinal cord injury. More widespread damage such as in traumatic brain injury or cerebral palsy can cause generalized muscle atrophy.

Peripheral nervous system damage:……..CLICK & SEE
Injuries or diseases of peripheral nerves supplying specific muscles can also cause muscle atrophy. This is seen in nerve injury due to trauma or surgical complication, nerve entrapment, or inherited diseases such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

Some medications are known to cause muscle atrophy, usually due to direct effect on muscles. This includes glucocorticoids causing glucocorticoid myopathy or medications toxic to muscle such as doxorubicin.

Disorders of the endocrine system such as Cushing’s disease or hypothyroidism are known to cause muscle atrophy.

Screening for muscle atrophy is limited by a lack of established diagnostic criteria, although many have been proposed. Diagnostic criteria for other conditions such as sarcopenia or cachexia can be used.[3] These syndromes can also be identified with screening questionnaires.[citation needed]

Muscle mass and changes can be quantified on imaging studies such as CT scans or Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Biomarkers such as urine urea can be used to roughly estimate muscle loss during circumstances of rapid muscle loss. Other biomarkers are currently under investigation but are not used in clinical practice.

Muscle atrophy can be delayed, prevented and sometimes reversed with treatment. Treatment approaches include impacting the signaling pathways that induce muscle hypertrophy or slow muscle breakdown as well as optimizing nutritional status.

Physical activity provides a significant anabolic muscle stimulus and is a crucial component to slowing or reversing muscle atrophy. It is still unknown regarding the ideal exercise “dosing.” Resistance exercise has been shown to be beneficial in reducing muscle atrophy in older adults. In patients who cannot exercise due to physical limitations such as paraplegia, functional electrical stimulation can be used to externally stimulate the muscles.

Adequate calories and protein is crucial to prevent muscle atrophy. Protein needs may vary dramatically depending on metabolic factors and disease state, so high-protein supplementation may be beneficial. Supplementation of protein or branched-chain amino acids, especially leucine, can provide a stimulus for muscle synthesis and inhibit protein breakdown and has been studied for muscle atrophy for sarcopenia and cachexia. ?-Hydroxy ?-methylbutyrate (HMB), a metabolite of leucine which is sold as a dietary supplement, has demonstrated efficacy in preventing the loss of muscle mass in several muscle wasting conditions in humans, particularly sarcopenia. Based upon a meta-analysis of seven randomized controlled trials that was published in 2015, HMB supplementation has efficacy as a treatment for preserving lean muscle mass in older adults.[28] More research is needed to determine the precise effects of HMB on muscle strength and function in various populations.

In severe cases of muscular atrophy, the use of an anabolic steroid such as methandrostenolone may be administered to patients as a potential treatment although use is limited by side effects. A novel class of drugs, called selective androgen receptor modulators, is being investigated with promising results. They would have fewer side effects, while still promoting muscle and bone tissue growth and regeneration. These effects have yet to be confirmed in larger clinical trials.


Prognosis of muscle atrophy depend on the underlying cause and the health of the patient. Immobility or bed rest in populations predisposed to muscle atrophy, such as the elderly or those with disease states that commonly cause cachexia, can cause dramatic muscle atrophy and impact on functional outcomes. In the elderly, this often leads to decreased biological reserve and increased vulnerability to stressors known as the “frailty syndrome.” Loss of lean body mass is also associated with increased risk of infection, decreased immunity, and poor wound healing. The weakness that accompanies muscle atrophy leads to higher risk of falls, fractures, physical disability, need for institutional care, reduced quality of life, increased mortality, and increased healthcare costs

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.


Ailmemts & Remedies

Blood poisoning (sepsis)

Sepsis is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when the body’s response to an infection damages its own tissues. When the infection-fighting processes turn on the body, they cause organs to function poorly and abnormally.

Sepsis may progress to septic shock. This is a dramatic drop in blood pressure that can lead to severe organ problems and death.

Early treatment with antibiotics and intravenous fluids improves chances for survival.



The following are the most common symptoms of sepsis. However, each person may experience symptoms differently.

People with sepsis often develop a hemorrhagic rash—a cluster of tiny blood spots that look like pinpricks in the skin. If untreated, these gradually get bigger and begin to look like fresh bruises. These bruises then join together to form larger areas of purple skin damage and discoloration.

Sepsis develops very quickly. The person rapidly becomes very ill, and may:

*Lose interest in food and surroundings

*Become feverish

*Have a high heart rate

*Become nauseated


*Become sensitive to light

*Complain of extreme pain or discomfort

*Feel cold, with cool hands and feet

*Become lethargic, anxious, confused, or agitated

*Experience a coma and sometimes death

Those who become ill more slowly may also develop some of the signs of meningitis. The symptoms of sepsis may look like other conditions or medical problems. Always see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

These infections are most often associated with sepsis:

*Lung infections (pneumonia)

*Urinary tract infections

*Skin infections

*Infections in the intestines or gut

*These 3 germs most frequently develop into sepsis are:

Staphylococcus aureus (staph)

*Escherichia coli (E. coli)

*Some types of Streptococcus

Risk Factors:
These infections are most often associated with sepsis:

*Lung infections (pneumonia)

*Urinary tract infections

*Skin infections

*Infections in the intestines or gut

These 3 germs most frequently develop into sepsis are:

*Staphylococcus aureus (staph)

*Escherichia coli (E. coli)

*Some types of Streptococcus

The diagnose sepsis, the Doctor will look for a variety of physical finding such as low blood pressure, fever, increased heart rate, and increased breathing rate.He or she will also do a variety of lab tests that check for signs of infection and organ damage. Since some sepsis symptoms (such as fever and trouble breathing) can often be seen in other conditions, sepsis can be hard to diagnose in its initial stages.

Specific treatment for sepsis will be determined by the Doctor based on:

  • Patient’s age, overall health, and medical history

*Extent of the condition

*Tolerance for specific medicines, procedures, or therapies

*Expectations for the course of the condition

  • Patient’s opinion or preference

Sepsis is a life-threatening emergency that needs immediate medical attention. People with sepsis are hospitalized and treatment is started as quickly as possible. Treatment includes antibiotics, managing blood flow to organs, and treating the source of the infection. Many people need oxygen and IV (intravenous) fluids to help get blood flow and oxygen to the organs. Depending on the person, help with breathing with a ventilator or kidney dialysis may be needed. Surgery is sometimes used to remove tissue damaged by the infection.

One of the most important infection control behaviors is hand washing. One should wash hands with clean, running water for at least 20 seconds.

Wash hands:

*Before eating

*After using the toilet

*Before and after caring for a sick person

*Before, during, and after preparing food

*Before and after cleaning a wound or cut

*After blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing

*After touching an animal or handling pet food or pet treats

*After changing diapers or cleaning up after a child who has used the toilet

*After touching garbage

To help keep your immune system strong and prevent sepsis, also:

*Keep cuts clean and covered until healed.

*Manage chronic medical conditions such as diabetes.

*Maintain a healthy weight.

*Eat a healthy well-balanced diet.

*Exercise daily…..Yoga and meditation

*Get recommended vaccinations on schedule.

*When an infected area is not getting better or is getting worse, get medical care.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.


Ailmemts & Remedies

Bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma)

Bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma) occurs when a malignant (cancerous) tumor grows in one of the ducts that transport bile from the liver to the small intestine. It is rare but aggressive type of cancer.

The bile duct system, or ‘biliary’ system, is made up of a series of tubes that begin in the liver and end in the small intestine. Bile is a fluid the digestive system uses to help break down fats and digest foods.

Doctors divide Bile duct cancer into different types based on where the cancer occurs in the bile ducts:

*Intrahepatic Bile duct cancer occurs in the parts of the bile ducts within the liver and is sometimes classified as a type of liver cancer.

*Hilar Bile duct cancer occurs in the bile ducts just outside of the liver. This type is also called perihilar cholangiocarcinoma.

*Distal Bile duct cancer occurs in the portion of the bile duct nearest the small intestine. This type is also called extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

Bile duct cancer is often diagnosed when it’s advanced, making successful treatment difficult to achieve.


In most cases, there are no signs of bile duct cancer until it reaches the later stages, when symptoms can include:

*jaundice – yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes, itchy skin, pale stools and dark-coloured urine

*Unintentional weight loss/or progressive weakness

*Abdominal pain


*Distended gallbladder

The exact cause of bile duct cancer is unknown, although some things can increase the risk of developing the condition.

Cancer begins with a change (mutation) in the structure of the DNA in cells, which can affect how they grow. This means that cells grow and reproduce uncontrollably, producing a lump of tissue called a tumour.

If left untreated, cancer can grow and spread to other parts of your body, either directly or through the blood and lymphatic system.

Risk Factors:
Factors that may increase your risk of cholangiocarcinoma include:

*Primary sclerosing cholangitis. This disease causes hardening and scarring of the bile ducts.

*Chronic liver disease. Scarring of the liver caused by a history of chronic liver disease increases the risk of cholangiocarcinoma.

*Bile duct problems present at birth. People born with a choledochal cyst, which causes dilated and irregular bile ducts, have an increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma.

*A liver parasite. In areas of Southeast Asia, cholangiocarcinoma is associated with liver fluke infection, which can occur from eating raw or undercooked fish.

*Older age. Bile duct cancer occurs most often in adults over age 50.

*Smoking. Smoking is associated with an increased risk of Bile duct cancer.

*Diabetes. People who have type 1 or 2 diabetes may have an increased risk of Bile duct cancer.

*Certain inherited conditions. Some DNA changes passed from parents to children cause conditions that increase the risk of Bile duct cancer. Examples of these conditions include cystic fibrosis and Lynch syndrome.

To diagnosis the patient may have to undergo one or more of the following tests:

*Liver function tests. Blood tests to measure the liver function can give the doctor clues about what’s causing the signs and symptoms.

*Tumor marker test. Checking the level of carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 in blood may give the doctor additional clues about diagnosis. CA 19-9 is a protein that’s overproduced by bile duct cancer cells.

*A high level of CA 19-9 in blood doesn’t mean the patient has bile duct cancer, though. This result can also occur in other bile duct diseases, such as bile duct inflammation and obstruction.

*A test to examine your bile duct with a small camera. During endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), a thin, flexible tube equipped with a tiny camera is passed down your throat and through the digestive tract to the small intestine. The camera is used to examine the area where the bile ducts connect the small intestine.The doctor may also use this procedure to inject dye into the bile ducts to help them show up better on imaging tests.

*Imaging tests. Imaging tests can help the doctor see internal organs and look for signs of cholangiocarcinoma. Techniques used to diagnose bile duct cancer include ultrasound, computerized tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). MRCP is increasingly being used as a noninvasive alternative to ERCP. It offers 3D images without the need for a dye to enhance the images.

*A procedure to remove a sample of tissue for testing. A biopsy is a procedure to remove a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope.

If the suspicious area is located very near where the bile duct joins the small intestine, the doctor may obtain a biopsy sample during ERCP. If the suspicious area is within or near the liver, the doctor may obtain a tissue sample by inserting a long needle through your skin to the affected area (fine-needle aspiration). He or she may use an imaging test, such as an endoscopic ultrasound or CT scan, to guide the needle to the precise area.

How the doctor collects a biopsy sample may influence which treatment options are available to you later. For example, if the bile duct cancer is biopsied by fine-needle aspiration, the patient will become ineligible for liver transplantation.

If the doctor confirms a diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma, he or she tries to determine the extent (stage) of the cancer. Often this involves additional imaging tests. Your cancer’s stage helps determine the prognosis and the treatment options.

Treatments for cholangiocarcinoma (bile duct cancer) may include:

Surgery. When possible, surgeons try to remove as much of the cancer as they can. For very small bile duct cancers, this involves removing part of the bile duct and joining the cut ends. For more-advanced bile duct cancers, nearby liver tissue, pancreas tissue or lymph nodes may be removed as well.

*Liver transplant. Surgery to remove your liver and replace it with one from a donor (liver transplant) may be an option in certain situations for people with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. For many, a liver transplant can be a cure for hilar cholangiocarcinoma, but there is a risk that the cancer will recur after a liver transplant.

*Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy may be used before a liver transplant. It may also be an option for people with advanced cholangiocarcinoma to help slow the disease and relieve signs and symptoms. Chemotherapy drugs can be infused into a vein so that they travel throughout the body. Or the drugs can be administered in a way so that they are delivered directly to the cancer cells.

*Radiation therapy. Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy beams from sources such as X-rays and protons to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy can involve a machine that directs radiation beams at your body (external beam radiation). Or it can involve placing radioactive material inside your body near the site of your cancer (brachytherapy).

*Targeted drug therapy. Targeted drug treatments focus on specific abnormalities present within cancer cells. By blocking these abnormalities, targeted drug treatments can cause cancer cells to die. Your doctor may test your cancer cells to see if targeted therapy may be effective against your cholangiocarcinoma.

*Immunotherapy. Immunotherapy uses your immune system to fight cancer. Your body’s disease-fighting immune system may not attack your cancer because the cancer cells produce proteins that help them hide from the immune system cells. Immunotherapy works by interfering with that process. For cholangiocarcinoma, immunotherapy might be an option for advanced cancer when other treatments haven’t helped.

*Heating cancer cells. Radiofrequency ablation uses electric current to heat and destroy cancer cells. Using an imaging test as a guide, such as ultrasound, the doctor inserts one or more thin needles into small incisions in your abdomen. When the needles reach the cancer, they’re heated with an electric current, destroying the cancer cells.

*Photodynamic therapy. In photodynamic therapy, a light-sensitive chemical is injected into a vein and accumulates in the fast-growing cancer cells. Laser light directed at the cancer causes a chemical reaction in the cancer cells, killing them. You’ll typically need multiple treatments. Photodynamic therapy can help relieve your signs and symptoms, and it may also slow cancer growth. You’ll need to avoid sun exposure after treatments.
Biliary drainage. Biliary drainage is a procedure to restore the flow of bile. It might involve placing a thin tube into the bile duct in order to drain the bile. Other strategies include bypass surgery to reroute the bile around the cancer and stents to hold open a bile duct being collapsed by cancer. Biliary drainage helps relieve signs and symptoms of cholangiocarcinoma.

Because cholangiocarcinoma is a very difficult type of cancer to treat, don’t hesitate to ask about your doctor’s experience with treating the condition. If you have any doubts, get a second opinion.


Prognosis: The outlook (prognosis) for people with cholangiocarcinoma is usually poor. The five-year survival rate for bile duct cancer that hasn’t spread outside of the bile ducts is 10% to 15%. This rate drops to 2% if the cancer spreads to areas of the body that are far from the bile ducts, such as the lungs. But newer treatments mean these rates will improve over time.

To reduce your risk of cholangiocarcinoma, you can:

*Stop smoking. Smoking is linked to an increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma. If you smoke, stop. If you have tried quitting in the past and haven’t been successful, talk with your doctor about strategies to help you quit.

*Reduce your risk of liver disease. Chronic liver disease is associated with an increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma. Some causes of liver disease can’t be prevented, but others can. Do what you can to take care of your liver.

For instance, to reduce your risk of liver inflammation (cirrhosis), drink alcohol in moderation, if you choose to drink. For healthy adults, that means up to one drink a day for women and up to two drinks a day for men. Maintain a healthy weight. When working with chemicals, follow the safety instructions.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.


Ailmemts & Remedies

Atopic eczema


Atopic eczema is a condition that causes dry, itchy and inflamed skin. It’s common in young children but can occur at any age. It is long lasting (chronic) and tends to flare sometimes. It can be irritating but it’s not contagious.


People with atopic eczema are at risk of developing food allergies, hay fever and asthma.

Moisturizing regularly and following other skin care habits can relieve itching and prevent new outbreaks (flares). Treatment may also include medicated ointments or creams.

This type of eczema can appar anywhere on the body and vary widely from person to person. The symptoms may include:

*Dry, cracked skin
*Itchiness (pruritus)
*Rash on swollen skin that varies in color depending on your skin color
*Small, raised bumps, on brown or Black skin
*Oozing and crusting
*Thickened skin
*Darkness of the skin around the eyes
*Raw, sensitive skin from scratching

Atopic eczema often begins before age 5 and may continue into the teen and adult years. For some people, it flares and then clears up for a time, even for several years.

In some people, atopic dermatitis is related to a gene variation that affects the skin’s ability to provide protection. With a weak barrier function, the skin is less able to retain moisture and protect against bacteria, irritants, allergens and environmental factors — such as tobacco smoke.

In other people, this is caused by too much of the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus on the skin. This displaces helpful bacteria and disrupts the skin’s barrier function.

A weak skin barrier function might also trigger an immune system response that causes the inflamed skin and other symptoms.

Atopic eczema is one of several types of dermatitis. Other common types are contact dermatitis and seborrheic dermatitis (dandruff). Dermatitis isn’t contagious.

Risk factors:
The main risk factor is it is very bothersome,having breathing problem,eczimz and fever and restlessness.


To diagnose atopic eczima, the doctor will likely talk with the patient about the symptoms, examine his or her skin and review the past medical history. The patient may need tests to identify allergies and rule out other skin diseases.

If certain food caused the child’s rash, then the doctor will determine about potential food allergies.

Patch testing:
The doctor may recommend patch testing of skin. In this test, small amounts of different substances are applied on the skin and then covered. During visits over the next few days, the doctor looks at the skin for signs of a reaction. Patch testing can help diagnose specific types of allergies causing the eczima.

The main treatments for atopic eczema are:

!. Emollients (moisturisers) – used every day to stop the skin becoming dry.

  1. Topical corticosteroids– creams and ointments used to reduce swelling and redness during flare-ups.

The Food and Drug Administration requires that these products have a black box warning about the risk of lymphoma. This warning is based on rare cases of lymphoma among people using topical calcineurin inhibitors. After 10 years of study, no causal relationship between these products and lymphoma and no increased risk of cancer have been found.

*Drugs to fight infection. The doctor may prescribe antibiotic pills to treat an infection.

*Pills that control inflammation. For more-severe eczema, your health care provider may prescribe pills to help control your symptoms. Options might include cyclosporine, methotrexate, prednisone, mycophenolate and azathioprine. These pills are effective but can’t be used long term because of potential serious side effects.

*Other options for severe eczema. The injectable biologics (monoclonal antibodies) dupilumab (Dupixent) and tralokinumab (Adbry) might be options for people with moderate to severe disease who don’t respond well to other treatment. Studies show that it’s safe and effective in easing the symptoms of atopic dermatitis. Dupilumab is for people over age 6. Tralokinumab is for adults.


There’s no cure, but many children find their symptoms naturally improve as they get older. The main treatments for atopic eczema are: emollients (moisturisers) – used every day to stop the skin becoming dry. topical corticosteroids – creams and ointments used to reduce swelling and redness during flare-ups.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.