Tag Archives: Alaska Airlines

Viola adunca

Botanical Name : Viola adunca
Family: Violaceae
Genus: Viola
Species: V. adunca
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Malpighiales

Synonyms : Lophion aduncum. Viola bellidifolia. Viola clarkiae. Viola cordulata. Viola desertorum.
Common Names: Hookedspur violet, Early blue violet, Sand violet, and Western dog violet, Kirk’s violet, Hooked Spur violet

Habitat: Viola adunca is native to Eastern and Western N. America – Alaska to California, also Ontario to Quebec and New Brunswick. It grows on damp banks and edges of meadows in most forest communities, 1500 – 2400 metres from Alaska to N. California.
Description:
Viola adunca is a perennial plant growing to 0.1 m (0ft 4in). This is a hairy, compact plant growing from a small rhizome system. The leaves are spade- or heart-shaped, sometimes with broadly wavy margins. They are generally 1 to 4 centimeters long. The single-flowered inflorescence grows at the end of a long, very thin peduncle. The nodding flower is a violet with five purple petals, the lower three with white bases and purple veining. The two side petals are white-bearded near the throat. The upper two petals may have hooked spurs at their tips.

CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES

It is in flower from Apr to May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects, cleistogamous.The plant is self-fertile.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Prefers a cool moist well-drained humus-rich soil in partial or dappled shade and protection from scorching winds. Tolerates sandstone and limestone soils but becomes chlorotic if the pH is too high. Prefers a pH between 6 and 6.5[200]. All members of this genus have more or less edible leaves and flower buds, though those species with yellow flowers can cause diarrhoea if eaten in large quantities. There is at least one named form selected for its ornamental value. ‘Alba’ has white flowers. Flowers formed late in the season are cleistogamous (lacking petals, the flowers do not open but are self-pollinated).

Propagation:
Seed – best sown in the autumn in a cold frame. Sow stored seed in early spring in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer. Division in the autumn or just after flowering. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions, though we have found that it is best to pot up smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a greenhouse or cold frame until they are growing away well. Plant them out in the summer or the following spring.
Edible Uses: Young leaves and flower buds – raw or cooked. When added to soup they thicken it in much the same way as okra. A tea can be made from the dried leaves.
Medicinal Uses:
Early blue violet was used medicinally mostly by the Blackfoot and Bella Coola Indians. An infusion of the leaves and roots has been used to treat stomach problems and asthma in children, and also as a wash and poultice on sore and swollen joints. The roots and leaves have been chewed by women during childbirth. A poultice of the chewed leaves was applied to sore eyes. A poultice of the crushed flowers was applied to the side or chest in the treatment of pain.

Other Uses : A blue dye can be obtained from the flower.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viola_adunca
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_UZ.htm
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Viola+adunca

Advertisements

Macadamia

Kingdom: Plantae

Division: Magnoliophyta

Class: Magnoliopsida

Order:
Proteales

Family: Proteaceae

Genus: Macadamia

Habitat: The macadamia nut, native to the coastal rain forest areas of southern and northern New South Wales in Australia, is considered to be the worlds finest dessert nut.

Description:
Macadamia is a genus of nine species of flowering plants in the family Proteaceae, with a disjunct distribution native to eastern Australia (seven species), New Caledonia (one species M. neurophylla) and Indonesia Sulawesi (one species, M. hildebrandii).

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

….They are small to large evergreen trees growing to 6–40 m tall. The leaves are arranged in whorls of three to six, lanceolate to obovate or elliptical in shape, 6–30 cm long and 2–13 cm broad, with an entire or spiny-serrated margin. The flowers are produced in a long slender simple raceme 5–30 cm long, the individual flowers 10–15 mm long, white to pink or purple, with four tepals. The fruit is a very hard woody globose follicle with a pointed apex, containing one or two seeds.

The genus is named after John Macadam, who was a colleague of the botanist, Ferdinand von Mueller, who first described the genus. Common names include Macadamia, Macadamia nut, Queensland nut, Bush nut, Maroochi nut and Bauple nut; Indigenous Australian names include Kindal Kindal and Jindilli.

Cultivation and uses:
The nuts are a valuable food crop. Only two of the species, M. integrifolia and M. tetraphylla, are of commercial importance. The remainder of the genus possess poisonous and/or inedible nuts, such as M. whelanii and M. ternifolia; the toxicity is due to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides. These glycosides can be removed by prolonged leaching, a practice carried out by some Indigenous Australian people in order to use these species as well.

The two species of edible macadamia readily hybridise, and M. tetraphylla is threatened in the wild due to this. Wild nut trees were originally found at Mt. Bauple near Maryborough in SE Queensland, Australia. Locals in this area still refer to them as “Bauple nuts”. The macadamia nut is the only plant food native to Australia that is produced and exported in any significant quantity.

Joseph Maiden, Australian botanist, wrote in 1889 “It is well worth extensive cultivation, for the nuts are always eagerly bought.” The first commercial orchard of macadamia trees was planted in the early 1880s by Mr Charles Staff at Rous Mill, 12 km south east of Lismore, New South Wales, consisting of M. tetraphylla.[2] Besides the development of a small boutique industry in Australia during the late 19th and early 20th century, macadamia was extensively planted as a commercial crop in Hawaii from the 1900s. The Hawaiian-produced macadamia established the nut internationally.

The macadamia tree is usually propagated by grafting, and does not begin to produce commercial quantities of nuts until it is 7–10 years old, but once established, may continue bearing for over 100 years. Macadamias prefer fertile, well-drained soils, a rainfall of 1,000–2,000 mm, and temperatures not falling below 10°C (although once established they can withstand light frosts), with an optimum temperature of 25°C. The roots are shallow and trees can be blown down in storms; they are also susceptible to Phytophthora root disease. Outside of Australia, commercial production is also established in Hawaii, South Africa, Brazil, California, Costa Rica, Israel, Kenya, Bolivia, New Zealand and Malawi. Australia is now the world’s largest commercial producer – at approximately 40,000 tonnes of nut in shell per year.

The macadamia nut’s kernel is extremely hard to mine out of its shell (it requires about 300 psi or 2000 kPa to crack), but after some time in a warm and dry place the shell may develop big cracks. The nut can be opened then with a screwdriver, though the warm dry conditions also reduce the nutritional value of the nut. The shell is most easily cracked with a metalworking bench vice, but care must be taken not to crush the kernel in the process. The nuts can be opened simply by locating the seam line on the shell (This seam line can be located by looking carefully at the shell) and placing a knife blade on the line and tapping with a hammer. The shell will open and allow the nut to be removed whole. A safer and quicker alternative is to use a Ratchet style PVC pipe cutter. Place the cutter blade on the seam line and ratchet it closed—the shell will split and allow the nut to be removed. When nuts have dried for a period of time the kernel will fall out (with green or fresh nuts the kernel may stick in the shell). The nuts can also be smashed open with a hammer or heavy solid kitchen tool or simply opened using a ratchet style nutcracker. Boiling the nuts for a few minutes in a pot until the nuts rise to the surface is also a good way as it causes the nuts to crack. Nuts of the “Arkin Papershell” variety, cultivated by retired stockbroker Morris Arkin, each have a blemish or small crack somewhere on the shell, and the shell will crack open readily if left for a few days, or if struck properly with a hammer.

Fruit fact: If Macadmia Nuts are heated it can affect the quality of the nut.

Chocolate-covered macadamia nutsMacadamia oil is prized for containing approximately 22% of the Omega-7 palmitoleic acid, which makes it a botanical alternative to mink oil, which contains approximately 17%. This relatively high content of “cushiony” palmitoleic acid plus macadamia’s high oxidative stability make it a desirable ingredient in cosmetics, especially skincare.

Macadamia nuts form the staple diet of the Hyacinth Macaw in captivity. These large parrots are one of the few animals, aside from humans, capable of cracking and shelling the nut.

Macadamia nuts are toxic to dogs. Ingestion may result in macadamia nut toxicosis, which is marked by weakness with the inability to stand within 12 hours of ingestion. Recovery is usually within 48 hours [6].

The trees are also grown as ornamental plants in subtropical regions for their glossy foliage and attractive flowers.

Macadamia species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Batrachedra arenosella.

Macadamia nuts are often used by law enforcement to simulate crack cocaine in drug stings. When chopped, the nuts resemble crack cocaine in color.

Click to see :->

Macadamia Nuts Cut Heart Attack Risk

Benefits of Macadamia Nut Oil

Healthy Receipe with Macadamia Nuts

Macadamia Nut Oil: Three Healthful Pluses

Use of Macadamia oil

Macadamia Precessing

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macadamia_nut
http://www.wildmac.com/macadamia.html