Iontophoresis

Definition:
Iontophoresis is a process of transdermal drug delivery by use of a voltage gradient on the skin. Molecules are transported across the stratum corneum by electrophoresis and electroosmosis and the electric field can also increase the permeability of the skin. These phenomena, directly and indirectly, constitute active transport of matter due to an applied electric current. The transport is measured in units of chemical flux, commonly µmol/(cm2*hour). Iontophoresis has experimental, therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

Uses:
Laboratory uses:
Iontophoresis is useful in laboratory experiments, especially in neuropharmacology.[5] Transmitter molecules naturally pass signals between neurons. By microelectrophoretic techniques, including microiontophoresis, neurotransmitters and other chemical agents can be artificially administered very near living and naturally functioning neurons, the activity of which can be simultaneously recorded. This is used to elucidate their pharmacological properties and natural roles.

Therapeutic uses:
Therapeutically, electromotive drug administration (EMDA) delivers a medicine or other chemical through the skin. In a manner of speaking, it is an injection without a needle, and may be described as non-invasive. It is different from dermal patches, which do not rely on an electric field. It drives a charged substance, usually a medication or bioactive agent, transdermally by repulsive electromotive force, through the skin. A small electric current is applied to an iontophoretic chamber placed on the skin, containing a charged active agent and its solvent vehicle. Another chamber or a skin electrode carries the return current. One or two chambers are filled with a solution containing an active ingredient and its solvent vehicle. The positively charged chamber, called the anode, will repel a positively charged chemical species, whereas the negatively charged chamber, called the cathode, will repel a negatively charged species into the skin.

It is used to treat some types of palmar-plantar hyperhidrosis. In the treatment of hyperhidrosis, tap water is often the chosen solution for mild and medium forms. In very serious cases of hyperhidrosis, a solution containing glycopyrronium bromide or glycopyrrolate, a cholinergic inhibitor, can be used.

Diagnostic uses:
Iontophoresis of acetylcholine is used in research as a way to test the health of the endothelium by stimulating endothelium-dependent generation of nitric oxide and subsequent microvascular vasodilation. Acetylcholine is positively charged and is therefore placed in the anode chamber.

Pilocarpine iontophoresis is often used to stimulate sweat secretion, as part of cystic fibrosis diagnosis.

Reverse iontophoresis is a technique by which molecules are removed from within the body for detection. The negative charge of the skin at buffered pH causes it to be permselective to cations such as sodium and potassium ions, allowing iontophoresis which causes electroosmosis, solvent flow towards the anode. Electroosmosis then causes electrophoresis, by which neutral molecules, including glucose, are transported across the skin. This is currently being used in such devices as the GlucoWatch, which allows for blood glucose detection across skin layers.

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Therapetic use in excessive sewating:

During this treatment, you sit with your hands, feet, or both in a shallow tray of water for about 20 to 30 minutes, while a low electrical current travels through the water. No one knows exactly how this treatment works, but experts believe it blocks sweat from getting to your skin’s surface. You’ll have to repeat this treatment at least a few times a week, but after several times you may stop sweating. Once you learn how to do iontophoresis, you can buy a machine to use at home. Some people only require a couple of treatments a month for maintenance.

CLICK TO SEE : Iontophoresis in Pain Management

Caution: Reliability of sources needs checking by experts in these fields.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iontophoresis

Mushrooms may ‘reduce the risk of mild brain decline

Eating mushrooms more than twice a week could prevent memory and language problems occurring in the over-60s, research from Singapore suggests.
A unique antioxidant present in mushrooms could have a protective effect on the brain, the study found.

The more mushrooms people ate, the better they performed in tests of thinking and processing.
But researchers said it was not possible to prove a direct link between the fungi and brain function.
The National University of Singapore study’s findings were based on 663 Chinese adults, aged over 60, whose diet and lifestyle were tracked from 2011 to 2017.

Over the six-year study, the researchers found that eating mushrooms lowered the chances of mild cognitive impairment, so that roughly nine out of 100 people who ate more than two portions a week were diagnosed, compared with 19 out of 100 among those who ate fewer than one portion.

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‘Encouraging’
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can make people forgetful, affect their memory and cause problems with language, attention and locating objects in spaces – but the changes can be subtle.

It is not serious enough to be defined as dementia.
The participants in the study were asked how often they ate six different types of mushrooms: oyster, shiitake, white button, dried, golden and tinned.
Mushroom eaters performed better in brain tests and were found to have faster processing speed – and this was particularly noticeable in those who ate more than two portions a week, or more than 300g (10.5oz).

“This correlation is surprising and encouraging,” said assistant professor Lei Feng, the lead study author, from the university’s department of psychological medicine.

“It seems that a commonly available single ingredient could have a dramatic effect on cognitive decline.
“But we are talking about a combination of many factors – tea, green leafy vegetables, nuts and fish are also beneficial.”

The researchers point to the fact that mushrooms are one of the richest dietary sources of ergothioneine – an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory which humans are unable to make on their own.

Mushrooms also contain other important nutrients and minerals such as vitamin D, selenium and spermidine, which protect neurons from damage.
But there is still a long way to go before evidence of a direct link can be established.

Resources:
BBC NEWS : (https://www.bbc.com/news/health-47554966)

Dyslipidemia

Definition:

Dyslipidemia is an abnormal amount of lipids (e.g. triglycerides, cholesterol and/or fat phospholipids) in the blood. In developed countries, most dyslipidemias are hyperlipidemias; that is, an elevation of lipids in the blood. This is often due to diet and lifestyle. Prolonged elevation of insulin levels can also lead to dyslipidemia. Likewise, increased levels of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) may cause dyslipidemia.

A disorder of lipoprotein metabolism, including lipoprotein overproduction or deficiency. Dyslipidemias may be manifested by elevation of the total cholesterol, the “bad” low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and the triglyceride concentrations, and a decrease in the “good” high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration in the blood.

Dyslipidemia comes under consideration in many situations including diabetes, a common cause of hyperlipidemia. For adults with diabetes, it has been recommended that the levels of LDL, HDL, and total cholesterol, and triglyceride be measured every year. Optimal LDL cholesterol levels for adults with diabetes are less than 100 mg/dL (2.60 mmol/L), optimal HDL cholesterol levels are e4qual to or greater than 40 mg/dL (1.02 mmol/L), and desirable triglyceride levels are less than 150 mg/dL (1.7 mmol/L).

From dys- + lipid (fat) + -emia (in the blood) = essentially, disordered lipids in the blood.

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Symptoms:

*Leg pain, especially when walking or standing
*Chest pain
*Tightness or pressure in the chest and shortness of breath
*Pain, tightness, and pressure in the neck, jaw, shoulders, and back
*Indigestion and heartburn
*Sleep problems and daytime exhaustion
*Dizziness
*Heart palpitations
*Cold sweats
*Vomiting and nausea
*Swelling in the legs, ankles, feet, stomach, and veins of the neck
*Fainting

These symptoms may get worse with activity or stress and get better when a person rests.

Types and causes:
Dyslipidemia can be categorized into two types, based on the cause:

Primary dyslipidemia:

Dyslipidemia can be diagnosed with a blood test.
Genetic factors cause primary dyslipidemia, and it is inherited. Common causes of primary dyslipidemia include:

*Familial combined hyperlipidemia, which develops in teenagers and young adults and can lead to high cholesterol.
*Familial hyperapobetalipoproteinemia, a mutation in a group of LDL lipoproteins called apolipoproteins.
*Familial hypertriglyceridemia, which leads to high triglyceride levels.
*Homozygous familial or polygenic hypercholesterolemia, a mutation in LDL receptors.

Secondary dyslipidemia:

Secondary dyslipidemia is caused by lifestyle factors or medical conditions that interfere with blood lipid levels over time.

Common causes of secondary dyslipidemia include:

*Obesity, especially excess weight around the waist
*Diabetes
*Hypothyroidism
*Alcohol use disorder, also known as alcoholism
*Polycystic ovary syndrome
*Metabolic syndrome
*Excessive consumption of fats, especially saturated and trans fats
*Cushing’s syndrome
*Inflammatory bowel disease, commonly known as IBS
*Severe infections, such as HIV
*An abdominal aortic aneurysm

Treatment :

Treatment for dyslipidemia will usually involve taking medication.
A doctor will usually focus on lowering a person’s levels of triglycerides and LDL. However, treatment can vary, depending on the underlying cause of dyslipidemia and how severe it is.

Doctors may prescribe one or more lipid-modifying medications for people with very high total cholesterol levels of at least 200 milligrams per deciliter of blood.

High cholesterol is usually treated with statins, which interfere with the production of cholesterol in the liver.

If statins fail to lower LDL and triglyceride levels, a doctor may recommend additional medications, including:

*Ezetimibe
*Niacin
*Fibrates
*Bile acid sequestrants
*Evolocumab and alirocumab
*Lomitapide and mipomersen
Some lifestyle changes and supplements can help to encourage healthy blood lipid levels.

Natural treatments include:

*Reducing the consumption of unhealthy fats, such as those found in red meats, full-fat dairy products, refined carbohydrates, chocolate, chips, and fried foods
*Exercising regularly (Specially Yoga with Pranayama)
*Maintaining a healthy body weight, by losing weight if necessary
*Reducing or avoiding alcohol consumption
*Quitting smoking and other use of tobacco products
*Avoiding sitting for long periods of time
*Increasing consumption of healthy polyunsaturated fats, such as those found in nuts, seeds, legumes, fish, whole grains, and olive oil
*Taking omega-3 oil, either as a liquid or in capsules
*Eating plenty of dietary fiber from whole fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
*Getting at least 6– 8 hours of sleep a night
*Drinking plenty of water

Outlook :

People with minor dyslipidemia usually have no symptoms. They can often manage or resolve the condition by making lifestyle adjustments.

People with dyslipidemia should contact a doctor if they experience symptoms relating to the heart or circulation, including:

*Chest pains or tightness
*Dizziness
*Heart palpitations
*Exhaustion
*Swelling of the ankles and feet
*Trouble breathing
*Cold sweats
*Nausea and heartburn
People who have severe dyslipidemia, especially those with other medical conditions, may need to manage their blood lipid levels with medication, in addition to making lifestyle changes.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dyslipidemia
https://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=33979
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/321844.php

Mulberry fruit

Botanical Name: Morus nigra
Family: Moraceae
Tribe: Moreae
Genus: Morus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Common Names: The closely related genus Broussonetia is also commonly known as mulberry, notably the paper mulberry, Broussonetia papyrifera.

Habitat:
Black, red, and white mulberry are widespread in southern Europe, the Middle East, northern Africa and Indian subcontinent, where the tree and the fruit have names under regional dialects.

Spacis:
Over 150 species are there but out of them the following species are accepted by the Kew Plant List as of August 2015:-

Morus alba L. – White mulberry (China, Korea, Japan)
Morus australis Poir. – Chinese mulberry (China, Japan, Indian Subcontinent, Myanmar)
Morus cathayana Hemsl. – China, Japan, Korea
Morus celtidifolia Kunth – (North and South America)
Morus indica – L. – India, Southeast Asia
Morus insignis – Bureau – Central America and South America
Morus japonica Audib. – Japan
Morus liboensis S.S. Chang – Guizhou Province in China
Morus macroura Miq. – Long mulberry (Tibet, Himalayas, Indochina)
Morus mesozygia Stapf – African mulberry (south and central Africa)
Morus mongolica (Bureau) C.K. Schneid. – China, Mongolia, Korea, Japan
Morus nigra L. – Black mulberry (Iran, Caucasus, Levant)
Morus notabilis C.K. Schneid. – Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces in China
Morus rubra L. – Red mulberry (eastern North America)
Morus serrata Roxb. – Tibet, Nepal, northwestern India
Morus trilobata (S.S. Chang) Z.Y. Cao – Guizhou Province in China
Morus wittiorum Hand.-Mazz. – southern China

Description:
Mulberries, growing wild and under cultivation in many temperate world regions.

Mulberries are fast-growing when young, but soon become slow-growing and rarely exceed 10–15 metres (30–50 ft) tall. The leaves are alternately arranged, simple and often lobed and serrated on the margin. Lobes are more common on juvenile shoots than on mature trees.[citation needed] The trees can be monoecious or dioecious. The mulberry fruit is a multiple fruit, approximately 2–3 cm (3?4–1 1?4 in) long. Immature fruits are white, green, or pale yellow. In most species the fruits turn pink and then red while ripening, then dark purple or black, and have a sweet flavor when fully ripe. The fruits of the white-fruited cultivar are white when ripe; the fruit of this cultivar is also sweet, but has a mild flavor compared with darker varieties. Although quite similar looking, they are not to be confused with blackberries.

Botanically the fruit is not a berry but a collective fruit, in appearance like a swollen loganberry. When the flowers are pollinated, they and their fleshy bases begin to swell. Ultimately they become completely altered in texture and color, becoming succulent, fat and full of juice. In appearance, each tiny swollen flower roughly resembles the individual drupe of a blackberry. The color of the fruit does not identify the mulberry species. White mulberries, for example, can produce white, lavender or black fruit. White mulberry fruits are generally very sweet but often lacking in needed tartness. Red mulberry fruits are usually deep red, almost black, and in the best clones have a flavor that almost equals that of the black mulberry. Black mulberry fruits are large and juicy, with a good balance of sweetness and tartness that makes them the best flavored species of mulberry. The refreshing tart taste is in some ways reminiscent of grapefruit. Mulberries ripen over an extended period of time unlike many other fruits which seem to come all at once.

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Cultivation:
Mulberries can be grown from seed, and this is often advised as seedling-grown trees are generally of better shape and health, but they are most often planted from large cuttings which root readily. The mulberry plants which are allowed to grow tall with a crown height of 1.5 to 1.8 metres (5 to 6 ft) from ground level and a stem girth of 10–13 cm (4–5 in). They are specially raised with the help of well-grown saplings 8–10 months old of any of the varieties recommended for rainfed areas like S-13 (for red loamy soil) or S-34 (black cotton soil) which are tolerant to drought or soil-moisture stress conditions. Usually, the plantation is raised and in block formation with a spacing of 1.8 by 1.8 m (6 by 6 ft), or 2.4 by 2.4 m (8 by 8 ft), as plant to plant and row to row distance. The plants are usually pruned once a year during the monsoon season to a height of 1.5–1.8 m (5–6 ft) and allowed to grow with a maximum of 8–10 shoots at the crown. The leaves are harvested three or four times a year by a leaf-picking method under rain-fed or semiarid conditions, depending on the monsoon. The tree branches pruned during the fall season (after the leaves have fallen) are cut and used to make durable baskets supporting agriculture and animal husbandry.

Mulberry tree scion wood can easily be grafted onto other mulberry trees during the winter, when the tree is dormant. One common scenario is converting a problematic male mulberry tree to an allergy-free female tree, by grafting all-female mulberry tree scions to a male mulberry that has been pruned back to the trunk. However, any new growth from below the graft(s) must be removed, as they would be from the original male mulberry tree.

Anthocyanin content depends on climate and area of cultivation, and is particularly high in sunny climates. This finding holds promise for tropical countries that grow mulberry trees as part of the practice of sericulture to profit from industrial anthocyanin production through the recovery of anthocyanins from the mulberry fruit.

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Edible Uses:
The ripe fruit is edible and is widely used in pies, tarts, wines, cordials, and herbal teas.Jams and sherbets are often made from the fruit. The fruit of the black mulberry (native to southwest Asia) and the red mulberry (native to eastern North America) have the strongest flavor, which has been likened to ‘fireworks in the mouth’.

Medicinal Uses:
Mulberry fruit was much used in folk medicine, especially in the treatment of ringworm. Mulberries are also widespread in Greece, particularly in the Peloponnese, which in the Middle Ages was known as Morea, deriving from the Greek word for the tree ( mouria).

The fruit and leaves are sold in various forms as nutritional supplements. The mature plant contains significant amounts of resveratrol, particularly in stem bark. Unripe fruit and green parts of the plant have a white sap that may be toxic, stimulating, or mildly hallucinogenic.

Other Uses:
Mulberry leaves, particularly those of the white mulberry, are ecologically important as the sole food source of the silkworm (Bombyx mori, named after the mulberry genus Morus), the cocoon of which is used to make silk. The wild silk moth also eats mulberry. Other Lepidoptera larvae—which include the common emerald, lime hawk-moth, sycamore moth, and fall webworm—also eat the plant. Black mulberry was imported to Britain in the 17th century in the hope that it would be useful in the cultivation of silkworms.

Mulberry fruit color derives from anthocyanins, which are under basic research for mechanisms of various diseases. Anthocyanins are responsible for the attractive colors of fresh plant foods, including orange, red, purple, black, and blue. These colors are water-soluble and easily extractable, yielding natural food colorants. Due to a growing demand for natural food colorants, their significance in the food industry is increasing.

A cheap and industrially feasible method has been developed to extract anthocyanins from mulberry fruit which could be used as a fabric tanning agent or food colorant of high color value (above 100). Scientists found that, of 31 Chinese mulberry cultivars tested, the total anthocyanin yield varied from 148 to 2725 mg per liter of fruit juice.[24] All the sugars, acids, and vitamins of the fruit remained intact in the residual juice after removal of the anthocyanins, so the juice could be used to produce products such as juice, wine, and sauce.

During the Angkorian age of the Khmer Empire of Southeast Asia, monks at Buddhist temples made paper from the bark of mulberry trees. The paper was used to make books, known as kraing.

This offers a challenging task to the mulberry germplasm resources for:

*Exploration and collection of fruit yielding mulberry species
*Their characterization, cataloging, and evaluation for anthocyanin content by using traditional, as well as modern, means and biotechnology tools
*Developing an information system about these cultivars or varieties
*Training and global coordination of genetic stocks
*Evolving suitable breeding strategies to improve the anthocyanin content in potential breeds by collaboration with various research stations in the field of sericulture, plant genetics, and breeding, biotechnology and pharmacology

Cultural uses:
A Babylonian etiological myth, which Ovid incorporated in his Metamorphoses, attributes the reddish-purple color of the mulberry fruits to the tragic deaths of the lovers Pyramus and Thisbe. Meeting under a mulberry tree (probably the native Morus nigra),[27] Thisbe commits suicide by sword after Pyramus was killed by the lioness because he believed that Thisbe was eaten by her. Their splashed blood stained the previously white fruit, and the gods forever changed the mulberry’s colour to honour their forbidden love.

The nursery rhyme “Here We Go Round the Mulberry Bush” uses the tree in the refrain, as do some contemporary American versions of the nursery rhyme “Pop Goes the Weasel”.

Vincent van Gogh featured the mulberry tree in some of his paintings, notably Mulberry Tree (Mûrier, 1889, now in Pasadena’s Norton Simon Museum). He painted it after a stay at an asylum, and he considered it a technical success.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morus_%28plant%29
https://www.crfg.org/pubs/ff/mulberry.html

Cryosurgery

Definition:
Cryosurgery is the use of extreme cold in surgery to destroy abnormal or diseased tissue; thus, it is the surgical application of cryoablation. The term comes from the Greek words cryo.

It is a proceedure of destruction of tissue by application of extreme cold; silver nitrate and solid carbon dioxide are commonly used. Uses include treatment of certain malignant lesions of the skin and mucous membranes, early removal of malignant lesions of the uterine cervix, and treatment of tumors that cannot be handled with traditional surgical techniques.

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Cryosurgery has been historically used to treat a number of diseases and disorders, especially a variety of benign and malignant skin conditions.
Cryotherapy procedures are usually performed in the doctor’s office.

Uses:
Warts, moles, skin tags, solar keratoses, Morton’s neuroma and small skin cancers are candidates for cryosurgical treatment. Several internal disorders are also treated with cryosurgery, including liver cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, oral cancers, cervical disorders and, more commonly in the past, hemorrhoids. Soft tissue conditions such as plantar fasciitis[4] (jogger’s heel) and fibroma (benign excrescence of connective tissue) can be treated with cryosurgery. Generally, all tumors that can be reached by the cryoprobes used during an operation are treatable. Although found to be effective, this method of treatment is only appropriate for use against localized disease, and solid tumors larger than 1 cm. Tiny, diffuse metastases that often coincide with cancers are usually not affected by cryotherapy.

Cryosurgery works by taking advantage of the destructive force of freezing temperatures on cells. When their temperature sinks beyond a certain level ice crystals begin forming inside the cells and, because of their lower density, eventually tear apart those cells. Further harm to malignant growth will result once the blood vessels supplying the affected tissue begin to freeze.

Specific examples include nerve irritation between the ribs (intercostal neuralgia), cluneal nerve entrapment, ilioinguinal neuroma, hypogastric neuromas, lateral femoral cutaneous nerve entrapment, and interdigital neuromas. Many forms of nerve entrapment can often be treated with cryotherapy.

Method of doing:

Liquid nitrogen
A common method of freezing lesions is using liquid nitrogen as the cooling solution. This ?196 °C (?321 °F) cold liquid may be sprayed on the diseased tissue, circulated through a tube called a cryoprobe, or simply dabbed on with a cotton or foam swab.

Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide is also available as a spray and is used to treat a variety of benign spots. Less frequently, doctors use carbon dioxide “snow” formed into a cylinder or mixed with acetone to form a slush that is applied directly to the treated tissue.

Argon
Recent advances in technology have allowed for the use of argon gas to drive ice formation using a principle known as the Joule-Thomson effect. This gives physicians excellent control of the ice, and minimizing complications using ultra-thin 17 gauge cryoneedles.

Freeze sprays
A mixture of dimethyl ether and propane is used in some “freeze spray” preparations such as Dr. Scholl’s Freeze Away. The mixture is stored in an aerosol spray type container at room temperature and drops to ?41 °C (?42 °F) when dispensed. The mixture is often dispensed into a straw with a cotton-tipped swab. Similar products may use tetrafluoroethane or other substances.

Pruducts:
Cryosurgical systems
A number of medical supply companies have developed cryogen delivery systems for cryosurgery. Most are based on the use of liquid nitrogen, although some employ the use of proprietary mixtures of gases that combine to form the cryogen.

In cancer treatment
Cryosurgery is also used to treat internal and external tumors as well as tumors in the bone. To cure internal tumors, a hollow instrument called a cryoprobe is used, which is placed in contact with the tumor. Liquid nitrogen or argon gas is passed through the cryoprobe. Ultrasound or MRI is used to guide the cryoprobe and monitor the freezing of the cells. This helps in limiting damage to adjacent healthy tissues. A ball of ice crystals forms around the probe which results in freezing of nearby cells. When it is required to deliver gas to various parts of the tumor, more than one probe is used. After cryosurgery, the frozen tissue is either naturally absorbed by the body in the case of internal tumors, or it dissolves and forms a scab for external tumors.

Proceedures:
Your preparation for cryosurgery depends on the type of cryosurgery being performed. Cryosurgery for skin cancer, which is the main reason cryosurgery is used, requires little preparation on your part.

If your doctor is treating an internal organ with cryosurgery, you’ll probably be given the same instructions that you’d get before traditional surgery. You’ll be asked to fast for 12 hours beforehand and arrange for a ride home from the procedure.

Before the procedure, tell your doctor if you have an allergy to anesthesia, as well as any and all medicine you’re taking, including over-the-counter medications and nutritional supplements.

Your doctor will provide you with complete instructions for preparing for the surgery. It’s important that you follow them.

Your doctor will place liquid nitrogen on your skin using a cotton swab or spray. A numbing medicine may be used to prevent any pain or discomfort.

If an internal area is being treated, your surgeon will use a scope, which is a flexible tube that can fit into various openings in your body, such as the urethra, rectum, or a surgical incision. The liquid nitrogen is fed to the area under treatment and applied to the targeted cells. The cells freeze, die, and then will be slowly absorbed by your body.

Your doctor will use imaging equipment, such as an ultrasound, as a guide for carrying out the procedure.

Results
Cryosurgery is a minimally invasive procedure, and is often preferred to more traditional kinds of surgery because of its minimal pain, scarring, and cost; however, as with any medical treatment, there are risks involved, primarily that of damage to nearby healthy tissue. Damage to nerve tissue is of particular concern.

Patients undergoing cryosurgery usually experience redness and minor-to-moderate localized pain, which most of the time can be alleviated sufficiently by oral administration of mild analgesics such as ibuprofen, codeine or acetaminophen (paracetamol). Blisters may form as a result of cryosurgery, but these usually scab over and peel away within a few days.

Side effects:
While cryotherapy can reduce unwanted nerve irritation, it sometimes can leave the tissue affected with unusual sensations, such as numbness or tingling, or with redness and irritation of the skin. But these effects are generally temporary.

Risk factors:
Cryosurgery does have risks, but they’re considered lower than other cancer treatments, such as surgery and radiation.

The risks associated with cryosurgery include:

*blisters
*damage to nearby healthy tissue or vessels
*infection
*a loss of sensation if nerves are affected
*pain
*scarring
*sexual dysfunction
*ulcers
*white skin at the site of the surgery

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryosurgery
https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/cryosurgery
https://www.healthline.com/health/cryosurgery#purpose