Categories
Herbs & Plants Herbs & Plants (Spices)

Schinus terebinthifolia

Botanical Name: Schinus terebinthifolia
Family: Anacardiaceae
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Sapindales
Genus: Schinus
Species: S. terebinthifolia

Common Names: Brazilian peppertree, Aroeira, Rose pepper, Broadleaved pepper tree, Wilelaiki (or wililaiki), Christmasberry tree and Florida holly

Habitat: Schinus terebinthifolia is native to subtropical and tropical South America (southeastern Brazil, northern Argentina, and Paraguay). It is found in these states of Brazil: Alagoas, Bahia, Espírito Santo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, São Paulo, and Sergipe.

Description:
Brazilian peppertree is a sprawling shrub or small tree, with a shallow root system, reaching a height of 7–10 m. The branches can be upright, reclining, or nearly vine-like, all on the same plant. Its plastic morphology allows it to thrive in all kinds of ecosystems: from dunes to swamps, where it grows as a semi-aquatic plant.[8] The leaves are alternate, 10–22 cm long, pinnately compound with (3–) 5–15 leaflets; the leaflets are roughly oval (lanceolate to elliptical), 3–6 cm long and 2–3.5 cm broad, and have finely toothed margins, an acute to rounded apex and yellowish veins. The leaf rachis between the leaflets is usually (but not invariably) slightly winged. The plant is dioecious, with small white flowers borne profusely in axillary clusters. The fruit is a drupe 4–5 mm diameter, carried in dense clusters of hundreds.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The two varieties are:

Cultivation:
Brazilian pepper is widely grown as an ornamental plant in frost-free regions of South America for its foliage and fruit. It is considered as a melliferous flower and is the main source of food for the bee Tetragonisca angustula, which is an important honey producer.

Although it is not a true pepper (Piper), its dried drupes are often sold as pink peppercorns, as are the fruits from the related species Schinus molle (Peruvian peppertree). The seeds can be used as a spice, adding a pepper-like taste to food. They are usually sold in a dry state and have a bright pink color. They are less often sold pickled in brine, where they have a dull, almost green hue.

In the United States, it has been introduced to California, Texas, Hawaii, Arizona, Nevada, Louisiana and Florida. Planted originally as an ornamental outside of its native range, Brazilian pepper has become widespread and is considered an invasive species in many subtropical regions with moderate to high rainfall, including parts or all of Australia, the Bahamas, Bermuda, southern China, Cuba, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hawaii, Malta, the Marshall Islands, Mauritius, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Norfolk Island, Puerto Rico, Réunion, South Africa and the United States. In drier areas, such as Israel and southern California, it is also grown, but has not generally proved invasive. In California, it is considered invasive in coastal regions by the California Invasive Plant Council.

Brazilian pepper is hard to control because it produces basal shoots if the trunk is cut. Trees also produce abundant seeds that are dispersed by birds and ants. This same hardiness makes the tree highly useful for reforestation in its native environment, but enables it to become invasive outside of its natural range.

Propagation: Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a sunny position in a nursery seedbed. A germination rate of above 50% can be expected, with the seed sprouting within 10 – 15 days

Edible Uses:
Seed – a peppery flavour. A popular alternative spice, it is used to flavour Cajun and Nouvelle cuisines. Some caution is advised – see notes below on toxicity.

Medicinal uses:
Peppertree is the subject of extensive folk medicinal lore where it is indigenous. Virtually all parts of this tropical tree, including its leaves, bark, fruit, seeds, resin and oleoresin (or balsam) have been used medicinally by indigenous peoples throughout the tropics. The plant has a very long history of use and appears in ancient religious artifacts and on idols among some of the ancient Chilean Amerindians.

Throughout South and Central America, Brazilian peppertree is reported to be an astringent, antibacterial, diuretic, digestive stimulant, tonic, antiviral and wound healer. In Peru, the sap is used as a mild laxative and a diuretic and the entire plant is used externally for fractures and as a topical antiseptic. The oleoresin is used externally as a wound healer, to stop bleeding and for toothaches and it is taken internally for rheumatism and as a purgative. In South Africa, a leaf tea is used to treat colds and a leaf decoction is inhaled for colds, hypertension, depression and irregular heartbeat. In the Brazilian Amazon, a bark tea is used as a laxative and a bark-and-leaf tea is used as a stimulant and antidepressant. In Argentina, a decoction is made with the dried leaves and is taken for menstrual disorders and is also used for respiratory and urinary tract infections and disorders.[citation needed]

Brazilian peppertree is still employed in herbal medicine today in many countries. It is used for many conditions in the tropics, including menstrual disorders, bronchitis, gingivitis, gonorrhea, gout, eye infections, rheumatism, sores, swellings, tuberculosis, ulcers, urethritis, urogenital disorders, venereal diseases, warts and wounds. In Brazilian herbal medicine today, the dried bark and/or leaves are employed for heart problems (hypertension and irregular heart beat), infections of all sorts, menstrual disorders with excessive bleeding, tumors and general inflammation. A liquid extract or tincture prepared with the bark is used internally as a stimulant, tonic and astringent and externally for rheumatism, gout and syphilis.

Recently, the fruit of the plant has been studied and shows promise as a treatment for MRSA. A chemical in the berry appears to stop bacteria from producing a toxin which breaks down tissue. It also appears to suppress the way the bacteria communicate.

Other Uses:
Agroforestry Uses:
The tree has been used to stabilize sand dunes on the Brazilian Atlantic coast, and is also sometimes grown as a hedge.
The tree has a high ecological plasticity, a short life cycle and very rapid growth; it is therefore recommended for the restoration of degraded areas and especially gallery forests.

General Uses:

A resin called ‘Balsamo de misiones’ is obtained from the trunk.

The tree (bark) is a source of tannins.

Essential oils extracted from the seeds have pesticidal activity against the housefly (Musca domestica).

The wood is a dark yellow, turning red on exposure. It is moderately heavy, very dense, hard, soft to work with, with excellent mechanical properties and of high natural durability. It is ideal for making fine furniture, for which it is highly valued in Brazil.
The wood is used for fuel and to make charcoal.

Known Hazards:
he seeds are known to cause rashes, vomiting and diarrhoea in some sensitive individuals.
The plant is notorious for causing respiratory problems and dermatitis in people who are allergic to it. This is mainly caused by the copious pollen produced by male plants which produces a gaseous material.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schinus_terebinthifolia
http://tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Schinus+terebinthifolia

Advertisements
Categories
Herbs & Plants

Pandanus julianettii

Botanical Name: Pandanus julianettii
Family: Pandanaceae
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Pandanales
Genus: Pandanus
Subgenus:Lophostigma
Section:Karuka
Subsection:Karuka
Species:P. julianettii

Synonyms: Pandanus jiulianetti Martelli.

Common Names:Karuka, Karunga, Pandanus nut

Habitat: Pandanus julianettii is native to Australasia – New Guinea.

Description:
Pandanus julianettii is an evergreen Shrub growing to 4 m (13ft) by 3 m (9ft) at a fast rate.
The tree is dioecious (individual plants either have male flowers or female ones), with male trees uncommon compared to females. It reaches 10–30 metres (33–98 ft) in height, with a grey trunk of 30 centimetres (12 inches) in diameter and supported by buttress roots. The trunk has white mottling and is generally smooth with occasional warts or small knobs as well as rings of leaf scars. Inside the trunk is pithy and lacking cambium. The top of the tree sometimes branches, producing three or four crowns of leaves. Each crown will produce a single cluster of nuts, typically once every other season. Production is affected by the seasonality of local rainfall.

Leaves spiral up the trunk in opposite pairs. The large leathery leaves are 3–4 metres (9.8–13.1 ft) long and 8–12 centimetres (3.1–4.7 in) wide. The apex of the leaf is attenuate and doubly-pleated, with prickles pointing up at the tip and along the margins and midrib. The leaves are dark green on top and dull cyan underneath.

The inflorescence on male trees is a densely-branched spadix with a dozen long spikes, each containing many staminate phalanges. In each phalange is a column 3 mm long topped by up to 9 subsessile anthers. The male flowers are white, and the whole male flowering organ may be up to 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) long.

The pollen has a psilate exine (unornamented outer wall) 0.8 ?m thick. The ornamentation is granular between echinae (short spines). The ulcerate aperture is 3 ?m in diameter. Pollen grains measure an average of 30 × 14.5 ?m in size.

On female trees, the inflorescence is a single ellipsoid or ovoid syncarp, or fruiting head, with off-white bracts. Female flowers can produce fruit without pollination, and are typically the only trees cultivated. The tree stops making leaves when new fruit is growing. The syncarp has up to a thousand densely-packed single-celled carpels that later turn into drupes.

The clavate, pentagonal drupes measure up to 12 cm long and have a sharpened base, but typically are 9×1.5 cm, and are a pale blue-green color. Each cluster contains about 1000 nuts. The endocarp is bony and thin, 5½ cm long, with rounded edges about 1½ cm wide. The seed-bearing locule is around 4 cm long. The core of the mature head (mesocarp) has an appearance like honeycomb and is spongy and pink. The top of the mesocarp is fibrous, from 3 cm long and up. Though Martelli did not have a complete syncarp, he knew the cluster of fruit must be large, estimating at least 30 cm in diameter. He was correct, as the fruiting cluster is typically 15 to 30 cm in diameter. A mature head and stalk weigh up to 16 kg, but average 6 kg.

It most closely resembles P. utilissimus, which is found the Philippines. People also harvest and eat nuts of P. antaresensis, P. brosimos, P. dubius, P. iwen, and P. limbatus, and P. odoratissima.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
A plant of the humid tropics, where it is found at elevations from 1,700 – 2,900 metres. Plants grow best in areas where the mean annual temperature is within the range 13 – 24c, but can tolerate 6 – 30c. They may tolerate temperatures as low as 0c for short periods and down to 3c for prolonged periods. They prefer a mean annual rainfall in the range 3,000 – 4,000mm, tolerating 2,500 – 4,000mm. Succeeds in sunny positions and in light shade. Prefers a well-drained, humus-rich, light to medium soil. Prefers a pH in the range 4.5 – 5.5, but tolerates 3.5 – 5.6. Plants can be harvested for their fibre the first time 6 – 8 years from planting, with an economical life of 20-40 years and with a total lifespan of up to 70 years. Require 90-120 days from flowering to fruiting and have no obvious seasonality. This species has potential for commercial use. Branches do not have dormant buds and so will not resprout if cut back into the old wood. A dioecious species, both male and female forms need to be grown if fruits and seed are required.

Edible Uses:

Seeds are edible. The seeds are oily and contain a fair amount of protein. Sometimes the inner leaves and the tips of the aerial roots are eaten cooked

On New Guinea karuka is cultivated crop, and has been used as a major food source since nearly 31,000 years ago in the Pleistocene. In PNG nearly 2 million people (almost half the rural population) live in regions where karuka is commonly eaten. There is high demand for it in the New Guinea Highlands: Entire households (including pigs, who are sometimes fed the fruits) will move from the valleys to higher elevations at harvest time, often for several weeks. Each household will average 12 to 176 trees.

Medicinal Uses: Not known.

Other Uses:
A fibre obtained from the plant is used for making textiles.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karuka
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Pandanus+julianettii

Categories
Herbs & Plants (Spices)

Porophyllum ruderale

Botanical Name: Porophyllum ruderale
Family: Asteraceae
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Asterales
Tribe: Tageteae
Genus: Porophyllum
Species: P. ruderale

Common Nmaes: Bolivian coriander, Quillquiña (also spelled quirquiña or quilquiña), Yerba porosa, Killi, Papalo, Tepegua, Mampuritu and Papaloquelite

Habitat: Porophyllum ruderale is native to Central and South America, but is widely grown throughout Mexico and the Caribbean. A weed of disturbed soils. Brushy rocky slopes or plains, most often in sandy soil, frequently on sandbars along streams, at elevations of 200 – 1,200 metres. Ephemerally wet sites in desert mountains; 1,000 – 1,500 metres.

Description:
Porophyllum ruderale is an herbaceous annual plant whose leaves can be used for seasoning food. The taste has been described as “somewhere between arugula, cilantro and rue. When fully grown, this plant grows to about 5 feet (150 cm) in height and 3 feet (91 cm) in diameter.This subspecies has elongated blue-green leaves about 1 1/2 inches in length.

When planted in the ground, it is fast-growing and can quickly reach 4 feet or more with a naturally-rounded growth habit. The foliage color makes an attractive addition to the herb garden. They flower profusely, but the blooms are not showy, consisting of an elongated bud with a bristly-looking top.

The plant is easy to grow from seed in a well-drained soil, which should be allowed to dry between watering.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Porophyllum ruderale is an annual plant found from the warm temperate zone of southern N. America and south through the tropical Americas to Bolivia and Peru. It is usually found in very freely draining soils, often in semi-arid regions where it grows after rains.
Requires a sunny position, succeeding in a range of soil types so long as they are well-drained.

In addition to being cultivated as a food crop, the subspecies macrocephalum is often found as a weed of waste and disturbed ground in its native habitat. It was introduced into the Galapagos as a food, where it has escaped from cultivation and is now classed as an invasive weed.
The subspecies macrocephalum is the form more commonly grown for its edible leaves.

The aromatic oils, which are contained largely in the pores or glands that are especially plentiful on the leaves, produce a strong odour when the foliage is bruised, broken, or heated. Cures, real or fancied, that are attributed to various species of Porophyllum are probably largely due to either the soothing properties of the oils or the imagination by the patient that anything that is so odoriferous must be beneficia.

Propagation: Through Seed – sow in situ

Edible Uses:
Leaves – raw or cooked. They can be added to salads or cooked as a flavouring in foods such as stews and salsa. They are said to make a delicious salsa with tomatoes, onions and chilli. The leaves have a very distinctive pungent aroma and flavour which has been compared to cilantro (Coriandrum sativum).

Medicinal Uses:
Porophyllum ruderale is believed to have medicinal benefits according to some cultures; people living in Mexico, Central and South America commonly use it as medicine for high blood pressure and stomach disorders. In Bolivia, the Chacobo Indians utilized the herb on infected injuries to reduce swelling.

The plant is used as an antiinflammatory.
The roots are used in treating snakebite and also to relieve pain from rheumatism and the bacterial disease erysipelas.

Other Uses:
An essential oil obtained from the plant is used medicinally and also has significant antifungal activity. It has been recommended for use to develop natural fungicidal formulations in order to protect post-harvest stored grains. Higher antifungal activity is displayed when the complete essential oil is used, as opposed to individual components from the oil used in isolation, suggesting that enhancement of antifungal activity is obtained when other minor compounds are present in the oil, suggesting that the antifungal activity is a result of a synergistic effect.

The oil contains a significant amount (25%) of waxes and fatty acids, with the following major compounds identified: citronellal (29.3%), -caryophillene (12.4%), hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (8.4%), and bisabolene (7.41%).

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Porophyllum_ruderale
http://tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Porophyllum+ruderale

Categories
Herbs & Plants Herbs & Plants (Spices)

Pandanus conoideus

Botanical Name: Pandanus conoideus
Family: Pandanaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Pandanales
Genus: Pandanus
Species: P. conoideus

Synonyms:
Bryantia butyrophora Webb; Pandanus butyrophorus (Webb) Kurz.; Pandanus ceramicus Kunth [Illegitimate]; Pandanus cominsii Hemsl.; Pandanus cominsii var. augustus B. C. Stone; Pandanus cominsii var. micronesicus B. C. Stone; Pandanus englerianus Martelli; Pandanus erythros H. St. John; Pandanus hollrungii f. caroliniana Martelli; Pandanus latericius B. C. Stone; Pandanus magnificus Martelli;

Common Names: Marita, Red fruit, Pandan, Kuansu, Buah Merah, Screwpine, Pandanus ‘Cokelat’, Marita, Oil Pandan, Red Pandanus

Name in Other Languages: Papua New Guinea: Aran, Arang, Marita ( Tok Pisin ), Abare ( Huli) Opar ( Mendi ), Dapu ( Kewa ), Pangu ( Wira ), Apare ( Duna ), Neka ( Imbongu ) in higher areas of Southern Highlands Province; Kayo ( Etoro ), Oka ( Kaluli ) Alakape ( Onabasolo) , Oga ( Hawalisi ), Abare ( Foi ), Sina ( Podopa ), Anga ( Samberigi ), Hase ( Fasu ), Anga ( Pole ) in lower areas of Southern Highlands Province; Simaho ( Ankave ) in the Gulf Province.
Indonesians: Buah Merah ( Malay) , Kuansu ( Wamena ), Kuansu, Sak ( Papua Barat ) Pandan Seran ( Alf Seram, Maluku ), Saun ( Buru, Maluku ), Kleba ( North Halmahera, Maluku ), Siho, Garoko Ma Ngauku ( Maluku)

Habitat: Pandanus conoideus is native to Papua, Indonesia.Origin: New Guinea, Moluccas. Limited to New Guinea and some of the islands to the west (Ceram, Buru and Ternate) in Indonesia to West Pacific. A rare plant . It grows throughout PNG from sea level up to 1650 m altitude. It becomes common above 500m. It can be up to 2,500m above sea level.

Description:
Pandanus conoideus is a Perennial, branching, dioecious evergreen aborescent shrub, growing 15 meters high. It grows best in moist locations, often under shade, and tolerates water-logged soils. It thrives in loose, fertile soil rich in humus. Its roots constitute the root of the air which strung to the height of one meter through the bottom of the stem. Stem is brown with white spots, round, beam vessels does not seem obvious, hard, direction grow vertically or upright, branching number 2-4, and prickly surface.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Leaves are sessile, densely arranged in corkscrew spirals towards the terminal of the stem and branches, broadly linear, strap-shaped, 1–2 m long by 5–8 cm wide, bright green, glaucous beneath, thin to firm, apex acute, margins and mid rib prickly.

Flower: Male inflorescence unknown. Female inflorescence oblong-cylindrical head enclosed by bracts, stigma flat and broad.

Fruit: Fruit head is short and oblong to elongate and cylindrical, when ripe. They are 30-120 cm long and 10-25 cm diameter. The fruit is green to bright orange color turning to red, maroon and also to brown or yellow as it matures. An average weight of the fruit is about 7.5 kg. External skin of the fruit looks like a jack fruit.

Fruit Color: Green to bright orange, red, maroon and also to brown or yellow as it matures.

Flesh Color: Creamy White

Fruit Weight: 7.5 kg

Cultivation:
Climate: tropical, tropical highlands. Humidity: humid. It grows throughout PNG from sea level up to 1650 m altitude. It becomes common above 500 m. It can be up to 2,500 m above sea level. Marita is often planted along the roads and walking tracks. It is also planted in most gardens and serves as a reminder that the land is owned by the person who planted the marita. So plants are dispersed instead of being grown in a plantation. A marita fruit is harvested when the colour starts to change to a brighter red or yellow. Sometimes it also starts to crack slightly at this stage. The fruit is cut from the branch. Marita is a seasonal crop but the fruiting season is not a short clearly marked one. The main season goes from about October to March but individual trees can bear almost throughout the year. Near the sea the marita season is longer and more spread out but as the places increase in altitude above sea level the season becomes more distinct. Carbon Farming Solutions – Cultivation: regional crop only. Management: standard (Describes the non-destructive management systems that are used in cultivation.

Edible Uses:
Edible Portion: Fruit, Spice. The red fruit is high in oil. The ripe fruit is cooked then the juice mixed with water to make a sauce. To do this, a ripe marita fruit is normally split into 3 sections along its length. Then the central yellow stalk and pith area are dug out. The outside hard red layer is then cooked. Preferably it is cooked using hot stones although sometimes it is boiled in a saucepan. After cooking for about half an hour the hard pits are squeezed from the soft red juice by squeezing through the hands. Water is added to make an oily red soup. The soup is then eaten. Sometimes it is eaten by dipping green leaves or sago into the soup. At other times it is eaten with a spoon made from the marita leaf. Some people just suck the cooked juice from the seeds. As well, some people use the oily juice to cook food in. The pits or seeds are thrown away, normally to pigs. A harvested marita fruit will only keep for about one week. After cooking it will only last for about 12 hours. Carbon Farming Solutions – Staple Crop: oil (The term staple crop typically refers to a food that is eaten routinely and accounts for a dominant part of people’s diets in a particular region of the world)

Medicinal Uses:
Traditionally believed to be a good supplement as a skin and eye medicine, and as worm treatment. The variant merah panjang (long red) is used.

The fruit is a nutrient dense fruit which consists of huge amount of nutrients, vitamins, minerals. We can find numerous health benefits of Red fruit (Buah Merah). Listed below are some of the benefits of the Red fruit (Buah Merah). Read them to know more.

Traditional Medicinal benefits of Pandanus conoideus:

*Pandanus conoideus mix Juice is good in curing dengue fever.

*Pandanus conoideus oil is used by people for traditional medicine.

*Pandanus conoideus is used by local people as natural medicine for many diseases such as cancer, arteriosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and stroke.

*Pandanus conoideus has been known to local inhabitants in Papua for many generations as a natural food supplement containing medicinal qualities and as a dye.
*Pandanus conoideus oil has been used in ethnic tribal communities for stamina and illnesses.

*It is traditionally believed to be a good supplement as a skin and eye medicine, and as a vermifuge.

*The special usage of the oil is to cure some diseases, such as cancer, HIV, malaria, cholesterol and diabetes mellitus.

Other Uses:
*Pandanus conoideus is the traditional fruit of Papuans, who served during the “burn stone” ceremony.

*Leaves are dried out and rolled, and used to make mats in Kerala, India; and Hawaii.

*It is said that this strain of Buah Merah is harvested twice a year.

*Roots can be made rope, binding and mats then the trunk as the board.

*Pandanus conoideus is one of the most important cultivated trees in orchards and around houses in highland Papua New Guinea.

*Dregs of Pandanus conoideus oil extraction can be used as feed supplement for poultry.

*Oil from drupes is also used as hair and body oil, as polish for arrow shafts, and for paints and dyes.

*Leaves are sometimes used for thatching materials.

*Leaves stem bark, and roots from red fruit plant are used to make ropes, yarn, and seat cover, even as a bed for sleeping.

*The leaves stem bark and root of the Pandanus conoideus are used in making handicrafts by the indigenous Papuans.

*Young leaves are used as a substitute for cigarette wrap.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pandanus_conoideus
https://www.healthbenefitstimes.com/red-fruit/
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Pandanus+conoideus

Categories
Herbs & Plants Herbs & Plants (Spices)

Pandanus odoratissimus

Botanical Name: Pandanus odoratissimus
Family: Pandanaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Pandanales
Genus: Pandanus
Species: P. odorifer

Synonyms:
*Athrodactylis spinosa J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. nom. illeg.
*Bromelia sylvestris Burm.f.
*Eydouxia delessertii Gaudich.
*Hasskarlia leucacantha Walp.
*Keura odora Thunb.
*Keura odorifera Forssk.
*Marquartia leucacantha Hassk.
*Pandanus adduensis H.St.John
*Pandanus albibracteatus H.St.John
*Pandanus alloios H.St.John
*Pandanus ambiglaucus H.St.John

Common Names: Fragrant screw-pine,

In India, the tree goes by a variety of names, many deriving from the Sanskrit Kataki. In Tamil, it is called Kaithai and thazhai and both are mentioned in Sangam literature. In Arabic speaking countries, the tree is referred to as al-kadi. In Japan, the tree is called adan and grows on Okinawa.

Common Names in Indian Languages:
Bengali :Keora, Keya, Ketaki
English:Umbrella tree, Screw pine, Screw tree
French: Pandanus
German: Schraubenbaum, Schraubenpalme
Hindi:Kewra, Kewda, Pushpa-chamar, Keora, Panshuka
Marathi : Ketaki, Kewda, Kegad
Oriya: Kia, Kiya
Urdu:Kiura, Kevara, Jambala, Jambul, Panshuka, Ketaki

Habitat : Pandanus odoratissimus is widely distributed on the Indo-Malaysian coasts from India and Sri Lanka throughout South-East Asia to Taiwan, the Ryukyu Islands and Micronesia. In has been introduced into tropical Africa where it is occasionally cultivated..
Various species of the genus Pandanus grow in tropical regions of Asia, Australia nad the Pacific; one of those has fragrant leaves used as spice.

Description:
It is a small branched, palm-like dioecious tree with a flexuous trunk supported by brace roots. The tree can grow to a height of 4 meters. Leaves grow in clusters at the branch tips, with rosettes of sword-shaped, stiff (leather-like) and spiny bluish-green, fragrant leaves. Leaves are glaucous, 40–70 cm. long. In summer, the tree bears very fragrant flowers, used as perfume. In Yemen, they are predominantly found alongside flowing streams in the western escarpment foothills; Most common in high rainfall areas. The fragrant male flowers are wrapped in leaves and sold on roadsides and in markets. Only male plants seem to occur in Yemen. Some suggest that it was introduced into Yemen from India where its flowers are used chiefly to make perfume.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Propagation:
The tree is propagated vegetatively, by the offshoots of young plants that grow around the base of the trunk, but may also be increased by seed. If by the former method, the offsets should be cut off and set in sand, at a temperature of 65° or 70°. The cuttings root slowly and the plants for a time make very slow growth. The general cultural treatment is that of palms. Trees require an abundance of water in summer.

Uses:
An aromatic oil (kevda oil) and fragrant distillate (otto) called keorra-ka-arak are extracted from the male flowers. They are almost exclusively used in the form of a watery distillate called kewra water. Flowers have a sweet, perfumed odor that has a pleasant quality similar to rose flowers, although kewra is considered more fruity. The distillate (kewra water, pandanus flower water) is quite diluted- it can be used by the teaspoon, often even by the tablespoon.

Used plant part: Male flowers. They are almost exclusively used in the form of an aqueous distillate called kewra water.

Pandanus odoratissimus is used in living fences, coastal windbreaks, and it is planted for soil stabilization and as an ornamental. In Asia the roots are used for the treatment of skin diseases, ulcers, dyspepsia, diabetes, fever and leprosy, and they are also considered antipyretic, expectorant and diuretic.

Surprising Health Benefits Of Pandan!
*TREATING HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE. The first health benefit of pandan leaves is for treating the people with high blood pressure. …
*CLEANSE & PREVENT DANDRUFF. …
*PREVENTING HAIR LOSS. …
*EMBELLISHING DULL HAIR COLOR. …
*OVERCOMING WEAK NERVES. …
*RELIEVING INSOMNIA. …
*RELIEVING RHEUMATISM. …
*REDUCING FEVER

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pandanus_odorifer
http://gernot-katzers-spice-pages.com/engl/Pand_odo.html
https://uses.plantnet-project.org/en/Pandanus_odoratissimus_(PROTA)