Categories
Fruits & Vegetables

Mammee Apple

Botanical Name: Mammea americana
Family: Calophyllaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malpighiales
Genus: Mammea
Species: M. americana

Common Names: Mammee apple, Mammee, Mamey, mamey apple, Santo Domingo apricot, Tropical apricot, or South American apricot

Habitat:Mammee apple is native to Northern S. America to the Caribbean. Within its natural range, mammee is most frequently found in semi-cultivation or in areas that have been disturbed.

Description:
Tree:……….CLICK & SEE
The mammee tree is 18 m (59 ft) – 21 m (69 ft) high and is similar in appearance to the southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora). Its trunk is short and reaches 1.9 m (6 ft 3 in) – 1.2 m (3 ft 11 in) in diameter. The tree’s upright branches form an oval head. Its dark-green foliage is quite dense, with opposite, leathery, elliptic leaves. The leaves can reach 10 cm (3.9 in) wide and twice as long.

The mammee flower is fragrant, has 4 or 6 white petals, and reaches 2.5 cm (0.98 in) – 4 cm (1.6 in) wide when fully blossomed. The flowers are borne either singly or in clusters of two or three, on short stalks. There can be, in a single flower, pistils, stamens or both, so there can be male, female or hermaphrodite flowers on one tree.

Fruit:……..CLICK & SEE
The mammee apple is a berry, though it is often misinterpreted to be a drupe. It is round or slightly irregular, with a brown or grey-brown 3 mm (0.12 in) thick rind. In fact, the rind consists of the exocarp and mesocarp of the fruit, while the pulp is formed from the endocarp. The stem is thick and short. The mammee apple has more or less visible floral remnant at the apex.

Mammee apples’ diameter ranges from 10 cm (3.9 in) to 20 cm (7.9 in). When unripe, the fruit is hard and heavy, but its flesh slightly softens when fully ripe. Beneath the skin, there is a white, dry membrane, whose taste is astringent, that adheres to the flesh. The flesh is orange or yellow, not fibrous, and can have various textures (crispy or juicy, firm or tender). Generally, the flesh smell is pleasant and appetizing.

Small fruits contain a single seed, while larger ones might have up to four. The seeds are brown, rough, oval and around 6 cm (2.4 in) long. The juice of the seed leaves an indelible stain.

Cultivation:
Mammee apple is limited to tropical or near tropical moist to wet climates. It grows best in the lowlands, but can succeed at elevations up to 1,000 metres. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 24 – 30°c, but can tolerate 12 – 35°c. When dormant, the plant can survive temperatures down to about -2°c, but young growth can be severely damaged at 0°c. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 1,200 – 1,800mm, but tolerates 800 – 2,600mm. Prefers a position in full sun or light shade. Prefers a deep, rich, well-drained sandy loam. Prefers a pH in the range 6 – 6.5, tolerating 5.5 – 8.

Edible Uses:
Though edible, this fruit has received little attention worldwide.

The raw flesh can be served in fruit salads, or with wine, sugar or cream, especially in Jamaica. In the Bahamas, the flesh is first put in salted water to remove its bitterness, before cooking it with much sugar to make a sort of jam. The flesh can also be consumed stewed.

In the French West Indies, an aromatic liqueur, eau créole, or crème créole, is distilled from the mammee flowers. This liqueur is believed to be tonic or digestive.

Medicinal Uses:
Traditional medicine:
Uses of mamey in folk medicine include treatment of scalp infections, diarrhoea, digestive and eye problems. The powdered seeds are employed in the treatment of parasitic skin diseases. An infusion of the ground seeds, minus the embryo which is considered convulsant, is employed as an anthelmintic for adults only. The gummy latex from the bark has been used as an insecticide, to extract chiggers and insects from the skin, and to kill ticks and other parasites of dogs and other domestic animals. An aromatic liqueur called Eau de Creole or Crème de Creole, is distilled from the flowers and said to act as a tonic or digestive. An infusion of the fresh or dry leaves is given in cases of intermittent fever. The plant contains coumarins, especially mammeine

In Trinidad & Tobago, the grated seeds are mixed with rum or coconut oil to treat head lice and chiggers. Underripe fruits are rich in pectin, and the tree bark is high in tannin.

Other Uses:
Various parts of the tree contain insecticidal substances, especially the seed kernel. In Puerto Rico, mammee leaves are wrapped around young tomato plants to keep mole crickets and cutworms away. In a similar way, the bark gum is melted with fat in Jamaica and Mexico, then applied to feet to repel chiggers or fleas on animals. The same effect is also obtained from infusions of half-ripe fruits.

In the Virgin Islands, the tannin from the bark is used to tan leather. The mammee timber is heavy and hard, yet easy to work; it has received, however, only limited commercial interest.

Known Hazards: The bitter tasting seeds in the fruit are poisonous to fish, chicks and some insects.(Seed is poisonous if ingested)

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mammea_americana
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Mammea+americana

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Categories
Fruits & Vegetables

Mamey Sapote

Botanical Name: Pouteria sapota
Family: Sapotaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ericales
Genus: Pouteria
Species: P. sapota

Synonyms:
*Achras mammosa Bonpl. ex Miq. nom. illeg.
*Achras zapota var. major Jacq.
*Bassia jussaei Griseb.
*Bassia jussiaei Tussac
*Calocarpum huastecanum Gilly
*Calocarpum mammosum var. bonplandii (Kunth) Pierre

Common Names: Mamey Sapote, Mamey colorado (Cuba), Zapote colorado (Costa Rica) and Zapote rojo (South America)
Common name for Pouteria sapota. Lava Sapote, Mamey Colorado, Mamey Sapote, Mamee Apple, Mammee Sapote, Mamee Zapote, Marmalade Plum, Marmalade Tree, Red Sapote, Sapote, True Sapote, Zapotillo are other common names of Mamey Sapote.

Habitat: Mamey Sapote is a species of tree native to Cuba and Central America, naturally ranging from southern Cuba to southern Costa Rica, plus Mexico. Today, the tree is cultivated not only in Cuba, but also in Central America, the Caribbean, and South Florida for its fruit, which is commonly eaten in many Latin American countries. Mamey can be found in many Latin American communities throughout the USA, where it is made into milkshakes and ice cream among other things.

The Australian and Queensland Government’s research and development programs have produced mamey sapote in Australia.

Description:
Mamey sapote is a large and highly ornamental evergreen tree that can reach a height of 15 to 45 meters (49 to 148 ft) at maturity. It is mainly propagated by grafting, which ensures the new plant has the same characteristics as the parent, especially its fruit, as it does not grow true to seed. It is also considerably faster than growing trees by seed, producing fruit in three to five years; trees grown from seed require seven years of growth before fruiting. In Florida, the fruit is harvested from May to July with some cultivars available all year.

CLICK & SEE

The fruit, technically a berry, is about 10 to 25 cm (4 to 10 in) long and 8 to 12 cm (3 to 4.5 in) wide and has flesh ranging in color from pink to orange to red. The brown skin has a texture somewhat between sandpaper and the fuzz on a peach. The fruit’s texture is creamy and soft, the flavor is a mix of sweet potato, pumpkin, honey, prune, peach, apricot, cantaloupe, cherry, and almond. A mamey sapote is ripe when the flesh is vibrant salmon colored when a fleck of the skin is removed. The flesh should give slightly, as with a ripe kiwifruit. The leaves are pointed at both ends, 4 to 12 inches in length and grow in clusters at the ends of branches.

Edible Uses:
The fruit is eaten raw or made into milkshakes, smoothies, ice cream and fruit bars. It can be used to produce marmalade and jelly.[ Some beauty products use oil pressed from the seed, otherwise known as sapayul oil.

Nutrition:
The fruit is an excellent source of vitamin B6 and vitamin C, and is a good source of riboflavin, niacin, vitamin E, manganese, potassium and dietary fiber. Research has identified several new carotenoids from the ripe fruit.

Apart from their sweet taste like a combination of pumpkin, chocolate and almond or akin to a mixture of sweet potato, avocado and honey, mamey sapote is a good source of nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Consuming 175 gram of mamey sapote offers 1.26 mg of Vitamin B6, 40.2 mg of Vitamin C, 56.18 g of Carbohydrate, 0.373 mg of Copper, 9.5 g of Total dietary Fiber and 3.69 mg of Vitamin E. Moreover many Amino acids 0.086 g of Tryptophan, 0.149 g of Threonine, 0.107 g of Isoleucine, 0.128 g of Leucine and 0.128 g of Lysine are also found in 175 gram of mamey sapote.

Health Benefits:
Mamey Sapote is a delicious berry which is ovoid to ellipsoid, 10 to 25 cm (4 to 10 in) long and 8 to 12 cm (3 to 4.5 in) wide, often bluntly pointed at the apex and with a persistent calyx at the base. Apart from its delicate taste it has higher nutritional value and is consumed throughout the world. Listed below are some of the popular benefits of consuming mamey sapote on a regular basis:

  1. Weight Management:

Selecting nutrient-dense foods that are extremely gratifying for comparatively few calories is a simple way to lose or prevent unwanted pounds. Mamey sapote fills you up and delays the onset of hunger within a few ways. According to the USDA, nearly 30% of the fruit’s carbohydrates come from starch. These complex carbohydrates contribute to long-term satiety because they take longer to digest. More significantly, mamey sapote is a high-fiber food that offers substantial amounts of both types of fiber, soluble and insoluble. Its insoluble fiber takes up space in your stomach to help you feel fuller on fewer calories, while its soluble fiber slows the rate at which digested food exits your stomach.

Cardiovascular Health:

Mamey sapote is one of the heart-healthy foods. Fruit consists of soluble fiber that helps to promote healthy cholesterol levels, thus reducing your risk of heart disease. Its high potassium content defends cardiovascular health by keeping blood pressure in check and supporting normal heart function. As an excellent source of vitamin C, mamey sapote helps to maintain firm capillaries and blood vessels. Its considerable vitamin E content helps prevent the buildup of plaque in your blood vessels and arteries, which lower your risk of heart attack, stroke as well as coronary artery disease. As antioxidants, vitamins C and E also protect against the kind of free-radical damage associated with heart disease and other chronic illnesses. Vitamin E is mainly beneficial to cardiovascular health, as it helps prevent the oxidation of artery-damaging LDL cholesterol.

Increased Immune Function:

Mamey Sapote consists of considerable amount of Vitamin C content which helps the body to fight free radical and eliminate them. Vitamin C helps the immune system function effectively. Many instances that trigger immune response that actually result to inflammation. It can be avoided by regular consumption of vitamin C rich foods like mamey sapote.

Helps Treat Anemia:

Mamey Sapote consists of huge amount vitamin B6 that is needed to create hemoglobin in the blood, which is transported by red blood cells throughout the body to help bring oxygen to cells and to mobilize iron. Anemia results when somebody doesn’t make enough red blood cells, resulting in symptoms like fatigue, aches and pains, and more. Several researches show that consuming plenty of vitamin B6 help lower symptoms of anemia and prevent it from occurring in some instances.

Reduces Cholesterol:

Research has shown that copper help to reduce the levels of “bad” cholesterol (LDL cholesterol) and help to increase beneficial cholesterol (HDL cholesterol). Regular consumption of Mamey Sapote helps to lowers the chances of cardiovascular diseases like atherosclerosis, heart attacks, and strokes.

Helps PMS Symptoms:

Taking a vitamin E supplement 2-3 days before and 2-3 days after a menstrual period help to reduce the cravings, cramping and anxiety that are related to PMS. Mamey Sapote is one of the best options for vitamin E that help to decrease pain severity and duration, and can reduce menstrual blood loss. It does this by balancing your hormones naturally and it helps to keep your menstrual cycle regulated.

Gives skin a Healthy Glow:

Pale skin and dark circles are the most common signs of anemia caused due to iron deficiency. Insufficient iron causes hemoglobin levels to decrease, resulting in the subsequent reduction of RBCs. The reduced oxygen flow can deprive your skin of its color, making it look sallow. A healthy dose of iron-rich foods in your daily diet can give your skin a pinkish glow.

Bone Health:

Potassium present in Mamey sapote is beneficial for improving the health of the bones. There are certain qualities of potassium that help to neutralize numerous acids throughout the body which retain as well as preserve calcium, making it inaccessible to use for bone strength and durability. Additionally, research at the Linus Pauling Institute Micronutrient Information Center claims that consuming fruits and vegetables that have high levels of potassium results in higher mineral density in bones, further strengthening and prolonging the life of your bones!

Supports Proper Brain Function:

Research have shown that vitamin B3 niacin present in Mamey Sapote help to protect against Alzheimer’s Disease as well as other age related brain disorders that result in cognitive decline.

Furthermore, Vitamin B3 niacin is also correlated with a decreased risk for many problems regarding poor brain function or loss of age-related thinking skills, like memory loss, insomnia, migraine headaches, motion sickness, chronic brain syndrome, depression, and even alcohol dependence.

Helps Support Eye Health:

Researches have shown that riboflavin deficiency increases the risk for certain eye problems. Vitamin B2 helps to prevent eye disorders like cataracts, glaucoma and keratoconus. Apart from that research has shown a correlation between people who consume sufficiently of riboflavin and decreased risks for eye disorders that can appear as someone ages. Mamey Sapote consists of 0.203 mg of vitamin B2 which is 15.62% of the daily recommended value.

Traditional Uses and benefits of Mamey Sapote:

*It is used widely as a panacea for gastro-intestinal maladies.
*Mamey is used to treat headaches and venereal diseases in southern Cuba.
*Mamey is used as an antiseptic during the Spanish-American war.
*Pulp of the fruit is used as a sedative cataplasm; and an infusion of the bark is prescribed as a pectoral in Antilles.
*Tea of the bark and leaves is administered in arteriosclerosis and hypertension in Costa Rica.
*Milky sap is emetic and anthelmintic and has been used as a poultice to remove warts and fungal growths on the skin.
*Seed infusion is used as eyewash in Cuba.
*Seed coat was used by the Aztecs as a remedy for epilepsy, and in Costa Rica it is considered a cure for colds.
*Pulverized seed coat is reported to be a remedy for coronary trouble and, taken with wine, is said to be helpful against kidney stones and rheumatism in Mexico.
*Seed kernel is regarded as a digestive; the oil is said to be diuretic.
*Seed kernel oil is used as a skin ointment and tonic, and as a hair dressing believed to stop falling hair in Santo Domingo.
*Oil from the seed is used as a skin tonic, to prevent baldness, to reduce muscular pain and to treat rheumatic ailments in Guatemala and El Salvador.
*Two or three pulverized kernels are combined with 10 oz. (300 g) castor oil for application to the hair in Mexico.
*The oil is used as a sedative in eye and ear ailments.
*Seed residue after oil extraction is applied as a poultice on painful skin afflictions.

Other Uses:

*Tree is used as shade for coffee.
*Tree provides fine-grained, compact, hard, heavy, strong, easy to work and fairly durable reddish-brown timber but is rarely misused as timber.
*Wood is used for furniture, but commonly serves for building carts, and for shelving and house frames.
*Nectar of the flowers is collected by honeybees.
*Seeds contain white semi-solid oil called sapuyucol or zapoyola, which was used in olden times to fix paintings and colors on gourds and other handicrafts.
*The edible vaseline- like oil from the seed kernel is occasionally used in making soap and is considered to have a greater potential in the soap industry, in cosmetics and pharmaceutical products.
*Seeds have served as a source of Noyeau scent in perfumery.
*During the nineteenth century, the seeds were used as a linen starch in Costa Rica.
*Thick, yellow gum from the bark is melted with fat and applied to the feet to combat chiggers and used to rid animals of fleas and ticks in Mexico and Jamaica.

Known Hazards:
*The milky latex of the tree is extremely irritant to the eyes and caustic and vesicant on the skin.
*Leaves are supposedly poisonous and the seeds are reported to have incredible properties due to its HCN content.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pouteria_sapota
https://www.healthbenefitstimes.com/mamey-sapote/

Categories
Fruits & Vegetables

Malay Apple

Botanical Name: Syzygium malaccense
Family: Myrtaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Myrtales
Genus: Syzygium
Species: S. malaccense

Synonyms:
*Caryophyllus malaccensis (L.) Stokes
*Eugenia malaccensis L.

Common Names:
Malay Apple, Kavika Tree, Large Fruited Rose Apple, Mountain Apple, Malacca Apple, Malay Apple, Malay Rose Apple, Mountain Apple, Otaheite Cashew, Otaheite Apple, Pomerac, Malaysian apple, Pink satin-ash, Rose-apple, Water apple, long fruited rose-apple, wax jambu and Malacca pear

Habitat:
The Malay apple is presumed to be a native of Malaysia. It is commonly cultivated from Java to the Philippines and Vietnam, also in Bengal and South India. Portuguese voyagers carried it from Malacca to Goa and from there it was introduced into East Africa. It must have spread throughout the Pacific Islands in very early times for it is featured in Fijian mythology and the wood was used by ancient Hawaiians to make idols. Indeed, it has been recorded that, before the arrival of missionaries in Hawaii, there were no fruits except bananas, coconuts and the Malay apple. The flowers are considered sacred to Pele, the fiery volcano goddess. Captain Bligh conveyed small trees of 3 varieties from the islands of Timor and Tahiti to Jamaica in 1793. The tree was growing under glass in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1839, and specimens were fruiting in Bermuda in 1878. Now it is growing in various places in the world.

Description:
Malay Apple is a medium-size evergreen tree with a spreading but cone-shaped crown that grows about 5 – 20 meters tall, though specimens to 30 meters have been recorded from New Guinea. The straight, cylindrical bole can be 20 – 45 cm in diameter (to 130 cm in New Guinea), often branching from near the ground though sometimes free of branches for 10 – 15 meters, with buttresses at the base. Bark is pale-brown, rough, flaky or fissured. The plant is adaptable to a wide range of soil type from sand to heavy clays but prefers well drained, medium textured soils like loams, sandy clay loams, sandy clays, clay loams. It grows well in volcanic soils but is intolerant of alkaline or saline soils….CLICK & SEE

Leaves:
Leaf blades are slightly curved upward on both sides of midrib; the lateral veins are slightly sunken and connected near margins. The upper surface of the leaf is dark green or green and usually slightly shiny, and the lower surface dull light green. Scattered minute gland dots are visible with a lens when the blade is held toward the light.

Fruits:
Fertile flowers are followed by a large, fleshy, ovoid, pear-shaped, dumb-bell shaped or oblong berry 4–7.5 cm long, glossy, waxy, crowned by the incurved non-fleshy calyx segments. Color of the fruit varies from white, greenish white, dark pink, red, purple- red or white with red streaks. Flesh is 0.5-2.5 cm thick, juicy, white and fragrant. Normally Malay apple is red with pink or white streaks; the flesh is thick, rather dry and scented, but often bland. Eighty percent or more of the fruit is edible. Each fruit usually contains a single large, brown, sub globose seed that is 2.5-3.5 cm in diameter. Malay apple ripen about 60 days after bloom.

Edible Uses:
*The ripe fruits are eaten fresh, out of hand, in fruit salad, fruit cocktail, stewed with spices as dessert or eaten dipped in sauces.
*Pomerac fruit can also be processed into candied fruit slices.
*Half ripe fruits are used for pickles, jelly, and preserves.
*Ripe fruit is sliced and eaten as petjel (vegetable eaten with sambal sauce) and the young pinkish leaves are eaten raw as lalab (salad) with rice in Indonesia.
*In Indonesia, the flowers are eaten in salads or are preserved in syrup.
*The flowers are also eaten in Thailand.
*Young leaves and shoots are consumed as vegetables.
*Young leaves and flowers also eaten in Papua New Guinea.
*The flesh can be prepared as a jam, combined with raw sugar and ginger.
*It is also possible to make either red or white wine from the fruits, both types being very popular in Puerto Rico

Health Benefits:

  1. Treat Eyes Health:
    In case you have problems with the eyes, maybe your body need vitamin A. Vitamin A on Malay apple fruit is high enough and helps to make your eyes health much better. With a healthy eye, your eyesight can be more clear and sharp.
  2. Relieves fever:
    Malay apple can also be used as medicine to relieve fever. You can make the steeping of this fruit with warm water and give it to people with fever. Fever will gradually heal and fall.
  3. Nourish the skin:
    The benefit of cashew boll for the skin is quite a lot. In addition to nourish your skin, this fruit can also help to make your skin smooth and rubbery. The content of vitamin C and other minerals will prevent you from diseases, such as skin cancer.
  4. Prevents diabetes:
    Malay apple fruit helps to prevent diabetes. This fruit serves as a substitute for regular sugar that you often consume. The content of sugar in the fruit tends to be low but still can meet the needs sugar of your body. Therefore your blood sugar levels can be more controlled easily.
  5. Increase Endurance:
    Maybe sometimes you feel your endurance is going down. No need to worry about it. Malay apple consists of 22 milligrams of vitamin C per 100 grams, this going to make your immune system stronger and fill the need of vitamin C in your body. Vitamins presents in Malay apple helps to get rid of various diseases that will attack your body health.
  6. Treat Sprue:
    If you are often get sprue, maybe your body lack vitamin C. Because one of factor you get sprue is you lack of vitamin C. 100 gram of malay apple consists of 22 milligrams of vitamin C, this gonna better for you to treat your sprue. This fruit has some vitamin content that can treat sprue and protect your oral cavity from infection.
  7. Overcome dysentery:
    Malay apple fruit has the property to overcome dysentery. This disease is a contagious disease; it needs to be addressed as soon as possible so as not to spread rapidly.
  8. Strengthens bones:
    The iron in this fruit, help your bones become stronger. Including this fruits is quite beneficial and you do not have to worry about osteoporosis or another bone related problems.
  9. Skin Health:
    An adequate amount of Vitamin A and C could be obtained from the Rose Apple which helps to prevent damage from the oxidative stress caused by the poor diet, stress, and pollution. It also reduces the dryness of the skin and reduces the wrinkles.
  10. Prevent Acne
    Acne vulgaris is a skin condition which leads to the inflammation caused due to skin infection. The research shows that the leaves of Rose Apple possess anti-acne properties such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antibacterial properties. The experiment also shows that the presence of synergic actions results from the antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. Thus, S. Jambos assist in anti-acne activities. This study helps to know about the herbal medicines whereas various clinical trials are being continued.
  11. Cure Liver Damage:
    Liver damage leads to various liver diseases which are caused due to the excessive consumption of alcohol, anemia, malnutrition, infection and hepatotoxic drugs. The research which was carried out at Gujarat Ayurved University shows that the leaves extract of Rose Apple consists of the liver protective agent. It leads to the effectiveness in the change in the function of the liver than the disease control group. The efficacy was worthy of comparison to the standard drug.
  12. Prevent Constipation:
    Dietary fiber in Rose Apple supports the digestive system in the material movement and stimulate stool which is helpful for those having the irregular stools or constipation. It supports healthy weight and reduces the chances of heart disease and diabetes.

Medicinal Uses:
As Sprue Medicine:
To treat a sprue, use the trunk of Malay apple tree. Trunk of Malay apple can be used as a sprue medicine, by just boiling the stem and drinking water.

Increase Baby’s Appetite:
If your baby’s appetite is weak, maybe you can try this. Boil some water with young bark of Malay and put it in the glass. And then add some sugar to gives some taste and drink it to the baby. It can increase baby’s appetite.

Help Treat Wound on Tongue:
If your tongue is wound, you can try this to treat it. Pick up the dry leaves of Malay apple and make it become powder. And apply it on the wound tongue.

As Antibiotics:
Seeds bark, and leave of Malay apple show antibiotic activity and have an effect on blood pressure and breathing.

Other Uses:
Trunk of the Mountain Apple tree was used by the people of old Hawai’i to build beams for their hale, house and for fashioning bowls and poi-boards. A reddish brown dye for making patterns on tapa bark cloth, was processed from the bark and the root.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syzygium_malaccense
https://www.healthbenefitstimes.com/malay-apple/
https://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/malay_apple.html

Categories
Fruits & Vegetables

Lucuma

Botanical Name:Pouteria lucuma
Family: Sapotaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ericales
Genus: Pouteria
Species: P. lucuma

Synonyms:
*Achras lucuma Ruiz & Pav.
*Lucuma bifera Molina
*Lucuma biflora J.F. Gmel.
*Lucuma obovata Kunth
*Lucuma obovata var. ruizii A.DC.
*Lucuma turbinata Molina
*Pouteria insignis Baehni
*Richardella lucuma (Ruiz & Pav.) Aubrév.

Common Name: Lucuma

Habitat:Lucuma is native to the Andean valleys of Peru and Ecuador. The area of origin of P. lucuma is located in the Andes of Ecuador and Peru, at temperate elevations of 2,700–3,000 m (8,900–9,800 ft)

Description:
Lucuma tree is a evergreen tree is up to 20 m tall, and has greyish-brown, fissured bark, which produces a milky white exudate. The end of branchlets and the petioles are covered with short, brown hairs. The leaves are simple, oblanceolate to elliptical, up to 25 cm long and 10 cm wide, and glabrous (or sometimes slightly hairy on the underside) grouped at the end of the branches. Flowers are solitary or in fascicles, small, axillary, with hairy sepals and a corolla forming a tube 1.0-1.8 cm long, greenish white, with five lobes, five stamens, five staminodes, a pubescent ovary, and a style 0.8-1.5 cm long. The fruit is globose, 6–12 cm long, glabrous, and russet to yellow when mature; the pulp is bright yellow; the one to several seeds are 1.8-3.5 cm long, dark brown, and glossy…….CLICK & SEE

Cultivation:
In addition to Peru, the fruit is grown also to a limited extent in Bolivia and Costa Rica. Attempts at growing lúcuma in Florida’s climate typically fail.
In Peru, harvesting season is from October to March and in Chile from June to November.

Edible Uses:
The fruit can be eaten raw or cooked. When eaten raw, the fruit has a dry texture. In Peru, it is more commonly used as a flavor in juice, milk shakes, and especially ice cream. Its unique flavor in such preparations has been described variously as being similar to sweet potato, maple syrup, or butterscotch. A dessert called merengue con salsa de lúcuma is served in Chile. In Peru, manjar de lúcuma (dulce de leche with lúcuma purée) is a dessert.

Nutrition:
Lúcuma pulp has a 64-72% moisture content. The pulp also contains glucose, fructose, sucrose, inositol, citric acid, and succinic acid. However, only limited nutritional information is available for lúcuma powder, indicating moderate content of protein and iron, each providing 14% of the Daily Value in a 100-g (3.5 oz) serving, which supplies 420 Calories.

Medicinal Uses:
The leaves of the lucuma tree are found to have medicinal qualities. They are used for treating skin problems like ring worm infections or impetigo. Apart from having medicinal values, the leaves are also used as an excellent dye for coloring textiles.

Lucuma is a very healthy and nutritious fruit that can be added to your daily diet. One of the great things about this fruit is that it is extremely tasty without being unhealthy. Lucuma powder, when added as a sweetener to desserts, ice creams and other dairy products offers a plethora of health benefits. In addition to being a natural sweetener, lucuma is absolutely gluten free and rich in antioxidants, vitamins and minerals that are essential to your body.

Health benefits of Lucuma:
For diabetes:
In spite of the fact that lucuma tastes very sweet and is used as a sweetening agent, it is found to be very effective in managing diabetes. This fruit falls in the category of foods with a low glycemic index and hence is suitable for people suffering from diabetes. It helps to control blood sugar levels and provides energy without causing considerable spikes or falls in the sugar levels.

For weight management:
Just like most of the fruits, lucuma is also an excellent source of fiber. The advantage of eating fiber rich foods is that they have fewer calories and they make you feel full for a longer period of time. This prevents you from frequent snacking and overeating, which is very important when it comes to weight management.

For improving digestive health:
The high content of fiber in lucuma helps in normalizing your bowel movements, thus preventing constipation. Fiber adds volume to your stool, making it easy to pass through the digestive tract. A diet rich in fibers is known to reduce the risk of many problems related to the digestive system such as stomach ulcers, diverticulitis, irritable bowel syndrome and gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD).

For Wound healing:
Studies suggest that lucuma has both antifungal and antibiotic properties. It has been found to be highly effective in tissue regeneration and in wound closure. Lucuma nut oil when applied to the affected area helps to speed up the healing process.

For cancer prevention:
Lucuma has been found to prevent some types of cancers. The antioxidants in this fruit fight against the free radicals that are harmful to your body. These toxins have been associated with causing many health problems including cancer.

Foe improving immune system:
The nutrients and antioxidants in lucuma have the power to boost your immune system and protect you from many of the serious diseases.

For skin benefits:
Because of the excellent anti-inflammatory qualities of lucuma, it is used for healing abrasions and wounds of the skin. It also has the ability to reduce the effects of aging such as wrinkles and fine lines. Lucuma is rich in beta-carotene that promotes the growth and repair of cells, which in turn reduces the signs of aging. Beta-carotene also acts as a sunscreen, protecting your skin from the harmful UV rays of the sun.

For stronger bones:
Lucuma contains a significant amount of calcium and phosphorus that provides strength to the bones. Both these minerals are essential for the growth of your bones and also for keeping them healthy and strong.

For lowering cholesterol levels:
It has been found that lucuma has the ability to reduce the levels of triglycerides and bad cholesterol (LDL) in your blood and reduce the risks of stroke and heart attack.

For muscle building:
Proper nutrition and exercise are the two things that can help you build your muscles the natural way. Lucuma has been found to help in muscle building. This fruit, being rich in antioxidants offers you vitality. The high content of iron in lucuma helps to reduce fatigue so that you can recover from the muscle building exercise routines at a much faster rate. Muscle building depends to a great extent on the strength of your bones. The abundance of minerals like calcium and phosphorus in lucuma not only increases bone strength but also improves blood circulation.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pouteria_lucuma
http://www.valuefood.info/1064/health-benefits-of-lucuma/

Categories
Fruits & Vegetables

Loquat

Botanical Name: Eriobotrya japonica
Family: Rosaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales
Genus: Eriobotrya
Species: E. japonica

Synonyms:
*Crataegus bibas Lour.
*Mespilus japonica Thunb.
*Photinia japonica (Thunb.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Asch. & Schweinf.

Common Name: Loquat, Japanese Loquat

Habitat:
Loquat is native to E. Asia – China, Japan, mainly grown on the cooler hill regions of south-central China.It is also commonly found in Japan, Korea, northern parts of the Philippines, Himachal Pradesh in India, the Pothohar Plateau in Pakistan, and hilly regions in Sri Lanka. It can also be found in southern European countries such as Turkey, Cyprus, Greece, Malta, Italy, Albania, Montenegro, Croatia, Slovenia, France, Spain and Portugal, several northern African countries including Morocco and Algeria, and in countries in the Middle East such as Israel, Iran, Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Palestine, and Lebanon. as well as in parts of East Africa, like regions of Kenya.

Description:
Eriobotrya japonica is a large evergreen shrub or small tree, with a rounded crown, short trunk and woolly new twigs. The tree can grow to 5–10 metres (16–33 ft) tall, but is often smaller, about 3–4 metres (10–13 ft). The fruit begins to ripen during spring to summer depending on the temperature in the area. The leaves are alternate, simple, 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long, dark green, tough and leathery in texture, with a serrated margin, and densely velvety-hairy below with thick yellow-brown pubescence; the young leaves are also densely pubescent above, but this soon rubs off….CLICK & SEE

Fruits:…...CLICK & SEE
Loquats are unusual among fruit trees in that the flowers appear in the autumn or early winter, and the fruits are ripe at any time from early spring to early summer. The flowers are 2 cm (1 in) in diameter, white, with five petals, and produced in stiff panicles of three to ten flowers. The flowers have a sweet, heady aroma that can be smelled from a distance.

Loquat fruits, growing in clusters, are oval, rounded or pear-shaped, 3–5 centimetres (1–2 in) long, with a smooth or downy, yellow or orange, sometimes red-blushed skin. The succulent, tangy flesh is white, yellow or orange and sweet to subacid or acid, depending on the cultivar.

Each fruit contains from one to ten ovules, with three to five being most common. A variable number of the ovules mature into large brown seeds (with different numbers of seeds appearing in each fruit on the same tree, usually between one and four).

The fruits are the sweetest when soft and orange. The flavour is a mixture of peach, citrus and mild mango.

Cultivation:
Over 800 loquat cultivars exist in Asia. Self-fertile variants include the ‘Gold Nugget’ and ‘Mogi’ cultivars. The loquat is easy to grow in subtropical to mild temperate climates where it is often primarily grown as an ornamental plant, especially for its sweet-scented flowers, and secondarily for its delicious fruit. The boldly textured foliage adds a tropical look to gardens, contrasting well with many other plants. It is popular in the Eastern United States, as well as the American South.

Edible Uses:
The loquat has a high sugar, acid and pectin content. It is eaten as a fresh fruit and mixes well with other fruits in fresh fruit salads or fruit cups. The fruits are also commonly used to make jam, jelly and chutney, and are often served poached in light syrup. Firm, slightly immature fruits are best for making pies or tarts.

The fruit is sometimes canned or processed into confections. The waste ratio is 30 percent or more, due to the seed size.Loquats can also be used to make light wine. It is fermented into a fruit wine, sometimes using just the crystal sugar and white liquor.

Neutrition:
The loquat is low in sodium and high in vitamin A, vitamin B6, dietary fiber, potassium, and manganese.

Like most related plants, the seeds (pips) and young leaves of the plant are slightly poisonous, containing small amounts of cyanogenic glycosides (including amygdalin) which release cyanide when digested, though the low concentration and bitter flavour normally prevent enough being eaten to cause harm.

Medicinal Uses:
The loquat is one of the most popular cough remedies in the Far East, it is the ingredient of many patent medicines. The leaves are analgesic, antibacterial, antiemetic, antitussive, antiviral, astringent, diuretic and expectorant. A decoction of the leaves or young shoots is used as an intestinal astringent and as a mouthwash in cases of thrush and also in the treatment of bronchitis, coughs, feverish colds etc. The leaves are harvested as required and can be used fresh or dried. The hairs should be removed from the leaves in order to prevent irritation of the throat. The flowers are expectorant. The fruit is slightly astringent, expectorant and sedative. It is used in allaying vomiting and thirst

Known Hazards: The seed is slightly poisonous. This report probably refers to the hydrogen cyanide that is found in many plants of this family, the seed should only be used in small amounts if it is bitter. In small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loquat
https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Eriobotrya+japonica