Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

RSV VIRUS

Description:
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes infections of the lungs and respiratory tract. It’s so common that most children have been infected with the virus by age 2. Respiratory syncytial (sin-SISH-ul) virus can also infect adults.

In adults and older, healthy children, RSV symptoms are mild and typically mimic the common cold. Self-care measures are usually all that’s needed to relieve any discomfort.

RSV can cause severe infection in some people, including babies 12 months and younger (infants), especially premature infants, older adults, people with heart and lung disease, or anyone with a weak immune system (immunocompromised).

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Symptoms:
Signs and symptoms of RSV infection most commonly appear about four to six days after exposure to the virus. In adults and older children, RSV usually causes mild cold-like signs and symptoms. These may include:

*Congested or runny nose
*Dry cough
*Low-grade fever
*Sore throat
*Sneezing
*Headache

IN SEVER CASES:
RSV infection can spread to the lower respiratory tract, causing pneumonia or bronchiolitis — inflammation of the small airway passages entering the lungs. Signs and symptoms may include:

*Fever
*Severe cough
*Wheezing — a high-pitched noise that’s usually heard on breathing out (exhaling)
*Rapid breathing or difficulty breathing — the person may prefer to sit up rather than lie down
*Bluish color of the skin due to lack of oxygen (cyanosis)

Infants are most severely affected by RSV. Signs and symptoms of severe RSV infection in infants include:

*Short, shallow and rapid breathing
*Struggling to breathe — chest muscles and skin pull inward with each breath
*Cough
*Poor feeding
*Unusual tiredness (lethargy)
*Irritability

Most children and adults recover in one to two weeks, although some might have repeated wheezing. Severe or life-threatening infection requiring a hospital stay may occur in premature infants or in anyone who has chronic heart or lung problems.

RSV and COVID-19:
Because RSV and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are both types of respiratory viruses, some symptoms of RSV and COVID-19 can be similar. In children, COVID-19 often results in mild symptoms such as fever, runny nose and cough. For adults with COVID-19, symptoms may be more severe and may include trouble breathing.

Having RSV may lower immunity and increase the risk of getting COVID-19 — for kids and adults. And these infections may occur together, which can worsen the severity of COVID-19 illness.

FOR ALL SYMPTOMS OF RESPIRATORY SICKNESS, COVID-19 TEST IS RECOMENDED

Causes:
Respiratory syncytial virus enters the body through the eyes, nose or mouth. It spreads easily through the air on infected respiratory droplets.One can be infected with RSV if he or she inhels the droplets of cough or sneeze of a infected person. The virus also passes to others through direct contact, such as shaking hands.

The virus can live for hours on hard objects such as countertops, crib rails and toys. Touch your mouth, nose or eyes after touching a contaminated object and you’re likely to pick up the virus.

An infected person is most contagious during the first week or so after infection. But in infants and those with weakened immunity, the virus may continue to spread even after symptoms go away, for up to four weeks.

Risk factors:
By age 2, most children will have been infected with respiratory syncytial virus, but they can get infected by RSV more than once. Children who attend child care centers or who have siblings who attend school are at a higher risk of exposure and reinfection. RSV season — when outbreaks tend to occur — is the fall to the end of spring.

People at increased risk of severe or sometimes life-threatening RSV infections include:

*Infants, especially premature infants or babies who are 6 months or younger
*Children who have heart disease that’s present from birth (congenital heart disease) or chronic lung disease
*Children or adults with weakened immune systems from diseases such as cancer or treatment such as chemotherapy
*Children who have neuromuscular disorders, such as muscular dystrophy
*Adults with heart disease or lung disease
*Older adults, especially those age 65 and older

Complications:
Complications of respiratory syncytial virus include:

*Hospitalization. A severe RSV infection may require a hospital stay so that doctors can monitor and treat breathing problems and give intravenous (IV) fluids.

*Pneumonia. RSV is the most common cause of inflammation of the lungs (pneumonia) or the lungs’ airways (bronchiolitis) in infants. These complications can occur when the virus spreads to the lower respiratory tract. Lung inflammation can be quite serious in infants, young children, older adults, immunocompromised individuals, or people with chronic heart or lung disease.

*Middle ear infection. If germs enter the space behind the eardrum, you can get a middle ear infection (otitis media). This happens most frequently in babies and young children.

*Asthma. There may be a link between severe RSV in children and the chance of developing asthma later in life.

*Repeated infections. Once you’ve had RSV, you could get infected again. It’s even possible for it to happen during the same RSV season. However, symptoms usually aren’t as severe — typically it’s in the form of a common cold. But they can be serious in older adults or in people with chronic heart or lung disease.

DIAGNOSIS AND TESTS:
The healthcare provider will take your or your child’s medical history and ask about symptoms. The physical exam will include listening to your or your child’s lungs and checking oxygen level in a simple finger monitoring test (pulse oximetry). They may order blood testing to check for signs of infection (such as a higher than normal white blood cell count) or take a nose swab to test for viruses.

If more severe illness is suspected, your healthcare provider will order imaging tests (X-rays, CT scan) to check your or your child’s lungs.

If you or your child has mild symptoms, prescription treatment is usually not needed. RSV goes away on its own in one to two weeks. Antibiotics are not used to treat viral infections, including those caused by RSV. (Antibiotics may be prescribed, however, if testing shows you or your child has bacterial pneumonia or other infection.)

Some young children who develop bronchiolitis may have to be hospitalized to receive oxygen treatment. If your child is unable to drink because of rapid breathing, he or she may need to receive intravenous fluids to stay hydrated. On rare occasions, infected babies will need a respirator to help them breathe. Only about 3% of children with RSV require a hospital stay. Most children are able to go home from the hospital in two or three days.

If you are an older adult and especially if you have a weakened immune system, you may need to be hospitalized if the RSV is severe. While in the hospital, you may receive oxygen or be put on a breathing machine (ventilator) to help your breathe or receive IV fluids to help with dehydration.

Treatment:
Currently, there is no cure for RSV. However, scientists continue to learn about the virus and look for ways to prevent the infection or better manage severe illness.

If you or your child has mild symptoms, prescription treatment is usually not needed. RSV goes away on its own in one to two weeks. Antibiotics are not used to treat viral infections, including those caused by RSV. (Antibiotics may be prescribed, however, if testing shows you or your child has bacterial pneumonia or other infection.)

Some young children who develop bronchiolitis may have to be hospitalized to receive oxygen treatment. If your child is unable to drink because of rapid breathing, he or she may need to receive intravenous fluids to stay hydrated. On rare occasions, infected babies will need a respirator to help them breathe. Only about 3% of children with RSV require a hospital stay. Most children are able to go home from the hospital in two or three days.

If you are an older adult and especially if you have a weakened immune system, you may need to be hospitalized if the RSV is severe. While in the hospital, you may receive oxygen or be put on a breathing machine (ventilator) to help your breathe or receive IV fluids to help with dehydration.

PROGNOSIS:
Most cases of RSV in adults and healthy children will not require treatment. Infants and older adults at greatest risk of severe RSV can develop pneumonia or bronchiolitis or experience a worsening of their existing heart and lung conditions and may require hospitalization.

Preventions:
You can follow the same precautions that one follows if they have the cold, flu or any other contagious disease:

*Wash your hands often. Wash for 20 seconds. If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol. (Alcohol-based rubs work well for young children who don’t have the coordination or attention span for proper hand washing technique.)

*Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth to prevent the spread of viruses from your hands.

*Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when sneezing and coughing or sneeze and cough into your elbow. Throw the tissue in the trash. Wash your hands afterward. Never cough or sneeze into your hands!

*Avoid close contact (within 6 feet) with those who have known RSV, coughs, colds or are sick. Stay home if you are sick.

*Don’t share cups, toys or bottles, or any objects. Viruses may be able to live on such surfaces for hours (and be transmitted to your hands).

If you are prone to sickness or have a weakened immune system, stay away from large crowds of people.

*Clean frequently used surfaces (such as doorknobs and counter tops) with a virus-killing disinfectant.

Additional tips for children:

*Keeping your children home from day care when they or other children become ill.

*If you have a child at high risk of developing severe RSV, try to limit time at child care centers or gatherings of large number of children during the RSV season.

*Wash toys frequently.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/respiratory-syncytial-virus/symptoms-causes/syc-20353098
https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/8282-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-children-and-adults

Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Herpes simplex

Commonly called Herpes

Description:
Herpes simplex is a viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. Infections are categorized based on the part of the body infected. Oral herpes involves the face or mouth. It may result in small blisters in groups often called cold sores or fever blisters or may just cause a sore throat. Genital herpes, often simply known as herpes, may have minimal symptoms or form blisters that break open and result in small ulcers. These typically heal over two to four weeks. Tingling or shooting pains may occur before the blisters appear. Herpes cycles between periods of active disease followed by periods without symptoms. The first episode is often more severe and may be associated with fever, muscle pains, swollen lymph nodes and headaches. Over time, episodes of active disease decrease in frequency and severity. Other disorders caused by herpes simplex include: herpetic whitlow when it involves the fingers, herpes of the eye, herpes infection of the brain, and neonatal herpes when it affects a newborn, among others.

There are two types of herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 more commonly causes infections around the mouth while HSV-2 more commonly causes genital infections. They are transmitted by direct contact with body fluids or lesions of an infected individual. Transmission may still occur when symptoms are not present. Genital herpes is classified as a sexually transmitted infection. It may be spread to an infant during childbirth. After infection, the viruses are transported along sensory nerves to the nerve cell bodies, where they reside lifelong. Causes of recurrence may include: decreased immune function, stress, and sunlight exposure. Oral and genital herpes is usually diagnosed based on the presenting symptoms. The diagnosis may be confirmed by viral culture or detecting herpes DNA in fluid from blisters. Testing the blood for antibodies against the virus can confirm a previous infection but will be negative in new infections.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Symptoms:
Symptoms of herpes simplex virus typically appear as a blister or as multiple blisters on or around affected areas — usually the mouth, genitals, or rectum. The blisters break, leaving tender sores.

Oral herpes infection is mostly asymptomatic, and most people with HSV-1 infection are unaware they are infected. Symptoms of oral herpes include painful blisters or open sores called ulcers in or around the mouth. Sores on the lips are commonly referred to as “cold sores.” Infected persons will often experience a tingling, itching or burning sensation around their mouth, before the appearance of sores. After initial infection, the blisters or ulcers can periodically recur. The frequency of recurrences varies from person to person.

Genital herpes caused by HSV-1 can be asymptomatic or can have mild symptoms that go unrecognized. When symptoms do occur, genital herpes is characterised by 1 one or more genital or anal blisters or ulcers. After an initial genital herpes episode, which can be severe, symptoms may recur. However, genital herpes caused by HSV-1 typically does not recur frequently, unlike genital herpes caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2; see below).

Genital herpes infections often have no symptoms, or mild symptoms that go unrecognised. Most infected people are unaware that they have the infection. Typically, about 10-20% of people with HSV-2 infection report a prior diagnosis of genital herpes. However, clinical studies following people closely for new infection demonstrate that up to a third of people with new infections may have symptoms.

When symptoms do occur, genital herpes is characterised by one or more genital or anal blisters or open sores called ulcers. In addition to genital ulcers, symptoms of new genital herpes infections often include fever, body aches, and swollen lymph nodes.

After an initial genital herpes infection with HSV-2, recurrent symptoms are common but often less severe than the first outbreak. The frequency of outbreaks tends to decrease over time but can occur for many years. People infected with HSV-2 may experience sensations of mild tingling or shooting pain in the legs, hips, and buttocks before the appearance of genital ulcers.

Causes:
Herpes simplex type 1, which is transmitted through oral secretions or sores on the skin, can be spread through kissing or sharing objects such as toothbrushes or eating utensils. In general, a person can only get herpes type 2 infection during sexual contact with someone who has a genital HSV-2 infection. It is important to know that both HSV-1 and HSV-2 can be spread even if sores are not present.

Pregnant women with genital herpes should talk to their doctor, as genital herpes can be passed on to the baby during childbirth.

For many people with the herpes virus, which can go through periods of being dormant, attacks (or outbreaks) can be brought on by the following conditions:

*General illness (from mild illnesses to serious conditions)

*Fatigue

*Physical or emotional stress

*Immunosuppression due to AIDS or such medications as chemotherapy or steroids

*Trauma to the affected area, including sexual activity

*Menstruation

Complications:
Severe disease:
In immunocompromised people, such as those with advanced HIV infection, HSV-1 can have more severe symptoms and more frequent recurrences. Rarely, HSV-1 infection can also lead to more severe complications such as encephalitis (brain infection) or keratitis (eye infection).

HSV-2 and HIV have been shown to influence each other. HSV-2 infection increases the risk of acquiring a new HIV infection by approximately three-fold. In addition, people with both HIV and HSV-2 infection are more likely to spread HIV to others. HSV-2 is amongst the most common infections in people living with HIV, occurring in 60-90% of HIV-infected persons.

Infection with HSV-2 in people living with HIV (and other immunocompromised individuals) can have a more severe presentation and more frequent recurrences. In advanced HIV disease, HSV-2 can lead to more serious, but rare, complications such as meningoencephalitis, esophagitis, hepatitis, pneumonitis, retinal necrosis, or disseminated infection.

Diagnosis:
Often, the appearance of herpes simplex virus is typical and no testing is needed to confirm the diagnosis. If a health care provider is uncertain, herpes simplex can be diagnosed with lab tests, including DNA — or PCR — tests and virus cultures.

Treatment:
Antiviral medications, such as acyclovir, famciclovir, and valacyclovir, are the most effective medications available for people infected with HSV. These can help to reduce the severity and frequency of symptoms, but cannot cure the infection.

WHO guidelines for the treatment of Genital Herpes Simplex Virus

CLICK TO SEE :

AYURVEDIC TREATMENT OF GENITAL HERPES

An Ayurvedic medicine developed by Mumbai-based Biogetica was able to completely suppress the herpes virus.

Ayurvedic Treatment and Home Remedies for Genital Herpes

Prevention:
HSV-1 is most contagious during an outbreak of symptomatic oral herpes, but can also be transmitted when no symptoms are felt or visible. People with active symptoms of oral herpes should avoid oral contact with others and sharing objects that have contact with saliva. They should also abstain from oral sex, to avoid transmitting herpes to the genitals of a sexual partner. Individuals with symptoms of genital herpes should abstain from sexual activity whilst experiencing any of the symptoms.

People who already have HSV-1 infection are not at risk of getting it again, but they are still at risk of acquiring herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital infection (see below).

The consistent and correct use of condoms can help to prevent the spread of genital herpes. However, condoms can only reduce the risk of infection, as outbreaks of genital herpes can occur in areas not covered by a condom.

People who already have HSV-1 infection are not at risk of getting it again, but they are still at risk of acquiring HSV-2 genital infection (see below).

Pregnant women with symptoms of genital herpes should inform their health care providers. Preventing acquisition of a new genital herpes infection is particularly important for women in late pregnancy, as this is when the risk for neonatal herpes is greatest.

Additional research is underway to develop more effective prevention methods against HSV infection, such as vaccines. Several candidate HSV vaccines are currently being studied.

Individuals with genital HSV infection should abstain from sexual activity whilst experiencing symptoms of genital herpes. HSV-2 is most contagious during an outbreak of sores, but can also be transmitted when no symptoms are felt or visible.

People with symptoms suggestive of genital HSV infection should also receive HIV testing, and those in settings or populations with high HIV incidence might benefit from more focused HIV prevention efforts, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis.

The consistent and correct use of condoms can help reduce the risk of spreading genital herpes. However, condoms only provide partial protection, as HSV can be found in areas not covered by a condom. Medical male circumcision can provide men life-long partial protection against HSV-2, in addition to HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV).

Pregnant women with symptoms of genital herpes should inform their health care providers. Preventing acquisition of a new genital herpes infection is particularly important for women in late pregnancy, as this is when the risk for neonatal herpes is greatest.

Additional research is underway to develop more effective prevention methods against HSV infection, such as vaccines or topical microbicides (compounds which can be applied inside the vagina or rectum to protect against sexually transmitted infections).

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herpes_simplex
https://www.webmd.com/genital-herpes/pain-management-herpes#1
https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/herpes-simplex-virus

Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Canine Parvovirus

Virus classification:
Species: Carnivore protoparvovirus 1
Family: Parvoviridae
Genus: Protoparvovirus
Realm: Monodnaviria
Class: Quintoviricetes
Kingdom: Shotokuvirae

Description:
Canine parvovirus (also referred to as CPV, CPV2, or parvo) is a contagious virus mainly affecting dogs. CPV is highly contagious and is spread from dog to dog by direct or indirect contact with their feces. Vaccines can prevent this infection, but mortality can reach 91% in untreated cases. Treatment often involves veterinary hospitalization. Canine parvovirus may infect other mammals including foxes, wolves, cats, and skunks. Felines are susceptible to panleukopenia, a different strain of parvovirus.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Symptoms:
Dogs that develop the disease tend to show symptoms of the illness within 3 to 7 days. The major symptoms of Parvo include:

*Severe, bloody diarrhea
*Lethargy

*Anorexia

*Fever

Vomiting

*Severe weight loss

*Dehydration

*Red, inflamed tissue around the eyes and mouth

*Rapid heart beat

*Pain or discomfort

*Low body temperature

Causes:
There are a variety of risk factors for Parvo, but the virus is most commonly transmitted either by direct contact with an infected dog, or indirectly, by the fecal-oral route. There is evidence that the virus can live in ground soil for up to a year. The virus particles can also be spread by hands, shoes and clothing.

Diagnosis:
The vet will diagnose parvo based on clinical signs and through blood work. She or he may also run a test called an ELISA to search for virus antigens in your dog’s feces and will perform additional diagnostic testing as needed.

Treatment:
There’s no specific drug to treat parvovirus in dogs but those affected by the disease have a far greater chance of survival if they receive early, aggressive treatment and intensive nursing care.

Treatment may include the following:

*Intravenous fluids (a drip) to treat shock and correct dehydration and electrolyte abnormalities

*Anti-sickness medication

*Painkillers

*Plasma transfusions and/or blood transfusions to replace proteins and cells

*Antibiotics to treat or prevent secondary infections as a result of the effects of parvovirus infection

*Tube feeding

Prognosis:
The survival rate in dogs and puppies who receive early, aggressive treatment is around 80-95%. But for those who are not treated, their chances of survival are less than 10%. These statistics highlight the importance of contacting your vet or, out of hours, your nearest Vets Now as soon as you suspect your dog or puppy may be showing symptoms of parvovirus.

Prevention:
According to the American Veterinary Medical Association, the best way to prevent parvovirus is through good hygiene and vaccination. Make sure to get your puppies vaccinated, and be sure your adult dogs are kept up-to-date on their parvovirus vaccination.
Puppies have immunity from their mothers early in life, but should receive their first vaccine between 6 and 8 weeks of age (after weaning), and then two boosters at three-week intervals.

Until a puppy has received its complete series of vaccinations, pet owners should use caution when bringing their pet to places where young puppies or dogs with unknown vaccination histories congregate. This includes pet-friendly restaurants, popular hiking trails, boarding facilities, and especially dog parks.

Puppies should be sequestered until three to four weeks after their third vaccine—this is when full immunity is achieved. It is also important to note that fully-vaccinated dogs have become sick with Parvo, so always be aware of possible symptoms.

If your dog is showing signs of Parvo, seek veterinary treatment immediately. VETMED’s emergency services are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Call (602) 697-4694 to make an appointment or to let us know you’re on the way.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canine_parvovirus
https://vetmedaz.com/2015/04/01/parvo-symptoms-treatment-prevention/
https://www.vets-now.com/pet-care-advice/canine-parvovirus-in-dogs/

Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Hantaviruses

Clasifications:
Family: Hantaviridae
Subfamily:Mammantavirinae
Kingdom:Orthornavirae
Phylum: Negarnaviricota
Class: Ellioviricetes
Order: Bunyavirales
Genus: Hantavirus

Synonyms: Orthohantavirus

Other Name: Orthohantavirus

Description:
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is an infectious disease characterized by flu-like symptoms that can progress rapidly to potentially life-threatening breathing problems.

Several types of hantaviruses can cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. They are carried by several types of rodents, particularly the deer mouse. You become infected primarily by breathing air infected with hantaviruses that are shed in rodent urine and droppings.

Because treatment options are limited, the best protection against hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is to avoid rodents and their habitats.

Hantaviruses normally cause infection in rodents, but do not cause disease in them. Humans may become infected with hantaviruses through contact with rodent urine, saliva, or feces. Some strains cause potentially fatal diseases in humans, such as hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), also known as hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS), while others have not been associated with known human disease. HPS (HCPS) is a “rare respiratory illness associated with the inhalation of aerosolized rodent excreta (urine and feces) contaminated by hantavirus particles.”

Human infections of hantaviruses have almost entirely been linked to human contact with rodent excrement; however, in 2005 and 2019, human-to-human transmission of the Andes virus was reported in South America.

Hantavirus is named for the Hantan River area in South Korea, where an early outbreak was observed, and was isolated in 1976 by Ho Wang Lee.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Symptoms:
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome advances through two distinct stages. In the first stage, one may experience flu-like signs and symptoms that may include:

*Fever and chills
*Headaches and muscle aches
*Vomiting, diarrhea or abdominal pain

In its early stages, hantavirus infection is difficult to distinguish from influenza, pneumonia or other viral conditions. After four to 10 days, more-serious signs and symptoms begin. They typically include:

*A cough that produces secretions
*Shortness of breath
*Fluid accumulating within the lungs
*Low blood pressure
*Reduced heart efficiency

Causes:
Each type of hantavirus has a preferred rodent carrier. The deer mouse is the primary carrier of the virus responsible for most cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in North America. Other hantavirus carriers include the white-tailed mouse, cotton rat and rice rat.

Inhalation: Main route of transmission
Hantaviruses are transmitted to people primarily through the aerosolization of viruses shed in infected rodents’ droppings, urine or saliva. Aerosolization occurs when a virus is kicked up into the air, making it easy for you to inhale. For example, a broom used to clean up mouse droppings in an attic may nudge into the air tiny particles of feces containing hantaviruses, which you can then easily inhale.

After you inhale hantaviruses, they reach your lungs and begin to invade tiny blood vessels called capillaries, eventually causing them to leak. Your lungs then flood with fluid, which can trigger any of the respiratory problems associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

Person-to-person transmission:
People who become infected with the North American strain of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome aren’t contagious to other people. However, certain outbreaks in South America have shown evidence of being transmitted from person to person, which illustrates variation across strains in different regions.

Diagnosis:
Hantaviruses are transmitted by rodents, humans become infected by inhaling aerosols of excreta and urine.

Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Europe and Asia and with cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas.

The clinical course of HPS can be basically divided into three periods: a febrile prodrome, a cardiopulmonary stage and the convalescence. There is 14–17 days incubation period after exposure, which is followed by the prodrome phase, which usually lasts for 3–6 days with myalgia,
malaise and fever of abrupt onset in the absence of cough and coryza. Additional symptoms seen at early stages could include mainly gastrointestinal manifestations, headache and chills.

Laboratory abnormalities include increased hematocrit, thrombocytopenia with neutrophilia and relative lymphopenia. The first to appear is thrombocytopenia, which can anticipate the respiratory failure of 1 or 2 days. Leukocytosis is later and more specific for progression to severe cases. There are changes in blood chemistry, increased lactate dehydrogenase and transaminases.

Detection of antigens or virus RNA is essential for early diagnosis in patients with hantavirus. Hantaviruses N-protein is the most abundant and conserved structural protein in infected cells and virions and it is the target commonly selected for the detection of IgG or IgM antibodies. Therefore, hantaviruses N-protein is more suitable for the development of monoclonal antibodies in acute or convalescent patients.

Detection of RNA viral by RT-PCR is required to confirm clinical or post-mortem cases.

Viral isolation is difficult and requires biosafety 3 and 4 laboratories (BSL-3/4).

The differential diagnosis of this syndrome in tropical countries include several atypical pneumonia, influenza, heart failure, malaria, dengue, arenavirus, leptospirosis and rikettsia.

Treatment:
Viruses in the genus Hantavirus can cause one of two serious illnesses when transmitted from rodents to humans: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Of the two diseases, HPS is more severe with an approximate 40% mortality across the Americas. The high rate of mortality could be reduced if effective therapeutics could be discovered for treatment of this illness. Herein we review approaches being explored for the discovery of therapeutics for HPS and how they could be employed in treatment and prevention of disease.

Because people don’t have antibodies to the virus, symptomatic infections are the norm, with mortality rates of 38%, according to the CDC. There is no treatment, cure, or vaccine for the virus. However, survival outcomes may be improved by early disease recognition and receipt of medical care, including oxygen therapy for severe respiratory illness.

Prevention:
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) can be be prevented by doing the following:

*Stay away from places where rodents leave droppings.

*Wear rubber gloves and a mask that covers your nose and face during exposure to mouse droppings.

*Use disinfectant to sanitize areas containing mouse droppings so infected dust does not spread in the air.

  • Do Yoga exercise, specially PRANAYAMA daily which will boost up your immunity system.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resourcers:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orthohantavirus
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hantavirus-pulmonary-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20351838
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1586/14787210.2015.1047825
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S016635420700438X

Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Mucormycosis

Other Names: Black fungus. (previously called zygomycosis)

Description:
*Mucormycosis is a rare but serious angio-invasive infection caused by a group of fungi called mucormycetes.

*Spores of these ubiquitous fungi (commonly found in soil, fallen leaves, compost, animal dung and air) can be inhaled and then infect the lungs, sinuses, and extend into the brain and eyes. Less often, infection may develop when the spores enter the body through a cut or an open wound.

*Mucormycosis is not a contagious disease, it cannot be spread from one person to another.

*Mucormycosis mainly affects people who are immunocompromised, or patients already infected with other diseases. High risk groups include people with diabetes (especially diabetic ketoacidosis), solid organ transplantation, neutropenia (low neutrophils, a type of white blood cells), long-term systemic corticosteroid use, and iron overload (hemochromatosis). The risk is high for people living with HIV, and those using immunomodulating drugs, including the anti-fungal voriconazole in some high-risk groups.

*Clinical presentation is classified according to the organ involvement. It can be rhino-orbital cerebral, pulmonary, cutaneous, gastrointestinal, or disseminated.

*Mucormycosis is an aggressive, life-threatening infection requiring prompt diagnosis and early treatment. Treatment usually consists of antifungal medications and surgery.

Mucormycetes are present in the environment and they enter the human body either through artificial oxygen support that is given to severe COVID-19 patients or in some cases other environmental factors like use of contaminated water to produce medical oxygen. Use of certain combinations of steroids for treating COVID patients has also emerged to be one prominent reason as to why COVID survivors are complaining of black fungus. Patients with a low-immunity level or have compromising health conditions like diabetes, cancer or HIV, are more prone to the risk of getting caught with this infection.

Currently, this fungal infection has created much havoc nationwide, until much recently this was considered to be rare, but is now showing devastating effects.

Mucormycetes enter the body through nose, mouth or eyes and directly attack the sinus cavities, chest cavities and lungs. If not treated in time, the infection can prove lethal and cause brain damage, ultimately causing demise of the infected. Unhygienic way of delivering oxygen to the patients, provides an entry point to the molds to enter the body. The infection is not contagious and does not spread from one person to another, unlike coronavirus.

CLICK & SEE THYE PICTURES

Symptoms
The symptoms of mucormycosis depend on where in the body the fungus is growing. The most common presentation is a sinus infection (sinusitis) that is accompanied by nasal congestion, nasal discharge, and sinus pain. A fever and headache may also occur.

Type of Mucormycosis:
(1)..Rhinocerebral (sinus and brain) mucormycosis
Symptoms of this type are:

*One-sided facial swelling
*Headache
*Nasal or sinus congestion
*Black lesions on nasal bridge or upper inside of mouth that quickly become more severe
*Fever
*Lethargy, seizures, slurred speech, partial paralysis

(2)…Pulmonary (lung) mucormycosis:
Symptoms of this type are:

*Fever
*Cough
*Chest pain
*Shortness of breath
*Hemoptysis

(3)..Cutaneous (skin) mucormycosis:

Symptoms of this type are:

Skin lesion that resembles blisters or ulcers. The infected area may turn black. Other symptoms include pain, warmth, excessive redness, or swelling around a wound.

(4)Gastrointestinal mucormycosis :

Symptoms of this type are:

*Abdominal pain
*Nausea and vomiting
*Gastrointestinal bleeding

(5)Disseminated mucormycosis:

Symptoms of this type are:

Tends to occur in people who are already sick from other medical conditions, which makes it difficult to identify which symptoms are related to mucormycosis. Patients with disseminated infection in the brain may develop mental status changes or coma.

Causes:
Mucormycosis is a fungal infection caused by fungi in the order Mucorales. In most cases it is due to an invasion of the genera Rhizopus and Mucor, common bread molds. Most fatal infections are caused by Rhizopus oryzae. It is less likely due to Lichtheimia, and rarely due to Apophysomyces. Others include Cunninghamella, Mortierella, and Saksenaea.

The fungal spores are in the environment, can be found on for instance moldy bread and fruit and are breathed in frequently, but cause disease only in some people. In addition to being breathed in to be deposited in the nose, sinuses and lungs, the spores can also enter the skin via blood or directly through a cut or open wound, or grow in the intestine if eaten. Once deposited, the fungus grows branch-like filaments which invade blood vessels, causing clots to form and surrounding tissues to die. Other reported causes include contaminated wound dressings. Mucormycosis has been reported following the use of elastoplast and the use of tongue depressors for holding in place intravenous catheters, Outbreaks have also been linked to hospital bed sheets, negative-pressure rooms, water leaks, poor ventilation, contaminated medical equipment, and building works.

Diagnosis:
*Early recognition, diagnosis and prompt administration of appropriate antifungal treatment and surgical debridement (as needed) are important for improving outcomes for patients with mucormycosis.

*Diagnostic methods include biopsy and fungal staining (KOH mount), which remains the mainstay of laboratory diagnosis. Facilities where fungal culture and susceptibility testing are available can help to confirm the species of mucormycosis. Treatment initiation, however, should not wait for fungal culture results.

*Imaging tests such as a CT scan of lungs, sinuses, or other parts of body, depending on the location of the suspected infection, may also be used to support the diagnosis.

Treatment:
Mucormycosis is difficult to treat. It may sometimes requires both intravenous antifungal therapy and surgical excision, thus necessitating a multidisciplinary team approach in a facility setting.

Liposomal amphotericin B is the drug of choice and needs to be initiated early. Other antifungals like posaconazole, or isavuconazolehave also been described for treatment.

The Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS) has released detailed guidelines on managing mucormycosis in COVID-19 in India.

The overall prognosis depends on several factors, including the rapidity of diagnosis and treatment, the site of infection, and the patient’s underlying conditions and degree of immunosuppression. The overall case fatality is approximately 50%, although early diagnosis and treatment lead to better outcomes.

Ayurvedic Treatment: LEECH THERAPY

CLICK & SEE : Covid 19: Patients diagnosed with black fungus opt for leech therapy

Preventions:
Prevention of COVID-associated mucormycosis needs to focus on addressing the underlying risk factors:

  • Aiming for better glycemic control in those with diabetes,

*Apropriate use of systemic corticosteroids and

*Prevention of unnecessary use of antibiotic, antifungal and other immunomodulators.

IPC measures at the facility level are essential to prevent the environmental spread of this pathogen. These include:

*Sterilization and disinfection of the equipment used by multiple patients (tracheal tubes, ventilators), ventilation systems ( if there is poor ventilation in the hospital that can contribute to dampness and dust);

*Proper wound management (bandage, tape, adhesives, including tapes to secure medical devices such as endotracheal tubes, ostomy devices must be sterilized and changed regularly);

*Proper line management in health facilities

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mucormycosis
https://www.medipulse.in/blog/2021/6/7/mucormycosis-or-black-fungus-infection-causes-and-symptoms
https://www.who.int/india/emergencies/coronavirus-disease-(covid-19)/mucormycosis

;