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Gentiana thunbergii

Botanical Name :Gentiana thunbergii
Family: Gentianaceae
Order: Gentianales
Tribes: Gentianeae
Genus: Gentiana
Species: Gentiana thunbergii (G.Don) Griseb.

Synonyms : G. japonica. Maxim. G. trinervis.

Common Names: Guangdong, Guangxi, Heilongjiang, Hunan, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Shanxi [Japan, Korea]

Habitat :Gentiana thunbergii is native to E. Asia – China, Japan, Korea and Manchuria. It grows on sunny places in lowland and mountains, C. and N. Japan. (1300-1800 m.)

Description:
Gentiana thunbergii is an annuals or biennial plant , growing 5-15 cm tall. Stems ascending to erect, few branched from base, glabrous. Basal leaves withered at anthesis; petiole 1-2 mm, glabrous; leaf blade involucriform, ovate-elliptic, ovate, or rarely obovate-oblong, 1-3 × 0.7-2.2 cm, margin cartilaginous and smooth, apex acuminate to rarely rounded, midvein distinct. Stem leaves 3-5 pairs, widely spaced; petiole 1.5-2 mm, entirely connate, glabrous; leaf blade lanceolate to oblong, 6-8 × 1-4.5 mm, shorter than internodes, margin of lower stem leaves narrowly cartilaginous, that of upper stem leaves broadly membranous, apex obtuse, vein 1. Flowers few. Pedicel 2-4 mm, sometimes to 1.2 cm in fruit, glabrous. Calyx narrowly obconic, (6-)8-9 mm; lobes narrowly triangular, 2.5-3 mm, margin membranous, apex acuminate, midvein distinct. Corolla blue, funnelform, (1.2-)1.5-2 cm; lobes ovate, 2-3 mm, margin entire, apex obtuse; plicae broadly oblong, 1-1.5 mm, margin entire or denticulate, apex rounded. Stamens inserted at middle of corolla tube, equal; filaments 2-2.5 mm; anthers ellipsoid, 1.2-1.5 mm. Style 2-2.5 mm; stigma lobes linear-oblong. Capsules narrowly obovoid, 6-8 mm; gynophore to 2.8 cm. Seeds brown, ellipsoid, 1-1.2 mm. It is in flower from Jul to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bumblebees, butterflies.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. Iial/biennial t prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
In general, gentians require a moist well-drained soil in a sheltered position, a certain minimum of atmospheric humidity, high light intensity but a site where temperatures are not too high. They are therefore more difficult to grow in areas with hot summers and in such a region they appreciate some protection from the strongest sunlight. Most species will grow well in the rock garden. A moisture loving plant, preferring to grow with full exposure to the sun but with plenty of underground moisture in the summer, it grows better in the north and west of Britain. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance.

Propagation :
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a light position in a cold frame. It can also be sown in late winter or early spring but the seed germinates best if given a period of cold stratification and quickly loses viability when stored, with older seed germinating slowly and erratically. It is advantageous to keep the seed at about 10°c for a few days after sowing, to enable the seed to imbibe moisture. Following this with a period of at least 5 – 6 weeks with temperatures falling to between 0 and -5°c will usually produce reasonable germination. It is best to use clay pots, since plastic ones do not drain so freely and the moister conditions encourage the growth of moss, which will prevent germination of the seed. The seed should be surface-sown, or only covered with a very light dressing of compost. The seed requires dark for germination, so the pots should be covered with something like newspaper or be kept in the dark. Pot up the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow on in light shade in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. The seedlings grow on very slowly, taking 2 – 7 years to reach flowering size. When the plants are of sufficient size, place them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Division in March. Most members of this genus have either a single tap-root, or a compact root system united in a single root head, and are thus unsuitable for division. Cuttings of basal shoots in late spring

Edible Uses: Young plants and flower buds – cooked and eaten.

Medicinal Uses:
The root probably contains various bitter compounds and can be used as a general tonic for the digestive system.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://war.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentiana_thunbergii
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200018111
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Gentiana+thunbergii

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Gentiana saponaria

Botanical Name: Gentiana saponaria
Family: Gentianaceae
Genus: Gentiana
Species: G. saponaria
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales
Class : Magnoliopsida
Sub Class:  Asteridae
Common Names: Soapwort gentian or Harvestbells, Soap gentian

Habitat: Gentiana saponaria is native to eastern N. America – Ontario to Minnesota, Connecticut, Florida and Louisiana. It grows on wet soils in woodlands.
Description:
Gentiana saponaria is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant, growing to 0.8 m (2ft 7in). It has paired, lanceolate leaves on unbranched stalks, blue or purple blooms, and a stout taproot. It is rare in its range, usually found in undisturbed sandy soils. It is hardy to zone (UK) 5. It is in flower from Aug to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bumblebees, butterflies…......CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES 

Cultivation:
In general, gentians require a moist well-drained soil in a sheltered position, a certain minimum of atmospheric humidity, high light intensity but a site where temperatures are not too high. They are therefore more difficult to grow in areas with hot summers and in such a region they appreciate some protection from the strongest sunlight. Most species will grow well in the rock garden. This species grows well in the woodland garden, it requires a lime-free soil. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance. A moisture loving plant, preferring to grow with full exposure to the sun but with plenty of underground moisture in the summer, it grows better in the north and west of Britain.

Propagation :
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a light position in a cold frame. The compost must be rich in organic matter and should not be allowed to become dry. The seed can also be sown in late winter or early spring but the seed germinates best if given a period of cold stratification and quickly loses viability when stored, with older seed germinating slowly and erratically. It is advantageous to keep the seed at about 10°c for a few days after sowing, to enable the seed to imbibe moisture. Following this with a period of at least 5 – 6 weeks with temperatures falling to between 0 and -5°c will usually produce reasonable germination. It is best to use clay pots, since plastic ones do not drain so freely and the moister conditions encourage the growth of moss, which will prevent germination of the seed. The seed should be surface-sown, or only covered with a very light dressing of compost. The seed requires dark for germination, so the pots should be covered with something like newspaper or be kept in the dark. Pot up the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow on in light shade in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. The seedlings grow on very slowly, taking 2 – 7 years to reach flowering size. When the plants are of sufficient size, place them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Division in March. Most members of this genus have either a single tap-root, or a compact root system united in a single root head, and are thus unsuitable for division. Cuttings of basal shoots in late spring

Medicinal Uses:
The root is said to be an antidote to snakebites. This N. American species has medicinal properties practically identical with the European gentians. The following notes are based on the general uses of G. lutea which is the most commonly used species in the West. Gentian root has a long history of use as a herbal bitter in the treatment of digestive disorders and is an ingredient of many proprietary medicines. It contains some of the most bitter compounds known and is used as a scientific basis for measuring bitterness. It is especially useful in states of exhaustion from chronic disease and in all cases of debility, weakness of the digestive system and lack of appetite. It is one of the best strengtheners of the human system, stimulating the liver, gall bladder and digestive system, and is an excellent tonic to combine with a purgative in order to prevent its debilitating effects. The root is anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, bitter tonic, cholagogue, emmenagogue, febrifuge, refrigerant, stomachic. It is taken internally in the treatment of liver complaints, indigestion, gastric infections and anorexia. It should not be prescribed for patients with gastric or duodenal ulcers. The root is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use. It is quite likely that the roots of plants that have not flowered are the richest in medicinal properties.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentiana_saponaria
http://www.newyork.plantatlas.usf.edu/Plant.aspx?id=6650
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Gentiana+saponaria

Gentiana punctata

Botanical Name : Gentiana punctata
Family: Gentianaceae
Tribes: Gentianeae
Subtribes: Gentianinae
Genus: Gentiana
Species: Gentiana pannonica
Reinu: Plantae
Subreinu: Tracheobionta
División: Magnoliophyta
Clas: Magnoliopsida
Subclas: Asteridae
Orde: Gentianales

Synonym(s):
*Coilantha campanulata G.Don
*Coilantha punctata G.Don
*Gentiana campanulata Jacq.
*Gentiana immaculata Pers.
*Gentianusa punctata (L.) Pohl

Common Name : Spotted Gentian

Habitat : Gentiana punctata is native to S. Europe. {Albania; Austria; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; France (France (mainland)); Germany; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Italy (Italy (mainland)); Montenegro; Poland; Romania; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Switzerland; Ukraine (Ukraine (main part)} It grows on stony pastures, the grassy bottoms of mountain corries, screes and moraines, among rhododendrons and in conifer woods, on both limestone and igneous rocks.

Description:
Gentiana punctata is a perennial semi-evergreen or evergreen, herbaceous plant, clump with lance-shaped glossy mid-green leaves. The flowers are terminal or axillary green spotted purple blooms in late summer. It grows to a height of 0.6 m (2ft).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 5. It is in flower from Jun to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bumblebees, butterflies……CLICK & SEE  THE  PICTURES

Cultivation:
In general, gentians require a moist well-drained soil in a sheltered position, a certain minimum of atmospheric humidity, high light intensity but a site where temperatures are not too high. They are therefore more difficult to grow in areas with hot summers and in such a region they appreciate some protection from the strongest sunlight. Most species will grow well in the rock garden. This species is not particular about soil type, so long as it is deep enough to accommodate the plant’s roots. A moisture loving plant, preferring to grow with full exposure to the sun but with plenty of underground moisture in the summer, it grows better in the north and west of Britain. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a light position in a cold frame. It can also be sown in late winter or early spring but the seed germinates best if given a period of cold stratification and quickly loses viability when stored, with older seed germinating slowly and erratically. It is advantageous to keep the seed at about 10°c for a few days after sowing, to enable the seed to imbibe moisture. Following this with a period of at least 5 – 6 weeks with temperatures falling to between 0 and -5°c will usually produce reasonable germination. It is best to use clay pots, since plastic ones do not drain so freely and the moister conditions encourage the growth of moss, which will prevent germination of the seed. The seed should be surface-sown, or only covered with a very light dressing of compost. The seed requires dark for germination, so the pots should be covered with something like newspaper or be kept in the dark.. Pot up the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow on in light shade in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. The seedlings grow on very slowly, taking 2 – 7 years to reach flowering size. When the plants are of sufficient size, place them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Division in March.. Most members of this genus have either a single tap-root, or a compact root system united in a single root head, and are thus unsuitable for division. Cuttings of basal shoots in late spring

Medicinal Uses:
A medicinal and aromatic plant, like many other species of Gentiana the plant is rich in bitter-tasting secoiridoid glucosides which are applied in the treatment of gastrointestinal tract diseases. The roots are applied as a decoction, extract or tincture (Skrzypczak et al. 1993, Lipman 2009). It is sold on the Serbian market and not known to be in cultivation (Baricevic et al. 2004).

This species is one of several that are the source of the medicinal gentian root, the thick rootstock can be up to 1 metre long. The following notes are based on the general uses of G. lutea which is the most commonly used species in the West. Gentian root has a long history of use as a herbal bitter in the treatment of digestive disorders and is an ingredient of many proprietary medicines. It contains some of the most bitter compounds known and is used as a scientific basis for measuring bitterness. It is especially useful in states of exhaustion from chronic disease and in all cases of debility, weakness of the digestive system and lack of appetite. It is one of the best strengtheners of the human system, stimulating the liver, gall bladder and digestive system, and is an excellent tonic to combine with a purgative in order to prevent its debilitating effects. The root is anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, bitter tonic, cholagogue, emmenagogue, febrifuge, refrigerant, stomachic. It is taken internally in the treatment of liver complaints, indigestion, gastric infections and anorexia. It should not be prescribed for patients with gastric or duodenal ulcers. The root is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use. It is quite likely that the roots of plants that have not flowered are the richest in medicinal properties.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://ast.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentiana_punctata
http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/203221/0
https://www.greenplantswap.co.uk/plants/8535-gentiana-punctata#how-to-grow
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Gentiana+punctata

Gentiana puberulenta

 

Botanical Name : Gentiana puberulenta
Family: Gentianaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Sub Class: Asteridae
Order: Gentianales
Genus: Gentiana
Species : Gentiana puberulenta Pringle – downy gentian

Common Names : Downy gentian
Habitat : Gentiana puberulenta is native to Central N. America – Manitoba to Ontario, south to Kansas and Arkansas. It grows on the prairies and other grassy places.
Description:
Gentiana puberulenta is a perennial flowering plant, growing to 0.4 m (1ft 4in).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 6. It is in flower from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bumblebees, butterflies.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES 

Leaves and stems:
Leaves are simple and opposite, lance-shaped to lance-oblong, ¾ to 2¾ inches long and ¼ to ¾ inch wide, stalkless and toothless, with glossy surfaces and fine, short hairs along the midrib and/or edges, but only towards the base. Leaf pairs are at right angles to the pair above and below. Stems are erect to ascending, rarely branched, typically tinged reddish and are covered in minute, soft hairs, often in faint lines.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Flower:
Clusters of 1 to 9 flowers at the top of the stem and in the upper leaf axils. Flowers in the terminal cluster are stalkless and those in the axils are short stalked. Flowers are bright blue to deep blue-violet, 1½ to 2¼ inches across when fully open, upright, bell-like with 5 widely spreading, sharply pointed, oval to triangular lobes. Between the lobes is connective, pleat-like tissue, ragged on the outer edge and sometimes lighter colored. Inside the tube, the base of the petals is white with dark blue stripes or streaks; the outer surface of the petals is darker, almost purplish black. The column of white, creamy-tipped stamens in the center often become spreading with age. The calyx is short tubular with four narrow, leafy bracts widely spreading below the flower.

Cultivation:
In general, gentians require a moist well-drained soil in a sheltered position, a certain minimum of atmospheric humidity, high light intensity but a site where temperatures are not too high. They are therefore more difficult to grow in areas with hot summers and in such a region they appreciate some protection from the strongest sunlight. Most species will grow well in the rock garden. This species requires a fairly dry site with good drainage. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance. A moisture loving plant, preferring to grow with full exposure to the sun but with plenty of underground moisture in the summer, it grows better in the north and west of Britain. This species is closely related to G. affinis.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a light position in a cold frame. It can also be sown in late winter or early spring but the seed germinates best if given a period of cold stratification and quickly loses viability when stored, with older seed germinating slowly and erratically. It is advantageous to keep the seed at about 10°c for a few days after sowing, to enable the seed to imbibe moisture. Following this with a period of at least 5 – 6 weeks with temperatures falling to between 0 and -5°c will usually produce reasonable germination. It is best to use clay pots, since plastic ones do not drain so freely and the moister conditions encourage the growth of moss, which will prevent germination of the seed. The seed should be surface-sown, or only covered with a very light dressing of compost. The seed requires dark for germination, so the pots should be covered with something like newspaper or be kept in the dark. Pot up the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow on in light shade in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. The seedlings grow on very slowly, taking 2 – 7 years to reach flowering size. When the plants are of sufficient size, place them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Division in March. Most members of this genus have either a single tap-root, or a compact root system united in a single root head, and are thus unsuitable for division. Cuttings of basal shoots in late spring.

Medicinal Uses:
The root is said to be an antidote to snakebites. This N. American species has medicinal properties practically identical with the European gentians. The following notes are based on the general uses of G. lutea which is the most commonly used species in the West. Gentian root has a long history of use as a herbal bitter in the treatment of digestive disorders and is an ingredient of many proprietary medicines. It contains some of the most bitter compounds known and is used as a scientific basis for measuring bitterness. It is especially useful in states of exhaustion from chronic disease and in all cases of debility, weakness of the digestive system and lack of appetite. It is one of the best strengtheners of the human system, stimulating the liver, gall bladder and digestive system, and is an excellent tonic to combine with a purgative in order to prevent its debilitating effects. The root is anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, bitter tonic, cholagogue, emmenagogue, febrifuge, refrigerant, stomachic. It is taken internally in the treatment of liver complaints, indigestion, gastric infections and anorexia . It should not be prescribed for patients with gastric or duodenal ulcers. The root is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use. It is quite likely that the roots of plants that have not flowered are the richest in medicinal properties
Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Gentiana+puberulenta
http://mnfi.anr.msu.edu/explorer/species.cfm?id=14245
https://www.minnesotawildflowers.info/flower/downy-gentian

Gentiana pneumonanthe

Botanical Name: Gentiana pneumonanthe
Family: Gentianaceae
Genus: Gentiana
Species: G. pneumonanthe
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Common Name : Marsh gentian

Habitat : Gentiana pneumonanthe is native to Europe, including Britain, from Scandanavia south and east to Spain, Macedonia, Caucasus and Siberia. It grows on boggy meadows, fens, moist heaths and sandy or peaty clearings in woods. Very local and decreasing in Britain.

Description:
Gentiana pneumonanthe is a perennial plant, growing to 0.3 m (1ft). Its flowers are having four or five petals are usually united into a trumpet, funnel, or bell shape.The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bumblebees, butterflies.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES;

USDA hardiness zone : Coming soon

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
In general, gentians require a moist well-drained soil in a sheltered position, a certain minimum of atmospheric humidity, high light intensity but a site where temperatures are not too high. They are therefore more difficult to grow in areas with hot summers and in such a region they appreciate some protection from the strongest sunlight. Most species will grow well in the rock garden. This species is calcifuge and requires a humus-rich lime-free soil. It is not very easy to cultivate and is not very long-lived. A moisture loving plant, preferring to grow with full exposure to the sun but with plenty of underground moisture in the summer, it grows better in the north and west of Britain. A very ornamental plant. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance and should be placed in their final positions as soon as possible.

Propagation :
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a light position in a cold frame. It requires an acid humus-rich compost and should not be allowed to dry out. The seed can also be sown in late winter or early spring but the seed germinates best if given a period of cold stratification and quickly loses viability when stored, with older seed germinating slowly and erratically. It is advantageous to keep the seed at about 10°c for a few days after sowing, to enable the seed to imbibe moisture. Following this with a period of at least 5 – 6 weeks with temperatures falling to between 0 and -5°c will usually produce reasonable germination. It is best to use clay pots, since plastic ones do not drain so freely and the moister conditions encourage the growth of moss, which will prevent germination of the seed. The seed should be surface-sown, or only covered with a very light dressing of compost. The seed requires dark for germination, so the pots should be covered with something like newspaper or be kept in the dark. Pot up the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow on in light shade in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. The seedlings usually flower in their second year. When the plants are of sufficient size, place them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Division in March. Most members of this genus have either a single tap-root, or a compact root system united in a single root head, and are thus unsuitable for division. Cuttings of basal shoots in late spring.
Medicinal Uses:
The root probably contains various bitter compounds and can be used as a general tonic for the digestive system.
Other Uses:….Dye…..A blue dye is obtained from the flowers
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.britannica.com/plant/Gentiana-pneumonanthe
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentiana_pneumonanthe
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Gentiana+pneumonanthe