Ant stings

Description:
There are only rare examples of stinging ants. Some notable examples include Solenopsis (fire ants), Pachycondyla, Myrmecia (bulldog ants), and Paraponera (bullet ants). In the case of fire ants, the venom consists of alkaloid and protein components. Stinging ants cause a cutaneous condition that is different from that caused by biting venomous ants. Particularly painful are stings from fire ants, although the bullet ant’s sting is considered by some to be the most painful insect sting.

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First aid for fire ant bites includes external treatments and oral medicines.

External treatments: a topical steroid cream (hydrocortisone), or one containing Aloe vera
Oral medicines: antihistamines
Applying zinc oxide or calamine lotion .
Severe allergic reactions can be caused by ant stings in particular and venomous stings in general, including severe chest pain, nausea, severe sweating, loss of breath, serious swelling, fever, dizziness, and slurred speech; they can be fatal if not treated.

Symptoms:
Most sting symptoms are minor and involve moderate or intense pain that will go away within several hours. Other symptoms such as redness and swelling occur around the sting site. However, depending upon the age of the person stung, the number of stings inflicted and the degree of allergic reaction to the ant’s venom, more serious symptoms and perhaps anaphylaxis may occur.

Anaphylaxis:
Anaphylaxis is a complex response, but is simply a potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that may occur within a very short period of time after exposure to the allergen. Signs of an allergic reaction may include sneezing, wheezing, hives, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sudden anxiety, dizziness, difficulty breathing, chest tightness, itching or swelling of the eyes, lips, or other areas of the face, rapid loss of blood pressure, fainting and coma. While not always the case, a person is who highly allergic to wasp and bee stings may be highly allergic to ant stings. Always seek the advice and assistance of a physician when bitten or stung by ants.

Cause:
Why do they sting?
Ants bite and sting for two reasons: they are either protecting their nest and nest-mates or they are biting and stinging other animals they consume as prey. Fire ants, as well as other aggressive ants, will also sting pets. If stung by an ant, pets may hold up their leg or paw so they do not put pressure on that limb when moving. Another sign of ant stings in pets is frequent licking of the sting site. Fire ant stings on pets usually appear as small bumps that show up on the parts of the pet’s body with little or no hair, like the ears and belly.

Treatment:
Treat mild sting reactions by washing the affected area with soap and water and covering it with a bandage. Applying ice can reduce the pain. Topical treatments include over-the-counter steroid creams and antihistamines to reduce pain and itch.

Texas A&M University recommends a home remedy solution of half bleach, half water. Other home remedies include diluted ammonium solution, aloe vera, or astringents like witch hazel. These remedies may offer some relief, but there is no hard evidence to support their use.

The sting and bite marks should go away in about a week. Scratching can cause the affected area to become infected, which can make sting and bite marks last longer.

Prevention:
The best way to avoid ant stings is to stay away from ants. If you see a nest, resist the temptation to disturb it. Wear shoes and socks when working and playing outside. If you are attacked by fire ants, move away from the nest and brush the ants off with a cloth or while wearing gloves so they can’t sting your hands.

Ant colonies are hard to destroy. There are some poisonous baits that when applied regularly may get rid of ants. The most common is a pesticide called piretherine. The best time to use bait against ants is during the fall, when ants are less active. Professional pest control companies treat ants where they are common. Dousing a ant hill with boiling water can also be effective for killing the ants, but it is also likely to cause the survivors to attack.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ant_venom

Ant Stings


https://www.healthline.com/health/fire-ant-bites

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Spider Bites

Description:
A spider bite, also known as arachnidism, is an injury resulting from the bite of a spider. The effects of most bites are not serious. Most bites result in mild symptoms around the area of the bite. Rarely they may produce a necrotic skin wound or severe pain.

Many bites attributed to spiders turn out to have been inflicted by other bugs. Skin infections also have been mistaken for spider bites.

Only a few types of spiders have fangs long enough to penetrate human skin and venom strong enough to severely affect a human being. In the United States, these include the black widow spider and the brown recluse spider.

Black widow spider bites can cause severe abdominal pain or cramping. Brown recluse spider bites can cause a sting or sharp pain, like a bee sting. With severe bites, surrounding skin may die within a few hours. Both types of spiders generally live in undisturbed areas, such as attics or sheds. And they don’t bite unless threatened.

Efforts to prevent bites include clearing clutter and the use of pesticides. Most spider bites are managed with supportive care such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (including ibuprofen) for pain and antihistamines for itchiness. Opioids may be used if the pain is severe. While an antivenom exists for black widow spider venom, it is associated with anaphylaxis and therefore not commonly used in the United States. Antivenom against funnel web spider venom improves outcomes. Surgery may be required to repair the area of injured skin from some recluse bites.

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Spider bites may be overdiagnosed or misdiagnosed. In many reports of spider bites it is unclear if a spider bite actually occurred. Historically a number of conditions were attributed to spider bites. In the Middle Ages a condition claimed to arise from spider bites was tarantism, where people danced wildly. While necrosis has been attributed to the bites of a number of spiders, good evidence only supports this for recluse spiders

Symotoms:
Almost all spiders are venomous, but not all spider bites result in the injection of venom. Pain from non-venomous, so-called “dry bites” typically lasts for 5 to 60 minutes while pain from envenomating spider bites may last for longer than 24 hours. Bleeding also may occur with a bite. Signs of a bacterial infection due to a spider bite occur infrequently .

Most recluse spider bites are minor with little or no necrosis. However, a small number of bites produce necrotic skin lesions. First pain and tenderness at the site begin. The redness changes over two to three days to a bluish sinking patch of dead skin—the hallmark of necrosis. The wound heals slowly over months but usually completely. Rarely, bites may cause widespread symptoms, with occasional fatalities.

Typically, a spider bite looks like any other bug bite — a red, inflamed, sometimes itchy or painful bump on your skin — and may even go unnoticed. Harmless spider bites usually don’t produce any other symptoms.

Black widow spider bites:

Signs and symptoms of a black widow spider bite may include:

*Pain. Typically beginning within an hour of being bitten, pain generally occurs around the bite mark, but it can spread from the bite site into your abdomen, back or chest.

*Cramping. Abdominal cramping or rigidity can be so severe that it’s sometimes mistaken for appendicitis or a ruptured appendix.

*Sweating. Excessive sweating can occur.

Brown recluse spider bite:

The pain associated with a brown recluse spider bite typically increases during the first eight hours after the bite. You may also have fever, chills and body aches. The bite usually heals on its own in about a week. In a minority of cases, the skin at the center of the bite can become dark blue or purple and then evolve into a deep open sore (ulcer) that enlarges as the surrounding skin dies. The ulcer usually stops growing within 10 days after the bite, but full healing can take months.

Causes

Severe spider bite symptoms occur as a result of injected spider venom. The severity of symptoms depends on the type of spider, the amount of venom injected and how sensitive your body is to the venom.

Risk factors:

Although dangerous spider bites are rare, your risk of being bitten increases if you live in the same areas that the spiders do and you happen to disturb their habitat. Both black widow and brown recluse spiders prefer warm climates and dark, dry places.

Black widow habitat:-    Black widow spiders can be found throughout the U.S. but more so in the southwestern states. They prefer to live in:

*Sheds

*Garages

*Unused pots and gardening equipment

*Woodpiles

Brown recluse habitat: Brown recluse spiders are found most commonly in the southern Midwest and in limited areas of the South. Recluses are so named because they like to hide away in undisturbed areas. They mostly prefer to live indoors, in places such as:

*The clutter of basements or attics

*Behind bookshelves and dressers

*In rarely used cupboards

Outside, they seek out dark, quiet spots, such as under rocks or in tree stumps.

Complications:

Very rarely, a bite from a black widow or brown recluse spider may be deadly, particularly in children.

Treatment:
In some cases, you can treat spider bites at home. For nonvenomous spider bites, follow these steps:

*Apply an ice pack on and off the bite for 10 minutes at a time.

*Elevate the area to reduce swelling.

*Take an antihistamine, such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl), to help with itching.

*Clean the area with soap and water to prevent infection.

*Apply antibiotic ointment to the area if blisters develop.

Seek medical attention if you’re showing symptoms of a spider bite or if the symptoms don’t go away over time.

Always seek medical attention if you suspect you’ve been bitten by one of the following species:

*Brown recluse

*Black widow

*Hobo spider

*Tarantula*Brazilian wandering spider

Home Remedies:

*Apply an ice pack on and off the bite for 10 minutes at a time.

*Elevate the area to reduce swelling.

*Take an antihistamine, such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl), to help with itching.

*Clean the area with soap and water to prevent infection.

*Apply antibiotic ointment to the area if blisters develop.

*Seek medical attention if you’re showing symptoms of a spider bite or if the symptoms don’t go away over time.

Prevention:

Spiders in general, including the black widow and brown recluse, bite only in defense, when being trapped between your skin and another object.

To prevent spider bites:

*Learn what dangerous spiders look like and their preferred habitat.

*Wear a long-sleeve shirt, hat, long pants tucked into socks, gloves and boots when handling stored boxes or firewood, and when cleaning out sheds, garages, basements, attics and crawl spaces.

*Inspect and shake out gardening gloves, boots and clothing that have been unused for a while.

*Use insect repellents, such as DEET or Picaridin, on clothing and footwear.

*Keep insects and spiders out of the house by installing tightfitting screens on windows and doors, sealing cracks where spiders can come in and using safe indoor insecticides.

*Remove piles of rocks or lumber from the area around your house and avoid storing firewood against the house.

*Make sure beds aren’t pushed against the wall and that only the legs of the bed touch the floor. Don’t store items under the bed and don’t let bedding drag on the floor.

*Vacuum spiders and spiderwebs and dispose of them in a sealed bag outside to prevent re-entry into the house.

*Brown recluse

*Black widow

*Hobo spider

*Tarantula

*Brazilian wandering spider

Given below the denger of bites of these following spiders:-

1.Brown recluse:
About 1 inch long and usually nonaggressive, the brown recluse typically hides in dark, secluded spaces. It only bites if it’s trapped against your skin. It’s also called the “violin” spider because of the dark marking on its back.

The brown recluse is usually found in areas such as:

*Missouri
*Tennessee
*Kansas
*Arkansas
*Louisiana
*Oklahoma
*Eastern Texas
The initial brown recluse bite may be painless, but within eight hours it’ll begin to itch, hurt, and turn red. A red or purple ring resembling a target or bull’s-eye will develop around the bite.

This bite can blister and grow progressively worse without treatment to the point where it may kill surrounding tissue and cause fever, chills, and headache.

On rare occasions, it can cause:

*coma or seizures
*jaundice
*blood in urine
*kidney failure

There’s no antidote for a brown recluse bite, but keeping the area clean can encourage faster healing.

Your doctor will examine the bite and prescribe antibiotics. In extreme cases, such as tissue death, you’ll need surgery and hospitalization.

2.Black widow:-

The black widow spider is shiny and black with a distinct, reddish, hourglass-shaped mark on its belly. Found mostly in the warm Southern and Western United States, the black widow stays in secluded spaces like piles of fallen leaves, woodpiles, and boxes in the attic.

Only the female black widow is toxic. Black widow bites can feel like a small pinprick or nothing at all, but your skin’s reaction will be immediate. You’ll be able to see the two puncture marks on your skin.

Symptoms of a black widow bite include:

*muscle cramping
*pain and burning at puncture site
*headache
*high blood pressure
*increased saliva and sweating
*nausea and vomiting
*numbness
*restlessness

Prompt treatment is best, especially for children and older adults. In some cases, a healthcare professional will prescribe antivenom to remove the venom from your body.

3.Hobo spider:-
Hobo spiders are common in the Pacific Northwest. They sit up high on long legs and run fast. Watch out if you’re cleaning window wells or sweeping out the garage, as they may attack when provoked. Hobo spiders lurk behind furniture, under baseboards, and in closets.

A bite from a hobo spider may be unnoticeable at first, but it’ll cause pain and numbness within 15 minutes. After one hour, the site will start to turn red. In eight hours, it’ll become hardened and swollen. After 24 to 26 hours, the wound may discharge fluids and eventually turn black.

Other signs and symptoms may include:

*a red or purple blister at the puncture site
*visual or aural disruption
*weakness
*joint pain
*headaches
*nausea
*sweating

Hobo spider bites are slow to heal. Seek immediate medical treatment if you suspect you’ve been bitten by a hobo spider.

The treatment is similar to that of brown recluse spider bites. It may involve corticosteroids, antibiotics, or surgery. Treatment works best if administered within 24 hours of the bite.

4.Tarantula:
Southwestern states with desert climates host tarantulas, but tarantulas may also be found as far east as the Mississippi River. They tend to hide under logs or stones, tree trunks, and in tunnels or burrows.

You can usually identify tarantulas by their appearance. They’re 3 to 5 inches long, have a hairy texture, and have visible fangs that hang down.

Tarantulas aren’t aggressive. The venom from the species found in the United States isn’t considered dangerous. Their bite will feel like a bee sting. The area will become warm and red.

Other potential symptoms include:

*rash
*swelling
*itching
*rapid heart rate
*eyelid puffiness
*trouble breathing
*low blood pressure

Seek medical attention immediately if you experience any of these symptoms.

5.Brazilian wandering spider:
Native to Central and South America, this spider moves quickly and aggressively. It can grow up to 5 inches long. It’s considered one of the most poisonous spiders in the world.

The bite of a Brazilian wandering spider is extremely painful. It can quickly result in heavy sweating and drooling. The skin around the bite will usually swell, turn red, and get hot. In severe cases, the bite can result in dead tissue or death.

Seek emergency treatment immediately. Antivenom is available for this spider’s bite.

6.Wolf spider:-
Common all over the country, wolf spiders measure 3 to 4 inches long and look similar to tarantulas. They like to stalk their prey by hunting on the ground. You’ll find them in sand and gravel, around the bases of doors and windows, or in house plants.

Look for two large eyes in the middle of their faces, accompanied by six smaller eyes.

A wolf spider’s bite may tear the skin and cause pain, redness, and swelling. You may also experience swollen lymph nodes as a result of the bite.

For some people, healing can take up to 10 days. In rare cases, the bite can lead to tissue damage.

7.Camel spider:
Found in desert climates, the sand-colored camel spider has a powerful pincer on its head. A camel spider will always seek the coolest place around, which just may be your shadow. A fast runner (up to 10 mph), it may be only 2 to 3 inches long. In some locations, it grows up to 6 to 8 inches in length.

Because of its large jaws, a camel spider can leave a significant wound in human skin. These spiders don’t produce venom, but you may get an infection due to the open wound.

You may also experience swelling around the bite wound and mild to intense bleeding.

8.Jumping spider:
One of the most common household spiders, the jumping spider exists throughout the United States. Usually only 1/2 inch long, it has a stout, hairy body.

The most common type is black with white spots on top. It moves erratically in a manner that resembles jumping. You’re likely to find it outside in gardens and near other vegetation.

The jumping spider’s bite is usually no worse than a wasp sting. It can be poisonous if you’re allergic to spider venom. Serious symptoms include:

*pain
*itching
*redness
*swelling
*headaches

They’ll attack if threatened, so use gloves when gardening.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spider_bite
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/spider-bites/symptoms-causes/syc-20352371
https://www.healthline.com/health/spider-bites

Scorpion sting

Description:
Scorpion stings are a cutaneous condition caused by the stinging of scorpions, usually resulting in pain, paresthesia, and variable swelling. The anatomical part of the scorpion that delivers the sting is called a “telson”.

Scorpion stings are painful but rarely life-threatening. Young children, and sometimes the very old, are most at risk of serious complications.

In the United States, the bark scorpion, found mainly in the desert Southwest, is the only scorpion species with venom potent enough to cause severe symptoms. Worldwide, only about 30 of the estimated 1,500 species of scorpions produce venom toxic enough to be fatal. But with millions of scorpion stings occurring each year, often in areas with a lack of access to medical care, deaths due to scorpion stings are a significant public health problem in parts of Mexico, South America, North Africa, the Middle East and India.

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Healthy adults usually don’t need treatment for scorpion stings. But if a child is stung, the same amount of venom may have more-serious consequences, so seek immediate medical care.

Most scorpion stings vary from small swelling to medically significant lesions in severity, with only a few able to cause severe allergic, neurotic or necrotic reactions. Only two species of scorpions can inflict stings which result in death of normal healthy humans: the Israeli deathstalker (Leiurus quinquestriatus) and the Brazilian yellow scorpion (Tityus serrulatus). Antivenom exists for both species’ stings.

Symptoms:

Most scorpion stings cause only localized signs and symptoms, such as pain and warmth at the site of the sting. Sometimes these symptoms may be quite intense, even if you don’t see redness or swelling.

Signs and symptoms at the site of the sting may include:

*Pain, which can be intense

*Numbness and tingling in the area around the sting

*Slight swelling in the area around the sting

*Signs and symptoms related to widespread (systemic) venom effects usually occur in children who are stung and may include:

*Difficulty breathing

*Muscle twitching or thrashing

*Unusual head, neck and eye movements

*Drooling

*Sweating

*Nausea and vomiting

*High blood pressure (hypertension)

*Accelerated heart rate (tachycardia) or irregular heart beat (arrhythmia)

*Restlessness or excitability or inconsolable crying (in children)

As with other stinging insects, such as bees and wasps, it is possible for people who have previously been stung by scorpions to also have allergic reactions with subsequent stings. These subsequent stings are sometimes severe enough to cause a life-threatening condition called anaphylaxis. Signs and symptoms in these cases are similar to those of anaphylaxis caused by bee stings and can include hives, trouble breathing, and nausea and vomiting.

Causes:

Scorpions are arthropods — a relative of insects, spiders and crustaceans. The average scorpion is about 3 inches (7.6 centimeters) long. Scorpions have eight legs and a pair of lobster-like pinchers and a tail that curves up. They sting rather than bite, using the stinger in their tails. The venom itself contains a complex mix of toxins that affect the nervous system (neurotoxins).

Scorpions are nocturnal creatures that resist stinging unless provoked or attacked. They can control the amount of venom they release — depending on how threatened they feel — so some stings may be almost entirely venomless.

Risk factors:

Certain factors can increase your risk of a scorpion sting:

Geography. In the United States, scorpions mainly live in the desert Southwest, primarily Arizona, New Mexico and parts of California. Worldwide, they’re found most often in Mexico, NorthAfrica, South America, the Middle East, and India.
Environment. Bark scorpions live under rocks, logs and tree bark — hence, the name. You’re especially likely to encounter one when you’re hiking or camping. Bark scorpions are also the most common house scorpion, hiding in firewood, garbage pails, bed linen and shoes.
Travel. Not only are you more likely to encounter more-dangerous scorpions while traveling in certain parts of the world, you might bring them home with you. Scorpions can hide in clothing, luggage and shipping containers.

Complications:

The very old and the very young are most likely to die of untreated venomous scorpion bites. The cause is usually heart or respiratory failure occurring some hours after the sting. Very few deaths from scorpion stings have been reported in the United States.

Another possible complication of scorpion stings, though rare, is a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis).

Diagnosis:

Your history and symptoms are usually all your doctor needs to make a diagnosis. If you have severe symptoms, you may have blood or imaging tests to check for the effects of the venom on your liver, heart, lungs and other organs.

Treatment:

Most scorpion stings don’t need medical treatment. But if symptoms are severe, you may need to receive care in a hospital. You may be given sedatives for muscle spasms and drugs through a vein (intravenously) to treat high blood pressure, agitation and pain.

Your treatment will depend on whether your doctor decides that your symptoms are due to an allergic reaction, rather than the effects of the venom itself, and how severe these symptoms are.

The use of scorpion antivenom remains controversial because of concerns about effectiveness, side effects (more of a concern with older, less purified formulations), cost and access to care. Antivenom is most effective if given before symptoms develop, so children seen in remote rural emergency rooms, where access to medical centers and intensive care units is limited, are often treated with antivenom as a precaution. Also, if you have more-severe symptoms, your doctor may recommend the antivenom.

Your treatment will also depend on whether your doctor determines that your signs and symptoms are due to an allergic reaction rather than the effects of the venom.

Prevention:

Scorpions tend to avoid contact. If you live in an area where scorpions are common, prevent chance meetings by doing the following:

*Remove piles of rocks or lumber from around your house and don’t store firewood against the house or inside.

*Keep grass closely mowed, and prune bushes and overhanging tree branches, which can provide a path to your roof for scorpions.

*Caulk cracks, install weather stripping around doors and windows, and repair torn screens.

*Inspect and shake out gardening gloves, boots and clothing that haven’t been used for a while. Always wear shoes.

*When hiking or camping, wear long sleeves and pants and check your sleeping bag for scorpions before you crawl in.

*When traveling in areas where lethal scorpions are common — especially if you’re camping or staying in rustic accommodations — shake out your clothing, bedding and packages often. Sleep under a mosquito net. If you have a known allergy to insect stings, carry an epinephrine injector, such as EpiPen.

*If you do find a scorpion near your home or campsite, use tongs to gently remove the scorpion away from people.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scorpion_sting
https://www.healthline.com/health/scorpion-sting
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/scorpion-stings/symptoms-causes/syc-20353859
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/scorpion-stings/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20353865

Bed Bug Bites

Description:
Bedbugs are small, flat, oval-shaped insects. They do not have wings and rely on humans to carry them from one place to the next.

Full-size bed bugs are usually very small, between four to five millimeters long, but are still capable of being spotted by the naked eye. Although there are many different species of bed bugs, the most common types are flat and a red-brown color.

The majority are about the size of an appleseed. Their eggs, on the other hand, are even smaller, only about one millimeter wide, which is roughly the size of about two grains of salt, and usually very hard to spot

They feed on blood from humans or animals, and they’re most active at night, feeding on their victims while they sleep.Bed bugs feed on blood as their only source of nutrition. In order to mature into adults, they must feed once during each of their immature stages. Adult females also need blood in order to produce eggs. Although bedbugs do bite humans, they are not known to transmit diseases to people.

Bed bugs, which can live on many different surfaces in your home aside from mattresses, and are considered blood-feeding insects that bite humans and other animals to survive. There are many different species of bed bugs found globally, but two of the leading types include Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus.

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Although their name makes it sound like they only live inside of beds or mattresses, bed bugs can survive in other spaces too, including couches or sofas, luggage, sheets, inside dressers, or in rugs/carpets. Other than homes or motels, places where it’s common to find bed bugs include any space where people live or work in tight quarters, especially if the space is cluttered and not cleaned often — such as nursing homes, college dorms, corporate offices, schools, day care centers and hospitals.

Where Do Bed Bugs Come From?

Bed bugs are considered by many experts to be one of the most challenging pests to treat, considering they’re both resilient insects and also capable of reproducing quickly. They can survive in many different climates, go very long periods of time without eating, and are small enough to live in tiny places and go easily go undetected.

There are many myths surrounding bed bugs — including that they only bite at night, are only found in the summer and can jump across entire rooms. Bed bugs don’t just wait until you’re sleeping to start biting; they’re actually capable of biting any time of day. Although it’s a common misconception that bed bugs fly and can move quickly from room to room, they don’t actually have wings, and they aren’t capable of jumping/hopping far either. Instead, they crawl from surface to surface, usually on the search for more food.

Bed bugs aren’t seasonal pests for the most part, like mosquitoes or ants, for example, and can take up residence in your home or other areas at any point in the year. Although not a seasonal insect that tends to thrive or die off at certain points in the year, surveys show that bed bugs are reported in higher numbers during the summer months. The reason experts believe this is true is because people tend to do more traveling during the summer and stay in more hotels/motels. Public transportation use can also increase in the summer months, which raises the risk for bed bugs being transmitted from location to location

Simptoms:
The most common sign or symptom of bed bug bites is a type of dermatological reaction that causes an itchy, bumpy rash. A small percentage of people develop somewhat serious reactions to bed bugs beyond just itchy skin rashes, including anemic symptoms or various symptoms of allergies, but for the majority bed bugs are mostly just a nuance, inconvenient and downright gross to encounter. Even though there isn’t evidence that bed bugs carry dangerous human pathogens, you still definitely want to avoid them at all costs due to the rash they can cause along with “significant psychological distress.”

The most common symptoms of bed bug bites include:

*Itching on the skin, sometimes which might become intense

*Small red bumps, which tend to occur in lines or zigzags usually on the legs or arms — bed bug bites are normally flat or slightly raised in some areas and don’t have a red ring around the center, which can occur with flea bites

*Skin eruptions that might ooze puss before healing

*Dryness and pigment changes in the skin when the bites heal

There is also a strong psychological toll associated with bed bugs, since they can cause anxiety, shame and trouble sleeping for many people.

Keep in mind that not everyone reacts to bed bug bites in the same way. Some people experience little to no symptoms from bites and therefore have no idea that they’ve even been bitten. Others respond more drastically and can suffer from allergic reactions, pain and fever-like symptoms.

For people with average or strong immune systems, the majority of bed bug species are nonvenomous and relatively harmless. Bed bugs are roughly equivalent to head lice or common mosquito bites, since they cause skin reactions but usually not more. Boosting your immune system can help to reduce allergy/histamine reactions to bug bites.

The reason bed bugs can trigger skin rashes is because their saliva can carry substances that irritate human skin. Bed bug bites usually aren’t felt and don’t hurt while they’re happening because the bugs can first inject a numbing agent into the skin that makes their fangs essentially undetectable.

Although most bites cause minor reactions, including small, red bumps, some people develop more intense hive-like rashes, swelling and painful skin lesions. The most severe reactions occur in people who tend to be allergic to many different types of common bug bites, including mosquitoes or fleas.

Treatment:
Bedbugs are more annoying than they are dangerous or deadly. The symptoms of a bite typically disappear in one to two weeks. Use an anti-itch cream to keep yourself from itching the bite.

Take an antihistamine to help reduce the itching and burning. Ice packs can help numb the skin and reduce your urge to scratch. Use an antiseptic cream or lotion if you get an infection.

Prevention:
If you do suspect you’ve been bitten, you’re probably wondering how you can get rid of bed bugs in your home and prevent them from returning without the use of harsh chemicals. Prevention of bed bugs and treatment for bed bug bites include using natural bug-repellent solutions in your home, such as essential oils, along with treating skin rashes with natural skin care ingredients.

If you find bedbugs in your home, call pest control company to have your home treated. Getting rid of bedbugs yourself is hard, and you may prolong infestation if you do not get professional treatment.

Bedbugs can hide for several months without feeding, so getting a professional treatment can help you make sure you’re getting rid of the blood-sucking pests completely.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://www.healthline.com/health/bed-bug-bites#treatment

Bed Bug Bites

Wasp Sting

Description:
Wasp stings are common, especially during the warmer months when people are outside for longer periods of time. Wasp stings can be uncomfortable, but most people recover quickly and without complications.

A wasp’s stinger contains venom (a poisonous substance) that’s transmitted to humans during a sting. While a bee can only sting once because its stinger becomes stuck in the skin of its victim, a wasp can sting more than once during an attack. Wasp stingers remain intact.

However, even without a lodged stinger, wasp venom can cause significant pain and irritation.

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Symptoms:
The majority of people without sting allergies will show only minor symptoms during and after a wasp sting. The initial sensations can include sharp pain or burning at the sting site. Redness, swelling, and itching can occur as well.

Normal local reactions:
You’re likely to develop a raised welt around the sting site. A tiny white mark may be visible in the middle of the welt where the stinger punctured your skin. Usually, the pain and swelling recedes within several hours of being stung. Unless you’re allergic, most wasp stings can be treated at home.

Large local reactions:
“Large local reactions” is a term used to describe more pronounced symptoms associated with a wasp or bee sting. People who have large local reactions may be allergic to wasp stings, but don’t experience life-threatening symptoms, such as anaphylactic shock. Large local reactions to wasp stings include extreme redness and swelling that increases for two or three days after the sting. Nausea and vomiting can also occur. Find out what’s happening in your body during an allergic reaction.

Most of the time, large local reactions subside on their own over the course of a week or so. Let your doctor know if you have a large local reaction after a wasp sting. They may direct you to take an over-the-counter antihistamine medication (such as Benadryl) to reduce your discomfort.

Having a large local reaction after a wasp sting one time doesn’t necessarily mean you’ll react to future stings in the same way. You could have one strong reaction and never show the same symptoms again. On the other hand, a large local reaction could be the way your body routinely responds to wasp stings. Try to avoid being stung to prevent these uncomfortable symptoms.

The most severe allergic reactions to wasp stings are referred to as anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis occurs when your body goes into shock in response to the wasp venom. Most people who go into shock after a wasp sting do so very quickly. It’s important to seek immediate emergency care to treat anaphylaxis.

Symptoms of a severe allergic reaction to wasp stings include:

*Severe swelling of the face, lips, or throat

*Hives or itching in areas of the body not affected by the sting

*Breathing difficulties, such as wheezing or gasping

*Dizziness

*Sudden drop in blood pressure

*Lightheadedness

*Loss of consciousness

*Nausea or vomiting

*Diarrhea

*Stomach cramps

*Weak or racing pulse

You may not experience all of these symptoms after a wasp sting, but you’re likely to experience at least some of them after a subsequent sting. People who have gone into anaphylactic shock after one sting are 30 to 60 percent more likely to show the same reaction in the future.

If you have a history of anaphylaxis, carry a kit in the event of a wasp sting. “Bee sting kits” contain epinephrine injections (EpiPens) that you can give yourself after a wasp sting. Epinephrine relaxes your muscles and blood vessels, helping your heart and respiration rates return to normal. Anaphylactic shock is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. Learn more about this dangerous condition, including what to do if someone you know is experiencing it.

Complications & Risk Factors:
In rare cases, wasp stings can contribute to complications involving the nervous system.

A report published in the Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health examined unusual cases in which a pediatric patient experienced muscle weakness, pupil dilation, and motor aphasia following a wasp sting. (Motor aphasia is the impairment of speech and writing abilities.)

The patient’s problems were precipitated by a blood clot that was caused by a severe reaction to a wasp sting. These particular complications are extreme and highly unlikely to occur.

Treatment:

For Mild to moderate reactions:

You can treat mild and moderate reactions to wasp stings at home. While treating your sting at home, you should:

*Wash the sting area with soap and water to remove as much of the venom as possible.

*Apply a cold pack to the wound site to reduce swelling and pain.

*Keep the wound clean and dry to prevent infection.

*Cover with a bandage if desired.

*Use hydrocortisone cream or calamine lotion if itching or skin irritation becomes bothersome. Baking soda and colloidal oatmeal are soothing to the skin and can be used in the bath or through medicated skin creams.

Over-the-counter pain relievers, such as ibuprofen, can manage pain associated with wasp stings. Antihistamine drugs, including diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine, can reduce itching as well. Take all medications as directed to avoid potential side effects, such as stomach irritation or drowsiness.

You should also consider getting a tetanus shot within several days of the sting if you haven’t had a booster shot in the last 10 years. First aid differs based on what type of creature has bitten or stung you.

Home Remedies for moderate reactions:
*Ice: Ice numbs the pain and slows blood flow, reducing swelling. For best results, apply to the wasp sting area for 20 minutes.

*Vinegar: The vinegar will neutralize the venom from the wasp sting. Soak the wound for at least 15 minutes. The acidity in the vinegar will also absorb through the skin to eliminate pain and discomfort.

*Honey: Ironically, applying raw or pure honey to the affected area lowers the risk of infection from a sting because of its antibacterial nature.

*Lavender essential oil: Its antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties will help heal the affected area. Lavender oil is also known for its calming properties and will help relieve the shock of a wasp sting.

*Plantain: Although we’re all about eliminating weeds at Bug & Weed Mart, this broad leaf weed, which you’ll find sprouting around in most of the Valley’s neighborhoods is an effective wasp sting treatment. If you opt to use this for treating the sting, you will need to release the juices from the leaves. When the juice is released, press it against the sting and cover with a moist cloth for 30 minutes or so

For Severe reactions:

Severe allergic reactions to wasp stings require immediate medical attention. If you have an EpiPen, administer it as soon as symptoms begin. If you have a history of wasp allergies, administer the EpiPen as soon as you are stung. Shift the patient to hospital.

Treatment for severe allergic reactions to wasp stings can include:

*Additional epinephrine to calm your immune system

*Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if breathing has temporarily stopped

*Oxygen, steroids, or other medications to improve breathing.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://www.healthline.com/health/wasp-sting
http://bugweedmart.com/2016/09/5-natural-wasp-sting-treatments/