Categories
Herbs & Plants

Dyera costulata

Botanical Name: Dyera costulata
Family: Apocynaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales
Genus: Dyera
Species: D. costulata

Synonyms:
*Alstonia costulata Miq.
*Alstonia eximia Miq.
*Alstonia grandifolia Miq.
*Dyera laxiflora Hook.f.

Common Names:Hill Jelutong, Jelutong, Jelutung, Button to view the previous items of the carousel.

Habitat: Dyera costulata is native to Southeast Asia – Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia.It grows in Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra and southern Thailand. Its natural distribution is scattered locales in low-elevation tropical evergreen forest. It grows on the lowland or hilly forest up to 300 metres. In undisturbed forests at elevations up to 400 metres. Usually on hillsides and ridges on clayey to sandy soils. In secondary forests usually present as a pre-disturbance remnant.

Description:
Dyera costulata is a large, deciduous tree with a spreading crown that grows up to 75 m in height with diameters to 3 m (10 ft), The trunk is not buttressed and can be up to 3 m in diameter and up to 30 m unbranched. And boles clear and straight for 30 m (90 ft). Smooth dark grey bark with quadrangular scales and branches arranged in verticils; all parts of the plant contain a white latex that exudes abundantly from the wounds.Simple leaves, arranged in verticils of 6-8, oblong-elliptic with entire margin, obtuse or slightly pointed apex and prominent veins, coriaceous, 5-30 cm long and 3-12 cm broad, glossy green above, greyish below; the new leaves are of bronze colour.

Axillar and terminal cymose inflorescences, on a 3-8 cm long peduncle, bearing numerous tiny flowers, that last one night only, with hemispherical calyx with 5 rounded lobes, white or yellowish green imbutiform corolla with 1-3 mm long tube and lobes 3-8 mm long and 1-2 mm broad.

The fruits are woody follicles in pair, 20-40 cm long and of 2,5-3,8 cm of diameter, dehiscent, covered by tiny scales of rust colour, containing numerous winged flat seeds, 5 cm long and 2 cm broad, wing included, dispersed by the wind.

It propagates by seed, that has a germinability lasting less than one year, previously kept in water for one day, in sandy loam maintained humid at the temperature of 24-28 °C; it reproduces also by cutting.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultiivation:
A plant of the wet, lowland tropics, where it is usually found at elevations up to 400 metres, exceptionally to 800 metres. Requires a sunny position – the tree develops a wide crown when growing in the sun in order to ‘claim’ its territory. Prefers a well-drained soil, often growing on hills and ridges in the wild.

Propagation:
Seed – the small seed has a limited viability of less than a year. Pre-treatment is not necessary, but soaking the seed in water for 12 hours prior to sowing can speed up the germination process[ 325 ]. Germination rates are usually good, with 80 – 90% of the seeds sprouting. Seedlings can be potted up when the first pair of leaves has emerged and planted out when 30cm tall.

Medicinal Uses:
The resinous fruits are used for medicinal purposes.

Other Uses:
The latex, obtained by tapping the trunk, is used for the production of chewing gum, celluloid, linoleum and the insulation of electric cables. Beside this it serves as admixture for cement, paints and paper. The latex has a number of speciality uses such as pattern making in foundry work, for drawing boards, pencils, picture frames, dowels, carving, blackboards, wooden toys, clogs, brush handles and battery separators, and it is also used for furniture parts, door knobs, ceilings, partitioning, matchsticks, matchboxes and packing cases. The resinous fruits serve as torches. They are also burnt to repel mosquitoes. The roots are used as a substitute for cork. The heartwood is creamy white to pale straw coloured with the frequent presence of large latex canals; it is not differentiated from the sapwood. The grain is mostly straight; texture moderately fine and even; slightly lustrous; without taste but with a slight sour odour that is distinctive. The wood is very light in weight; soft; it is not durable, being susceptible to fungi, dry wood borers and termites. It seasons rapidly with only a slight risk of checking or distortion; once dry it is stable in service. The wood works easily with hand and machine tools, but they need to be kept very sharp in order to obtain a smooth finish; latex in the wood may clog the sawteeth; nailing and screwing are poor; gluing is correct. The wood is excellent for carving and is also used, among other things, for making patterns, pencils, matches, match-boxes, boxes and crates, furniture components, interior joinery and panelling, drawing boards, blockboard and veneer.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dyera_costulata
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Dyera+costulata
https://www.monaconatureencyclopedia.com/dyera-costulata-2/?lang=en

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Dryopteris schimperiana

Botanical Name : Dryopteris schimperiana
Family: Dryopteridaceae
Subfamily: Dryopteridoideae
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Division: Polypodiophyta
Class: Polypodiopsida
Order: Polypodiales
Suborder: Polypodiineae

Common Names: Wood fern, Male fern (referring in particular to Dryopteris filix-mas ), or Buckler fern

Habitat: Dryopteris schimperiana is native to E. Asia( Japan and south-central and southeast China) – Himalayas around 2000 metres.It grows on Woodland Garden Dappled Shade; Shady Edge.

Description:
Dryopteris schimperiana is elegant, deciduous, semi-evergreen or evergreen ferns noted for their shuttlecock of arching fronds originating from erect or branching rhizomes. They come in a variety of shapes and sizes, from dwarfs for rock gardens to dramatic and architectural plants that are the sentinels of the garden.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: mildly acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland). It prefers moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Cultivation:
Dryopteris schimperiana prefers an acid to neutral soil, succeeding in ordinary fertile soil in a shady position. Prefers a moist soil, but plants are drought tolerant when established. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation:
Through spores – can be sown at any time of the year in a greenhouse. Surface sow on a sterilised compost and keep moist, possibly by placing the pot in a plastic bag. Germinates in 1 – 3 months at 20°c. Pot up small clumps of the plants when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a shady part of the greenhouse until large enough to plant out. Division in spring. Larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.

Edible Uses: Not known>

Medicinal Uses:
The root contains 4.4% ‘filicin’, a substance that paralyses tapeworms and other internal parasites and has been used as a worm expellent. It is one of the most effective treatments known for tapeworms – its use should be immediately followed by a non-oily purgative such as magnesium sulphate in order to expel the worms from the body. An oily purge, such as caster oil, increases the absorption of the fern root and can be dangerous. The root is harvested in the autumn and can be dried for later use, it should not be stored for longer than 12 months. This remedy should be used with caution and only under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. The root is toxic and the dosage is critical. See also the notes above on toxicity.

Other Uses:This is an ornamental fern and it beautifies the garden. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society ‘s Award of Garden Merit as an ornamental.

Known Hazards: The fresh plant contains thiaminase, an enzyme that robs the body of its vitamin B complex. In small quantities this enzyme will do no harm to people eating an adequate diet that is rich in vitamin B, though large quantities can cause severe health problems. The enzyme is destroyed by heat or thorough drying, so cooking the plant will remove the thiaminase. However, there have been reports for other species of ferns suggesting that even cooked fronds can have a long term harmful effect. Some caution is therefore advised.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dryopteris_sieboldii
https://pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Dryopteris+schimperiana
https://pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Dryopteris+schimperiana

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Dryopteris oreades

Botanical Name: Dryopteris oreades
Family: Dryopteridaceae
Kingdom :Plantae
Clade :Tracheophytes
Division :Polypodiophyta
Class :Polypodiopsida
Order :Polypodiales
Suborder :Polypodiineae

Common Names:Mountain Male Fern, Wood ferns, Male ferns

Habitat: Dryopteris oreades is native to Western and central Europe, including Britain. It grows on the rocky places on mountains, in open or slight shade, scree slopes.

Description:
Dryopteris oreades can be deciduous, semi-evergreen or evergreen ferns, with stout, erect or decumbent rhizomes and shuttlecock-like rosettes of lance-shaped to ovate, pinnately divided fronds. It grow to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in). The seeds ripen from July to September.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Dryopteris oreades is an easily grown plant, it prefers an acid to neutral soil, succeeding in ordinary fertile soil in a shady position. Prefers a moist soil, but is drought tolerant when well established. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: mildly acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland). It prefers moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Propagation:
Through spores – can be sown at any time of the year in a greenhouse. Surface sow on a sterilised compost and keep moist, possibly by placing the pot in a plastic bag. Germinates in 1 – 3 months at 20°c. Pot up small clumps of the plants when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a shady part of the greenhouse until large enough to plant out. Division in spring. Larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.

Edible Uses: Not known.

Medicinal Uses:

The root contains ‘filicin’, a substance that paralyses tapeworms and other internal parasites and has been used as a worm expellent. It is one of the most effective treatments known for tapeworms – its use should be immediately followed by a non-oily purgative such as magnesium sulphate in order to expel the worms from the body. An oily purge, such as caster oil, increases the absorption of the fern root and can be dangerous. The root is harvested in the autumn and can be dried for later use, it should not be stored for longer than 12 months. This remedy should be used with caution and only under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. The root is toxic and the dosage is critical. See also the notes above on toxicity. The root is also used in the treatment of dandruff.

Other Uses:
Dryopteris species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Batrachedra sophroniella (which feeds exclusively on D. cyatheoides) and Sthenopiseauratus . Many Dryopteris species are widely used as garden ornamental plants, especially D. affinis, D. erythrosora, and D. filix-mas, with numerous cultivars.

Known Hazards: Although we have found no reports for this species, a number of ferns contain carcinogens so some caution is advisable[200]. The fresh plant contains thiaminase, an enzyme that robs the body of its vitamin B complex. In small quantities this enzyme will do no harm to people eating an adequate diet that is rich in vitamin B, though large quantities can cause severe health problems. The enzyme is destroyed by heat or thorough drying, so cooking the plant will remove the thiaminase. However, there have been reports for other species of ferns suggesting that even cooked fronds can have a long term harmful effect. Some caution is therefore advised.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dryopteris
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Dryopteris+oreades
https://www.rhs.org.uk/plants/6191/dryopteris-oreades/details

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Dryopteris odontoloma

Botanical Name: Dryopteris odontoloma
Family: Dryopteridaceae
Subfamily: Dryopteridoideae
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Division: Polypodiophyta
Class: Polypodiopsida
Order: Polypodiales
Suborder: Polypodiineae
Genus: Dryopteris

Synonyms : Dryopteris odontoloma

Common Name: Wood ferns, Male ferns (referring in particular to Dryopteris filix-mas), or Buckler ferns

Habitat: Dryopteris odontoloma is native to E. Asia – Himalayas at elevations to 3000 metres in the Kashmir valley. It grows on Woodland Garden Dappled Shade; Shady Edge.

Description:
Dryopteris odontoloma is a fern. Pinnules and segments serrately lobed, barely spinulose; rachis with hair-like scales; petioles less than 1/4 the length of the leaves. Flower characteristics: Fruit characteristics: Sori round, protected by a reniform indusium, appear in a single series on each side of segment midrib..
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: mildly acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland). It prefers moist soil and can tolerate drought.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: mildly acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland). It prefers moist soil and can tolerate drought. Prefers an acid to neutral soil, succeeding in ordinary fertile soil in a shady position. Prefers a moist soil, but plants are drought tolerant when established. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation:
Threough spores – can be sown at any time of the year in a greenhouse. Surface sow on a sterilised compost and keep moist, possibly by placing the pot in a plastic bag. Germinates in 1 – 3 months at 20°c. Pot up small clumps of the plants when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a shady part of the greenhouse until large enough to plant out. Division in spring. Larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.

Medicinal Uses:
The root contains 2.3% ‘filicin’, a substance that paralyses tapeworms and other internal parasites and has been used as a worm expellent. It is one of the most effective treatments known for tapeworms – its use should be immediately followed by a non-oily purgative such as magnesium sulphate in order to expel the worms from the body. An oily purge, such as caster oil, increases the absorption of the fern root and can be dangerous. The root is harvested in the autumn and can be dried for later use, it should not be stored for longer than 12 months. This remedy should be used with caution and only under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. The root is toxic and the dosage is critical.

Known Hazards: Although we have found no reports for this species, a number of ferns contain carcinogens so some caution is advisable. The fresh plant contains thiaminase, an enzyme that robs the body of its vitamin B complex. In small quantities this enzyme will do no harm to people eating an adequate diet that is rich in vitamin B, though large quantities can cause severe health problems. The enzyme is destroyed by heat or thorough drying, so cooking the plant will remove the thiaminase. However, there have been reports for other species of ferns suggesting that even cooked fronds can have a long term harmful effect. Some caution is therefore advised.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dryopteris
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Dryopteris+odontoloma

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Dryopteris marginalis

Botanical Name: Dryopteris marginalis
Family: Dryopteridaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Division: Polypodiophyta
Class: Polypodiopsida
Order: Polypodiales
Suborder: Polypodiineae
Genus: Dryopteris
Species: D. marginalis

Common Names: Marginal shield fern or Marginal wood fern, Leather Wood Fern

Habitat:
Dryopteris marginalis is native to N. America – Canada to Georgia and westwards to the Rockies. It grows on the
damp woods and swamps. Rocky, wooded slopes and ravines, edges of woods, stream banks and roadbanks, and rock walls at elevations of 50 – 1500 metres.

Description:
Dryopteris marginalis is an evergreen fern throughout its range, along with Christmas fern (Polystichum acrostichoides) it is one of the few evergreen ferns. Marginal wood fern grows from a clump with a prominent central rootstock, this rootstock may be exposed and give this fern the appearance of being like a small tree fern. Often, the dead leaves will accumulate beneath the plant. The stipe, or stem which supports the leaf is approximately 1/4 the length of the leaf and covered in bright golden brown scales. The stipe itself is grooved on the upward-facing side and dark red-brown at the base and becoming green further up the leaf.

The leaf is a dark blue-green and thick and leathery in texture. It grows 1–2 ft in height and approximately 6 in wide. Each leaf is broken up into leaflets which are arranged on either side of the main stalk. The tips of these leaflets are generally curved toward the tip of the leaf. These leaflets themselves are divided into subleaflets which are blunt-tipped and either serrated or lobed. The fertile leaflets (leaflets bearing sori and spores) are similar to the fertile leaflets in size and appearance. The round sori are located on the margins of the leaf tissue. Before the sori are ripe they start gray then they turn an interesting blue-violet color before finally turning brown when they are mature. The sori are covered in a kidney-shaped indusium which is smooth.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Prefers an acid to neutral soil, succeeding in ordinary fertile soil in a shady position. Succeeds in full sun but grows best in a shady position with only 2 – 3 hours sun per day. Tolerates a pH range from 4.5 to 7[200]. Dislikes heavy clay. Prefers a good supply of water at its roots but succeeds in dry shade and tolerates drought when it is established. A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to about -30°c. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer. Hybridizes in the wild with several other species. Special Features: Attractive foliage, North American native, Wetlands plant, There are no flowers or blooms. The plant is heat tolerant in zones 8 through 1. (Plant Hardiness Zones show how well plants withstand cold winter temperatures. Plant Heat Zones show when plants would start suffering from the heat. The Plant Heat Zone map is based on the number of “heat days” experienced in a given area where the temperature climbs to over 86 degrees F (30°C). At this temperature, many plants begin to suffer physiological damage. Heat Zones range from 1 (no heat days) to 12 (210 or more heat days). For example Heat Zone. 11-1 indicates that the plant is heat tolerant in zones 11 through 1.) For polyculture design as well as the above-ground architecture (form – tree, shrub etc. and size shown above) information on the habit and root pattern is also useful and given here if available. An evergreen. The plant growth habit is a clumper with limited spread . The root pattern is rhizomatous with underground stems sending roots and shoots along their length

Propagation:
Through spores – can be sown at any time of the year in a greenhouse. Surface sow on a sterilised compost and keep moist, possibly by placing the pot in a plastic bag. Germinates in 1 – 3 months at 20°c. Pot up small clumps of the plants when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a shady part of the greenhouse until large enough to plant out. Division in spring. Larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.

Edible Uses: Not known to us.

Medicinal Uses:
The root contains ‘filicin’, a substance that paralyses tapeworms and other internal parasites and has been used as a worm expellent. It is one of the most effective treatments known for tapeworms – its use should be immediately followed by a non-oily purgative such as magnesium sulphate in order to expel the worms from the body. An oily purge, such as caster oil, increases the absorption of the fern root and can be dangerous. The root is harvested in the autumn and can be dried for later use, it should not be stored for longer than 12 months. This remedy should be used with caution and only under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. The root is toxic and the dosage is critical. See also the notes above on toxicity. An infusion of the root has been used in the treatment of rheumatism. A warm infusion, held in the mouth, has been used to treat toothaches.

Other Uses:
Landscape Uses:Container, Ground cover, Specimen, Woodland garden.

Known Hazards: Although we have found no reports for this species, a number of ferns contain carcinogens so some caution is advisable. The fresh plant contains thiaminase, an enzyme that robs the body of its vitamin B complex. In small quantities this enzyme will do no harm to people eating an adequate diet that is rich in vitamin B, though large quantities can cause severe health problems. The enzyme is destroyed by heat or thorough drying, so cooking the plant will remove the thiaminase. However, there have been reports for other species of ferns suggesting that even cooked fronds can have a long term harmful effect. Some caution is therefore advised.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dryopteris_fragrans
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Dryopteris+marginalis

css.php