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Herbs & Plants

Bambusa multiplex

Botanical Name: Bambusa multiplex
Family: Poaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales
Genus: Bambusa
Species: B. multiplex

Synonyms:
*Arundo multiplex Lour.
*Arundarbor multiplex (Lour.) Kuntze
*Bambusa multiplex var. normalis Sasaki
*Leleba multiplex (Lour.) Nakai
*Ludolfia glaucescens Willd.
*Arundinaria glaucescens (Willd.)

Common Names: Hedge Bamboo, Chinese Goddess Bamboo, Chinese Dwarf Bamboo, Clumping BambooHedge Bamboo, Oriental Hedge

International Common Names: English: Chinese bamboo

Local Common Names:
*Indonesia: Bambu cina; bhulu pagar
*Malaysia: Bambu cina; bhulu pagar
*Myanmar: Pa-lau-pinan-wa
*Philippines: Kawayan sa sonsong; kawayan tsina
*Thailand: Phai-liang
*Vietnam: Cay hop

Habitat: Bambusa multiplex is native to E. Asia – Eastern Himalayas to southern China. It grows on open places at elevations of 200 – 1500 metres in Nepal.

Description:
Bambusa multiplex is an evergreen Bamboo growing to 4.5 m (14ft) by 5 m (16ft) at a fast rate. It is densely tufted, sympodial bamboo. Culm slender, erect with arching tips, 2.5-7 m tall, 1-2.5 cm in diameter, hollow but with relatively thick walls; internodes 30-50 cm long, glabrous, smooth, white waxy when young; nodes not swollen.

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Cultivation:
A fairly hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to about -8°c but it does not like periods of prolonged cold.
Prefers an open loam of fair quality, succeeding on peaty soils and in full sun or dappled shade Requires a position sheltered from cold drying winds. Requires abundant moisture in the growing season and plenty of organic matter in the soil.
Bamboos have an interesting method of growth. Each plant produces a number of new stems annually – these stems grow to their maximum height in their first year of growth, subsequent growth in the stem being limited to the production of new side branches and leaves. In the case of some mature tropical species the new stem could be as much as 30 metres tall, with daily increases in height of 30cm or more during their peak growth time. This makes them some of the fastest-growing species in the world.
This species is notably resistant to honey fungus.
Bamboos in general are usually monocarpic, living for many years before flowering, then flowering and seeding profusely for a period of 1 – 3 years before usually dying. New shoots appear in late spring, the rootstock is caespitose. A polymorphic species, there are many named varieties selected for their ornamental value.

Propagation:
Seed – surface sow in containers as soon as it is ripe, preferably at a temperature around 20°c. Do not allow the compost to dry out. Germination usually takes place fairly quickly so long as the seed is of good quality, though it can take 3 – 6 months. Prick out the seedlings into containers when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a lightly shaded place until large enough to plant out. Plants only flower at intervals of many years and so seed is rarely available.

Division as new growth commences. Take divisions with at least three canes in the clump, trying to cause as little root disturbance to the main plant as possible. Grow them on in light shade in pots of a high fertility sandy medium. Mist the foliage regularly until plants are established. Plant them out into their permanent positions when a good root system has developed, which can take a year or more. Branches often develop into rhizomatous offsets with long roots. These can be removed and potted up in late spring.

Edible Uses:
Young shoots – cooked. Bitter tasting, they are rarely eaten. They are less bitter if harvested before they emerge from the soil and then parboiled in water. The stems are 15 – 25mm in diameter.

Other different Uses:
Agroforestry Uses: The plant makes a good screen or hedge and windbreak.

Paper is made from the culms
The canes are too arched for good poles and there is too small a volume for significant pulp production, in spite of good fibre dimensions. The culms are up to 4cm in diameter. The canes split easily and are fairly flexible – they are used as a source of weaving material for mats, baskets and other household goods. The culms are often used as umbrella handles and for fishing poles. In Indonesia and Thailand they are also used to make handicrafts such as bookcases.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bambusa_multiplex
http://tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Bambusa+multiplex
https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/8378

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Herbs & Plants

Bambusa heterostachya

Botanical Name: Bambusa heterostachya
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily:Bambusoideae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales
Tribe: Bambuseae
Subtribe: Bambusinae
Genus: Bambusa

Synonyms: Bambusa diversistachya, Munro Bambusa latispiculata (Gamble) Holttum Gigantochloa heterostachya, Munro Gigantochloa latispiculata Gambl

Common Names: Malay Dwarf Green

Vernacular names:
Malaysia: buloh telang, Buloh galah, Buloh pengait.

Habitat: Bambusa heterostachya is native to Southeast Asia – probalby Malaysia, though it has not been found in a truly wild situation. It is often planted around villages, it is not known in a wild habita.

Description:
Bambusa heterostachya is an evergreen bamboo growing 6 – 10 metres tall.The flowers are pollinated by Wind. It has short rhizomes that produce solitary, thin-walled culms 30 – 60mm in diameter. The plant is harvested for local use as a source of materials. A small form has been planted as a roadside ornamental.

A loosely tufted, sympodial bamboo. Culm erect, 6-12(-16) m tall, 3-4(-6) cm in diameter, green, irregularly streaked with pale green or whitish-green; wall 8-10 mm thick; internodes 30-80 cm long, when young white powdery and dark hairy below the nodes, glabrous with age; nodes not swollen. Branches arising from the midculm upwards, many at each node with the primary branch dominant. Culm sheath about 18 cm × 12 cm, dark green, covered with black hairs outside; blade broadly triangular, 7 cm × 5 cm, erect; ligule 6 mm long, entire, bearing bristles 3 mm or more long; auricles large, 1 cm long and 2.5 cm wide, bearing up to 1.5 cm long curly bristles along the edge. Leaf blade 20-40 cm × 2-5 cm, glabrous; sheath usually glabrous, occasionally with scattered appressed black hairs; ligule 1-2 mm long, irregularly toothed and with short bristles; auricles absent or small and round. Inflorescence iterauctant, borne on short leafless or leafy branches; pseudospikelets in groups of 2-3 at each inflorescence node; spikelet laterally compressed or flattened, 3-4 cm long, comprising 2 glumes and up to 10 florets. Caryopsis obovoid-cylindrical, 5-6 mm long, thickened and hairy at apex.

B. heterostachya flowers regularly. The culm characteristics are as good as those of useful Gigantochloa species, the culms are straight and strong and can be split into strips for making baskets.

The culm sheaths resemble those of B. vulgaris Schrader ex Wendland but are smaller and the ligule is different.

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Cultivation:
The plant seems well adapted to a humid tropical lowland climate without a strict dry season.
Bamboos have an interesting method of growth. Each plant produces a number of new stems annually – these stems grow to their maximum height in their first year of growth, subsequent growth in the stem being limited to the production of new side branches and leaves. In the case of some mature tropical species the new stem could be as much as 30 metres tall, with daily increases in height of 30cm or more during their peak growth time. This makes them some of the fastest-growing species in the world.
Bamboos in general are usually monocarpic, living for many years before flowering, then flowering and seeding profusely for a period of 1 – 3 years before usually dying.

Propagation:
Seed – surface sow in containers as soon as it is ripe, preferably at a temperature around 20°c. Do not allow the compost to dry out. Germination usually takes place fairly quickly so long as the seed is of good quality, though it can take 3 – 6 months. Prick out the seedlings into containers when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a lightly shaded place until large enough to plant out. Plants only flower at intervals of many years and so seed is rarely available.
Division as new growth commences. Take divisions with at least three canes in the clump, trying to cause as little root disturbance to the main plant as possible. Grow them on in light shade in pots of a high fertility sandy medium. Mist the foliage regularly until plants are established. Plant them out into their permanent positions when a good root system has developed, which can take a year or more.
Plants can be propagated vegetatively by rhizome, culm and branch cuttings. The propagules are raised in a nursery and after they have produced roots and developed rhizomes they are planted out in the field during the rainy season in pits filled with a mixture of compost and so

Different Uses:An ornamental bamboo with a slightly weeping growth habit used as a living screen for privacy, as a windbreak and noise barrier. A great shade provider in an outdoor landscape.. Strips of the culm are used to make baskets and as tying material (e.g. to attach coconuts). The strong, straight, medium-sized culms are used as poles to harvest fruits and to pollinate flowers of oil palm.

Strips of the culm are used to make baskets and as tying material (e.g. to attach coconuts).
The strong, straight, medium-sized culms are used as poles to harvest fruits and to pollinate flowers of oil palm.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only.

Resources
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bambusa
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Bambusa+heterostachya
https://uses.plantnet-project.org/en/Bambusa_heterostachya_(PROSEA)
http://tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Bambusa+heterostachya#:~:text=Bambusa%20heterostachya%20is%20an%20evergreen,culms%2030%20%2D%2060mm%20in%20diameter.

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Bambusa blumeana

Botanical Name: Bambusa blumeana
Family: Poaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales
Genus: Bambusa
Species: B. blumeana

Synonyms:
*Schizostachyum durie Rupr.
*Ischurochloa stenostachya (Hack.) Nakai
*Bambusa teba Miq.
*Bambusa stenostachya Hack.
*Bambusa spinosa Blume ex Nees
*Bambusa pungens Blanco
*Bambusa blumeana var. luzonensis
*Arundarbor pungens (Blanco) Kuntze
*Arundarbor blumeana (Schult.) Kuntze

Common Names: Spiny bamboo or Thorny bamboo.
This bamboo is known locally as: kawayang tinik in the Philippines, buluh duri in Malay and tre gai or tre la ngan in Vietnam.

Habitat: Bambusa blumeana is native to Indonesian and Malaysia, but has been widely introduced in Southeast Asia; Thailand – Philippines – Vietnam – China – Japan. It is often found on heavy soils and on marginal land at elevations up to 300 metres, it grows well along river banks, hill slopes and freshwater creeks and tolerates flooding..

Description:
Bambusa blumeana is an evergreen Bamboo growing to 20 m (65ft) by 10 m (32ft) at a fast rate.It is a Tropical/Subtropical densely clumping bamboo. Leaves are lance-shaped . Shoots are edible and consumed as a vegetable.

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Culms:
Bambusa blumeana is a thorny bamboo with slightly arching green culms of 15-25 m tall. The internodes are 25-35 cm long, with 8-15 cm in diameter and an average wall thickness of 2-3 cm. At the base of the culms, wall thickness is mostly solid, especially in dry areas or poor soils. Lower culm nodes show a ring of aerial roots, with a gray or brown ring below and above the sheath scar.

Branches:
Branches usually occur from the middle of the culm to the top, and have several to many clustered branches with 1-3 larger dominant branches that are markedly longer and thicker. Branches from the lower nodes are solitaire and densely interwoven with tough, sharp, curved thorns.

Leaves:
Leaves are lance-shaped and on average 10-20 cm long and 12-25 mm wide.

Cultivation:
A plant of the lowland tropics, where it is found at elevations up to 300 metres. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 18 – 32c, but can tolerate 8 – 37°c. It can be killed by temperatures of -1c or lower. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 1,500 – 4,000mm, but tolerates 1,000 – 5,000mm. Plants grow best on heavier, fertile soils. Intolerant of saline soils. Tolerant of occasional inundation of the soil.Prefers a pH in the range 5 – 6.5, tolerating 4.5 – 7. Planted culm cuttings at first send up thin shoots and culms are produced only after about 3 years. The number and size of the culms produced increases yearly until the clump reaches maturity. A planted cutting develops into a harvestable clump in 6 – 8 years. A mature clump (containing 10 – 40 culms) may develop about 30 shoots per year of which only about one-third to one-fourth reaches maturity because of diseases and pests, wind damage, and shortage of water and nutrients. New shoots emerge during the rainy season and can be harvested for food after 7 – 15 days. Bamboos have an interesting method of growth. Each plant produces a number of new stems annually – these stems grow to their maximum height in their first year of growth, subsequent growth in the stem being limited to the production of new side branches and leaves. In the case of some mature tropical species the new stem could be as much as 30 metres tall, with daily increases in height of 30cm or more during their peak growth time. This makes them some of the fastest-growing species in the world. Culms reach about full height in approximately 5 months, which means for the larger culms (growing to 25 metres or more) there is a daily height increase of about 17 cm. The most rapid growth usually occurs near the end of the growth period in the latter part of the rainy season. In that period, daily height increase may reach 45 cm on average. The harvesting of culms depends on the intended end use but should preferably be effected in the dry season. For handicraft purposes, 1-year-old culms can be taken. For construction purposes, 3-year-old culms are suitable. Culms are cut 2 – 3 metres above the ground, just above the dense growth of spiny branches. The remaining basal portion should be cut back close to the ground within 6 months of the harvest. In order to ensure sustained yield, the number of culms that can be cut annually should not exceed 60% of the standing mature culms in the clump. About 6 – 7 edible shoots can be harvested per clump per year. Managed (cleaned) clumps produce an average of 8 mature culms per year (800 – 1200/ha), whilst unmanaged (uncleaned) clumps only 5 (500 – 750/ha). Removal of the basal spiny thickets and basal parts of harvested culms makes access easier, promotes the development of healthy shoots and reduces the number of deformed culms. Bamboos in general are usually monocarpic, living for many years before flowering, then flowering and seeding profusely for a period of 1 – 3 years before usually dying. Spiny bamboo flowers very rarely, perhaps once in 20 – 30 years.

Edible Uses: Young shoots are eaten as a vegetable, usually boiled and shredded. The young shoots are harvested as they emerge from the soil.

Other Uses:
Agroforestry Uses: It is often planted along water courses to prevent soil erosion[310. Planted around farmhouses as wind-breaks, in fields as living fences or to mark boundaries. Other Uses The culms walls are up to 3 cm thick; the internodes are usually hollow, 25 – 60cm long. They are used as scaffolding in construction, for basketry (baskets are very popular), furniture, parquets, concrete reinforcements, kitchen utensils, chopsticks, hats and toys. They are suitable for making paper. They are also used as firewood if wood is scarce. The natural durability of untreated culms is poor: 1 – 3 years outdoors, 2 – 5 years indoors, 6 months or less in seawater.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bambusa_blumeana
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Bambusa+blumeana
https://www.guaduabamboo.com/blog/bambusa-blumeana

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Herbs & Plants

Bambusa bambos

Botanical Name: Bambusa bambos
Family: Poaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales
Genus: Bambusa
Species: B. bambos

Synonyms: Arundarbor agrestis (Lour.) Kuntze Arundarbor arundinacea (Retz.) Kuntze Arundarbor bambos (L.) Kunt

Common Names: Giant thorny bamboo, Indian thorny bamboo, Spiny bamboo, or Thorny bamboo

Habitat: Bambusa bambos is native to southern Asia (India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Indochina). It is also naturalized in Seychelles, Central America, West Indies, Java, Malaysia, Maluku, and the Philippines. It is found most abundantly in mixed moist deciduous forest, and not so commonly in mixed dry deciduous forest and in semi-evergreen forest, growing best along river valleys and in other moist conditions, on hills at elevations up to 1,000 metres.

Description:
Bambusa bambos is an evergreen Bamboo growing to 30 m (98ft) by 25 m (82ft) at a fast rate. The flowers are pollinated by Wind. It is a tall, bright-green colored spiny bamboo species, which grows in thickets consisting of a large number of heavily branched, closely growing culms.

Culms are not straight, but are armed with stout, curved spines. They are bright green, becoming brownish green when drying, and the young shoots are deep purple. Branches spread out from the base. Aerial roots reach up to few nodes above. Internode length is 15–46 cm, and diameter is 3.0–20 cm. Culm walls are 2.5–5.0 cm thick. Nodes are prominent and rootstock is stout.

Culm sheaths are dark brown when mature, elongated, and cylindrical. Length of the sheath proper is 15–25 cm and 12–30 cm in width. Blade length is 4.0–12 cm. Auricles are not prominent. Upper surfaces of the sheath are covered with blackish-brown hairs. Lower surfaces of the sheath are not hairy. Sheaths fall early.

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Cultivation:
A plant of the humid tropical lowlands, where it can be found at elevation up to 1,000 metres. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 22 – 30°c, but can tolerate 8 – 36°c. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 1,200 – 2,500mm, but tolerates 700 – 4,500mm. Prefers a position in dappled shade, but also grows in full sun. Grows best in a fertile, moist soil. Prefers a pH in the range 4.5 – 6.5, tolerating 4 – 7. A fast-growing species, it forms a clump of stems up to about 5 metres tall within 7 years from seed and reaches full size after about 20 years, by which time there will be 25 – 50, perhaps even 100 culms Twelve-year-old clumps are regarded as mature. Bamboos have an interesting method of growth. Each plant produces a number of new stems annually – these stems grow to their maximum height in their first year of growth, subsequent growth in the stem being limited to the production of new side branches and leaves. In the case of some mature tropical species the new stem could be as much as 30 metres tall, with daily increases in height of 30cm or more during their peak growth time. This makes them some of the fastest-growing species in the world. Undisturbed clumps are almost impenetrable after some years because of the interlacing thorny branches. The plant flowers gregariously over a region at intervals of 16 – 45 years. A complete flowering period of the whole clump takes as long as 3 years. This flowering is followed by the profuse production of seed, after which the old clump dies. Production: A clump from seed reaches about 5 m high in 7 years. It achieves full growth of 25-50 stems in 20 years. A 1000 seeds weigh 11.6 g. Flowering occurs between 16-45 years.

Edible Uses:
Edible portion: Shoots, Seeds, Sap, Cereal. Young shoots – cooked. They are often cooked in two changes of water to remove the bitterness. The sugary sap is made into a drink. Seed. Chemical composition: Seeds per 100 g edible portion. Water 8 g, Protein 13.5 g, carbohydrates 73 g, fibre 1 g, fat 0.4 g, ash 1.7 g, calcium 87 mg, P 163 mg. Shoots per 100 g edible portion. Water 87-88 g, protein 3.9-4.4 g, fat 0.5 g, carbohydrates 5.5 g, fibre 1 g, ash 1 g, Ca 20-24 mg, P 40-65 mg, Fe 0.1-0.4 mg Vit A 76 IU, Vit B1 0.16 mg, Vit B2 0.05 mg Vit C 0.3-0.5 mg. The energy value is about 185 kJ/100g. Young shoots contain HCN so should be cooked

Medical uses:
The plant contains high levels of silica and is used in many ways in Ayurvedic medicine.

The root is astringent and cooling.

It is used to treat joint pain and general debility.

The leaves are antispasmodic and emmenagogue.

They are taken internally to stimulate menstruation and to help relieve period pain.

They are also taken to tone and strengthen stomach function; to expel worms; and have the reputation of being an aphrodisiac.

The young sprouts, harvested as they emerge from below soil level, are taken internally to relieve nausea, indigestion and wind.

They are applied externally as a poultice to help drain infected wounds.

The juice of the plant is rich in silica and is taken internally to aid in the strengthening of cartilage in conditions such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis.

The leaves are eaten by cattle and it is very good medicine for their stomach disorder.

Other Uses:
Agroforestry Uses: One of the best bamboos for windy sites due to the strength of the culms, it is often planted to form wind-breaks around farms – when planted as a hedge around a farm or field, it requires little care. Planted along rivers in order to check floods. Other Uses The stems have a huge range of applications, being manufactured in different ways to make items as diverse as scaffolding, rafts, furniture, paper and dozens of other items. They are used to make the sails of ships, as well as their masts and rigging. Almost every article of furniture in houses, including mats, screens, chairs, tables, bedsteads and bedding, can be made from the stems. Household utensils, and even coarse underclothing, are made of this material. The whole stems are employed in shipbuilding, the construction of bridges, water pipes etc. Buckets, pitchers, flasks, and cups, are made from sections of the stems. Baskets, boxes, fans, hats, and jackets are made from split bamboo stems. Ropes and Chinese paper are made from the fibres in the stems. A Chinese umbrella consists of bamboo paper, with a bamboo handle and split bamboo for a frame. All sorts of agricultural implements, appliances for spinning cotton and wool or for reeling silk are often constructed entirely from bamboo. Very many articles of household use or decoration made from bamboo have become articles of commerce. So many and varied are the uses that it is possible to mention here only a part of them!. Traditionally, when making paper, the stems are split into lengths of 90 – 120cm and placed in a layer in a tank. This is covered with lime, and alternate layers of bamboo and lime are so placed until the tank is full. Water is run in to cover the whole, and this is then left for three or four months, by which time the bamboo has become rotten. The soft bamboo is pounded in a mortar into a pulp, mixed with water, and then poured on square, sieve-like molds. The sheets are allowed to dry on the mold, then placed against a hot wall, and finally exposed to the sun. The leaves are used for packing, as a filling for mattresses etc. This is good for bamboo huts, furniture manufacturing, handicraft, biomass consumption, biofuel, active charcoal.

Known Hazards: Plant has spines or sharp edges; use extreme caution when handling

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bambusa_bambos
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Bambusa+bambos

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Bambusa atra

Botanical Name: Bambusa atra
Family: Poaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales
Genus: Neololeba
Species: N. atra

Synonyms:
*Neololeba atra (Lindl.) Widjaja
*Arundarbor atra (Lindl.) Kuntze
*Arundarbor picta (Lindl.) Kuntze
*Arundarbor prava (Lindl.) Kuntze
*Arundarbor tenuis (Munro) Kuntze
*Arundinaria cobonii F.M.Bailey
*Arundinaria papuana K.Schum

Common Names: Clumping Bamboo. Long pipe bamboo.

Habitat:Bambusa atra is native to southeast Asia – Philippines, Indonesia (Molukus) to New Guinea and northern Australia.It grows in It is a tropical plant. It grows in the lowlands and usually in wet soil. It can grow on limestone. River banks, margins of disturbed lower montane forest, and on lower hill slopes, often on limestone; at low elevation.

Description:
Bambusa atra is an evergreen Bamboo. It is densely or loosely tufted, sympodial bamboo. Culm up to 8 m tall, 2-4 cm in diameter near the base, wall relatively thin; internodes 35-70 cm long, sometimes only 3 long ones are found in one culm, upper part covered by appressed brown hairs when young, otherwise glabrous and smooth; nodes not prominent. Branches 2-3 at each node in the upper part of the culm, the primary one dominant. Culm sheath thin, 12-18 cm × 8-10 cm, pale brown hairy on the back; blade erect, broadly ovate-lanceolate, 8-15 cm × 4-7 cm, rounded at the base, attached to the sheath by a rather narrow base, hairy towards the base adaxially; ligule 1 mm long with a fringe of 5-6 mm long stiff hairs; auricles 12 mm long, extending horizontally on each side of the base of the blade, bearing rather long bristles along the edge. Leaf blade oblong-lanceolate, 30-60 cm × 5-10 cm, base truncate to cordate; sheath glabrous; ligule short, with long bristles; auricles up to 3 mm long, bearing bristles. Inflorescence usually terminating a leafy branch, comprising groups of pseudospikelets; spikelet laterally compressed, up to 20 mm × 4.5 mm, consisting of 3 glumes, containing up to 12 florets; lemma with long, curved, pointed tip. Caryopsis not known.

B. atra is a rather variable species in which several varieties have been distinguished. In the Moluccas two forms are distinguished: plants with green culms (“loleba putih”) and plants with purplish-green culms (“loleba hitam”). Plants growing on wet soils and along river banks have longer culm internodes than plants growing on poor or dry soils. B. atra flowers continuously, and does not die off after flowering.

B. atra has several relatives which are also found in the eastern part of Indonesia and throughout New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, such as B. amahussana Lindley, B. forbesii (Ridley) Holttum, B. hirsuta Holttum and B. solomonensis Holttum. They share similar features such as large leaf blades, inflorescences terminating leafy branches, laterally compressed spikelets and lemmas with long, curved, pointed tips. A critical investigation is needed to find out the taxonomic relationships of these species. It is difficult to differentiate species using herbarium specimens, but in the field they can readily be distinguished from each other.

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Cultivation:
Climate: subtropical to tropical, tropical highlands. Humidity: humid. Bamboos have an interesting method of growth. Each plant produces a number of new stems annually – these stems grow to their maximum height in their first year of growth, subsequent growth in the stem being limited to the production of new side branches and leaves. In the case of some mature tropical species the new stem could be as much as 30 metres tall, with daily increases in height of 30cm or more during their peak growth time. This makes them some of the fastest-growing species in the world. Bamboos in general are usually monocarpic, living for many years before flowering, then flowering and seeding profusely for a period of 1 – 3 years before usually dying. This species, however, is reported to flower regularly in cultivation without dying, though these specimens do not set seed. Carbon Farming – Cultivation: minor global crop. Management: managed multistem.

Edible Uses: Edible Portion: Shoots, Cereal, Seeds.

Other uses:
The thin-walled culm is used locally in basketry and other handicrafts. The culm is used for making water pipes, arrow heads and as a casual drinking vessel. Strips of the culms are used as binding material in roofings, fish traps and screens. The dead canes of this species are useful when lighting camp fires, even in wet weather. Carbon Farming – Industrial Crop: biomass. Other Systems: strip intercrop, multistrata.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neololeba_atra
https://uses.plantnet-project.org/en/Bambusa_atra_(PROSEA)
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Bambusa+atra