Categories
Herbs & Plants

Berberis wilsoniae

Botanical Name: Berberis wilsoniae
Family: Berberidaceae
Reign: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Ranunculales
Kind: Berberis

Common Names: Wilson barberry

Habitat: Wilson’s berberis is native to China: Gansu, Hubei, Hunan, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan. It is currently widely distributed in all countries with temperate climates.

Description:
Berberis wilsoniae is a small evergreen shrub hardly exceeding a meter in height, with arching branches and trifurcated thorns and never simple.It is in leaf all year. Its leaves are semi-evergreen. The flowers, in late spring (May-June), in clusters of 5 to 10, are yellow. Its fruits, pink berries, are ripe in October-November. The fruits are about 6mm long. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. The plant is self-fertile.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURE

Cultivation:
Deciduous to semi-evergreen. Prefers a warm moist loamy soil but it is by no means fastidious, succeeding in thin, dry and shallow soils. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Succeeds in full sun or light shade. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus, especially the closely related B. aggregata. The true species is seldom seen in cultivation, having been replaced with its hybrid progeny. There are some named forms, selected for their ornamental value. Plants can be pruned back quite severely, they resprout well from the base. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus. Heat Zone 9-4.

Propagation
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame, when it should germinate in late winter or early spring. Seed from over-ripe fruit will take longer to germinate[78], whilst stored seed may require cold stratification and should be sown in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. The seedlings are subject to damping off, so should be kept well ventilated. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame. If growth is sufficient, it can be possible to plant them out into their permanent positions in the autumn, but generally it is best to leave them in the cold frame for the winter and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Cuttings of mature wood of the current season’s growth, preferably with a heel, October/November in a frame.

Edible Uses:
Fruits are eaten -raw or cooked. Very acid with a lemon-like flavour, it goes very well in a muesli. Children and some adults like it raw, at least in small quantities, though most adults prefer to cook it and use it in pies, preserves etc.

Medicinal Uses:
Berberine, universally present in rhizomes of Berberis species, has marked antibacterial effects. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery. It should not be used with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine. Berberine has also shown antitumour activity.

Other Uses:
Berberis wilsoniae is grown as decorative plant in several places.They can be grown as a tall ground cover when planted about 60cm apart each way. A yellow dye is obtained from the root. A shrub for thorny barriers to deter unwanted visitors. Berries loved by birds.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berberis_wilsoniae
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Berberis+wilsoniae

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Berberis thunbergii

Botanical Name: Berberis thunbergii
Family: Berberidaceae
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales
Genus: Berberis
Species: B. thunbergii

Common Names: Japanese barberry, Thunberg’s barberry, or Red barberry

Habiitat: Berberis thunbergii is native to Japan and eastern Asia, though widely naturalized in China and in North America.

Description:
Berberis thunbergii is a deciduous Shrub growing to 2 m (6ft) by 3 m (9ft) at a medium rate. It has deeply grooved, brown, spiny branches with a single (occasionally tridentine) spine (actually a highly modified leaf) at each shoot node. The leaves are green to blue-green (reddish or purple in some horticultural variants), very small, spatula to oval shaped, 12–24 mm long and 3–15 mm broad; they are produced in clusters of 2–6 on a dwarf shoot in the axil of each spine. The flowers are pale yellow, 5–8 mm diameter, produced in drooping 1–1.5 cm long umbrella-shaped clusters of 2–5; flowering is from mid spring to early summer. The edible fruit is a glossy bright red to orange-red, ovoid berry 7–10 mm long and 4–7 mm broad, containing a single seed. They mature during late summer and fall and persist through the winter.
It is in flower in May. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. The plant is self-fertile.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

.Cultivation:
. Prefers a warm moist loamy soil but it is by no means fastidious, succeeding in thin, dry and shallow soils. Prefers a lime-free soil according to one report. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Succeeds in full sun or light shade. Plants are hardy to about -25°c. A commonly grown ornamental plant, there are many named varieties. Plants can be pruned back quite severely, they resprout well from the base. Unlike most other members of this genus, this plant does not usually hybridize with other species. An alternate host of ‘black-stem rust’ of wheat so it has been extensively grubbed up from its habitats. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus. Special Features: Attractive foliage, Not North American native, Invasive, Inconspicuous flowers or bloom.

Edible Uses:
Fruits are eaten – raw or cooked. Dry with a very poor flavour. The fruits are about 8mm long. Leaves are also cooked and eaten.

Medicinal Uses:
The root bark is anthelmintic, antiseptic and febrifuge. Berberine, universally present in rhizomes of Berberis species, has marked antibacterial effects. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery. It should not be used with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine[218]. Berberine has also shown antitumour activity.

Other Uses:
Landscape Uses:Border, Erosion control, Foundation, Pest tolerant, Hedge, Massing, Rock garden, Standard, Superior hedge, Specimen, Woodland garden
They are very tolerant of trimming and have prickles which make them an effective barrier to larger creatures. The cultivar ‘Atropurpurea Nana’ can be used for ground cover. It makes a dense covering when planted 30cm apart each way. A yellow dye is obtained from the root and branches. An Ornamental plant.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berberis_thunbergii
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Berberis+thunbergii

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Berberis parisepala

Botanical Name: Berberis parisepala
Family: Berberidaceae
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales
Genus: Berberis

Common Names: Deng e xiao bo (in chinese)

Habitat: Berberis parisepala is native to E. Asia – Himalayas in northern Assam, northeastern India, Nepal, Sikkim and eastern Tibet. It grows In the subalpine to alpine zone, growing on rocky slopes and scree.(Thickets, alpine meadows; 3600-3900 m. Xizang.)

Descriiptiion:
Berberis parisepala is a Shrubs, deciduous, to 1.5 m tall. Branches dark gray-brown, pubescent, markedly sulcate, not verruculose; shoots brownish; spines weak, 3-fid, rarely simple or 5-fid, 4-16 mm. Petiole 2-5 mm; leaf blade shiny, abaxially pale green, adaxially yellow-green, obovate or narrowly obovate, 1.5-2.8 × 0.6-1.2 cm, papery, abaxially with slightly raised midvein, both surfaces with inconspicuous lateral and reticulate veins, base cuneate, margin entire or rarely 1-3-spinose-serrate on each side, apex rounded. Flowers solitary. Pedicels 5-12 mm, pubescent; bracteoles yellow, ovate, ca. 1.3 mm, apex acute. Sepals in 3 whorls, equal in size, 8-9 × 6.5-7.5 mm. Petals ca. 7.5 × 4 mm, basal glands separate, apex emarginate. Stamens ca. 5 mm; anther connective not prolonged, truncate. Ovules 4. Berry red, ellipsoid, 10-11 × 7-8 mm, not pruinose, style persistent. Fl. May-Jun, fr. Sep-Oct. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. The plant is self-fertile.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Prefers a warm moist loamy soil but it is by no means fastidious, succeeding in thin, dry and shallow soils. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Succeeds in full sun or light shade. Plants can be pruned back quite severely and will resprout well from the base. This species comes into leaf very early in the spring. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. This species is closely related to B. angulosa.

Edible Uses:
The following report is for the closely related B. angulosa – it quite possibly can also be applied to this species also. Fruits are eaten – raw or cooked. The relatively large berries are freely borne and are more palatable than most barberries. The fruit is about 15mm long and 8mm wide.

Medicinal Uses:
Berberine, universally present in rhizomes of Berberis species, has marked antibacterial effects. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery. It should not be used with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine[. Berberine has also shown antitumour activity.

Other Uses: A yellow dye is obtained from the root.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berberis
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Berberis+parisepala
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=242420761

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Berberis lycium

Botanical Name: Berberis lycium
Family: Berberidaceae
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales
Genus: Berberis

Common names: Indian Lycium, Indian Barberry, Boxthorn Barberry

  • Hindi: Darhaldi, Chatrol • Kumaon: Kirmora
  • Urdu: Ishkeen, Kushmul, Zarch
  • Gujarati: Kasmal

Habitat: Berberis lycium is native to E. Asia – Himalayas. It grows on the open hillsides, usually on hot dry slopes, to 3000 metres. in Kashmir.

Description:
Berberis lycium is an evergreen semi deciduous shrub, 2-4 m high, leaves lanceolate or narrowly obovate-oblong, entire or with a few large spinous teeth, arranged alternately on stem. It is in leaf all year, in flower from May to June. Inflorescence a raceme, flowers yellow born in axillary clusters longer than the leaves. Fruit, berries, black. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. The plant is self-fertile.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Prefers a warm moist loamy soil and light shade but it is by no means fastidious, succeeding in thin, dry and shallow soils. Grows well in heavy clay soils. A fairly hardy plant but it suffers some damage in severe winters. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Plants can be pruned back quite severely, they resprout well from the base

Edible Uses:
Fruits are eaten – raw or cooked and made into preserves. Fairly juicy with a nice slightly acid flavour. The fruits are about 8mm long. Leaves and young shoots – cooked. Leaves are a tea substitute.

Medicinal uses:
The roots are aperient, carminative, febrifuge and ophthalmic. They are used in the treatment of eye complaints, menorrhagia, chronic diarrhoea and piles. The leaves have been used in the treatment of jaundice. Berberine, universally present in rhizomes of Berberis species, has marked antibacterial effects. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery. It should not be used with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine. Berberine has also shown antitumour activity.

Unverified information : Indian Lycium’s roots are used as remedy for swollen and sore eyes, broken bones, wounds, gonorrhea, curative piles, unhealthy ulcers, acute conjunctive and in chronic opthalmia, also used as bitter tonic astringent, diaphoretic and febrifuge. Leaves are given in jaundice.

Other Uses: A yellow dye is obtained from the root.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berberis
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Berberis+lycium
https://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Indian%20Lycium.html

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Berberis koreana

Botanical Name: Berberis koreana
Family: Berberidaceae
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales
Genus: Berberis
Species: B. koreana

Common Names: Korean Barberry, Barberry

Habitat : Berberis koreana is native to E. Asia – Korea. It is hedgerows, ledges and montibus.

Description:
Berberis koreana is a deciduous Shrub growing to 1.5 m (5ft) at a medium rate. The leaf margins are dentate and have inflorescences in racemes on reddish branchlets. The leaves are simple, alternating, are either elliptical or oval shape and are dark to medium-green in color. They show pinnate venation with smooth edges that are 1–3 inches (2.5–7.6 cm) in length. The leaves have leaf stalks.

It is in flower from May to June. The flowers of Berberis koreana are approximately 0.2 inches (5.1 mm) in length, appear in clusters, and are yellow in color when they bloom in the spring. B. koreana has 0.2–0.3 inches (5.1–7.6 mm) egg-shaped, red to purple berries in the fall and winter months. The flower has six yellow sepals, six stamens and six petals that can be yellow to dark orange-red. B. koreana has 1-10 seeds that are tan to red-brown or black. The fruit is fleshy

The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. The plant is self-fertile.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Berberis koreana is a very hardy plant, tolerating winter temperatures occasionally falling down to about -30°c.
Prefers a warm moist loamy soil and light shade but it is by no means fastidious, succeeding in thin, dry and shallow soils. Grows well in heavy clay soils.
Plants can be pruned back quite severely, they resprout well from the base. Very stoloniferous, plants produce suckers freely.

A very ornamental plant, it is closely related to B. Vulgaris. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus.The flowers are produced late in spring, thereby escaping spring frosts. Some Berberis species (especially Berberis vulgaris) harbour the black stem-rust fungus (Puccinia graminis Persoon). This is a major disease of wheat and barley crops and can spread from infected barberries to the grain crop. The sale or transport of susceptible or untested species of Berberis is illegal in the United States and Canada. This species has been found to be resistant to the disease.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame, when it should germinate in late winter or early spring. Seed from over-ripe fruit will take longer to germinate, whilst stored seed may require cold stratification and should be sown in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. The seedlings are subject to damping off, so should be kept well ventilated. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame. If growth is sufficient, it can be possible to plant them out into their permanent positions in the autumn, but generally it is best to leave them in the cold frame for the winter and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year.

Edible Uses:
Fruits are eaten – raw or cooked. The fruits are about 5mm long. Young leaves are cooked and eaten.

Medicinal Uses:
The alkaloid berberine, which is universally present in the roots and stems of Berberis species, has marked antibacterial effects. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery.It should not be used in combination with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine. Berberine has also shown antitumour activity.

Other Uses:
The roots and stems of all Berberis species contain alkaloids and, when cut open, are a strong yellow colour. This has been utilized by various cultures to make a yellow dye for cloth etc.

Known Hazards:
All parts of the plant contain the alkaloid berberine – this is most concentrated in the roots, stems and inner bark, and least concentrated in the fruits. In small quantities berberine has a range of effective medicinal applications but, in excess, can cause vomiting, lowered blood pressure, reduced heart rate, lethargy, and other ill-effects.
The fruit of most, if not all, members of this genus are more or less edible and can be eaten in quantity since the levels of berberine in the fruit are very low.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berberis_koreana
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Berberis+koreana
http://temperate.theferns.info/plant/Berberis+koreana