Tag Archives: New Jersey

Ribes inebrians

Botanical Name: Ribes inebrians
Family: Grossulariaceae
Genus: Ribes
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Saxifragales

Synonyms : R. cereum pedicellare. Brewer.&S.Wats. R. cereum inebrians.

Common Names: Whisky Currant

Habitat : Ribes inebrians is native to Western N. AmericaCalifornia to Idaho, Nebraska and New Mexico. It grows in dry slopes to 3700 metres in California.

Description:
Ribes inebrians is a deciduous Shrub growing to 2 m (6ft 7in). It is in flower in May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil. CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES :
Cultivation:
Easily grown in a moisture retentive but well-drained loamy soil of at least moderate quality. Plants are quite tolerant of shade though do not fruit so well in such a position. Hardy to about -20°c. This species is closely related to R. cereum. Plants can harbour a stage of ‘white pine blister rust‘, so they should not be grown in the vicinity of pine trees. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. Stored seed requires 4 – 5 months cold stratification at between 0 to 9°c and should be sown as early in the year as possible. Under normal storage conditions the seed can remain viable for 17 years or more. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter, planting them out in late spring of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 10 – 15cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year’s growth, preferably with a heel of the previous year’s growth, November to February in a cold frame or sheltered bed outdoors

Edible Uses: Fruit – raw or cooked. The fruit can also be dried for later use or made into preserves. One report says that although the fruit was eaten by the Hopi Indians, it could make you ill. Another report says that the fruit was highly relished. The fruit is about 5mm in diameter.  Leaves – cooked.
Medicinal Uses: A poultice of the plant has been applied to sores.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ribes
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ribes+inebrians

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Viburnum cassinoides

Botanical Name : Viburnum cassinoides
Family: Adoxaceae
Genus: Viburnum
Species:V. nudum
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Dipsacales

Synonyms: V. nudum cassinoides. (L.)Torr.&Gray.

Common Name: Withe Rod, Appalachian Tea, Witherod Viburnum, Witherod, Wild Raisin Viburnum,Blue haw

Habitat :Viburnum cassinoides is native to Eastern N. America – Newfoundland to Manitoba, Minnesota, New Jersey, Georgia and Alabama.
It grows on the thickets, clearings, swamps and borders of woods.

Description:
Viburnum cassinoides is a deciduous Shrub growing to 2.5 m (8ft 2in) at a medium rate.

It is in flower in June, and the seeds ripen in October. Leaves are opposite, simple, dull dark green leaves; 1.5 to 3.5 in. long; bronze to purple-tinged new growth; orange-red, dull crimson and purple fall color. Flowers are creamy white with yellow stamens in early summer on 2 to 5 in. flat-topped cyme; fruit changes from green to pink to red then blue and black. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is not self-fertile….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Border, Hedge, Massing, Screen, Specimen. An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils but is ill-adapted for poor soils and for dry situations. It dislikes chalk, growing best on lime-free soils. Prefers a deep rich loamy soil in sun or semi-shade. Best if given shade from the early morning sun in the spring. This species is closely allied to V. nudum. Plants are self-incompatible and need to grow close to a genetically distinct plant in the same species in order to produce fertile seed. There is at least one named variety, selected for its ornamental value. ‘Nanum’ has a dwarf habit and the leaves have a rich autumn colouring. Special Features:North American native, Fragrant flowers, Attractive flowers or blooms.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Germination can be slow, sometimes taking more than 18 months. If the seed is harvested ‘green’ (when it has fully developed but before it has fully ripened) and sown immediately in a cold frame, it should germinate in the spring. Stored seed will require 2 months warm then 3 months cold stratification and can still take 18 months to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame or greenhouse. Plant out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of soft-wood, early summer in a frame. Pot up into individual pots once they start to root and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 5 – 8 cm long with a heel if possible, July/August in a frame. Plant them into individual pots as soon as they start to root. These cuttings can be difficult to overwinter, it is best to keep them in a greenhouse or cold frame until the following spring before planting them out. Cuttings of mature wood, winter in a frame. They should root in early spring – pot them up when large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer if sufficient new growth is made, otherwise keep them in a cold frame for the next winter and then plant them out in the spring. Layering of current seasons growth in July/August. Takes 15 months.

Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw or cooked. The scant flesh is sweet and well flavoured, hanging on the plant well into the winter. The oval fruit is about 10mm long and contains a single large seed. The leaves are used as a tea substitute. A pleasant taste. The leaves are steamed over boiling water, rolled between the fingers, allowed to stand overnight and then dried in an oven to be used as required.

Medicinal Uses:
The bark and root bark is antispasmodic, diaphoretic, febrifuge and tonic. An infusion has been used to treat recurrent spasms, fevers, smallpox and ague. The infusion has also been used as a wash for a sore tongue.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viburnum_nudum
https://plants.ces.ncsu.edu/plants/all/viburnum-cassinoides/
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Viburnum+cassinoides

Artemisia michauxiana

Botanical Name : Artemisia michauxiana
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Artemisia
Species:A. michauxiana
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms:
*Artemisia discolor Douglas ex Besser 1836, rejected name not Douglas ex DC. 1838
*Artemisia vulgaris subsp. michauxiana (Besser) H.St.John

Common Names: Mountain Sagewort, Michaux’s wormwood,and Lemon sagewort.

Habitat : Artemisia michauxiana is native to western Canada (Yukon, British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan) and the western United States (Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Nevada, Idaho, Utah, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado). It grows in mountain talus habitats in subalpine to alpine climates
Description:
Artemisia michauxiana is a rhizomatous perennial herb with green, lemon-scented foliage. The plant grows up to 100 cm (40 inches) tall with several erect branches. The leaves are divided into many narrow segments which are hairless or lightly hairy and bear yellowish resin glands. The inflorescence is a spike up to 15 centimeters long full of clusters of small flower heads.

 CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
The plant is erect, lemon-scented. Stems green, many, unbranched. Leaves about 1 in. long, narrow, divided twice, often with small teeth, matted white hairs on the underside; top side hairless, green, dotted with yellow glands. Flower spikes narrow, 3–6 in. tall with nodding flower heads. Flower cup purplish, dotted with yellow glands, hairless.
Cultivation:
Easily grown in a well-drained circumneutral or slightly alkaline loamy soil, preferring a warm sunny dry position. Established plants are drought tolerant. Plants are longer lived, more hardy and more aromatic when they are grown in a poor dry soil. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – surface sow from late winter to early summer in a greenhouse, making sure that the compost does not dry out. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer. Division in spring or autumn. Basal cuttings in late spring. Harvest the young shoots when about10 – 15cm long, pot up in a lightly shaded position in a greenhouse or cold frame and plant them out when well rooted. Very easy.

Edible Uses: ….Seed. Further details are not found, but the seed is very small and fiddly to use.

Medicinal Uses:…Poultice….A hot infusion of the plant has been used in the treatment of headaches[257]. A poultice of the chewed plant is applied to sprains and swellings.

Known Hazards: Although no reports of toxicity have been seen for this species, skin contact with some members of this genus can cause dermatitis or other allergic reactions in some people.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Artemisia+michauxiana
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artemisia_michauxiana
http://www.pnwflowers.com/flower/artemisia-michauxiana

Hunger for Air

Breathing is an involuntary action, coordinated by respiratory centres deep in the brain. It is not really possible to die by voluntarily holding one’s breath, as without practice and training, apnoea (not breathing) cannot be sustained for more than 1-2 minutes. This is because “breath holding” results in accumulation of carbon dioxide in the blood and a drop in the blood pH. The respiratory centre in the brain is automatically stimulated. Breathing sets in.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Sleep apnoea (cessation of breathing during sleep) can occur in adults, usually middle-aged overweight males with a thick neck. It can occur in all ages and both sexes, especially if the tonsils or adenoids are enlarged, there is a deviated nasal septum or GERD (gastro esophageal reflux disease). Sleep apnoea can cause high blood pressure, stroke, heart disease, and daytime drowsiness. Academic performance and decision making at work can suffer. There may be daytime lapses in concentration, which can cause accidents.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Mild cases of sleep apnoea respond to weight loss and exercise. Severe cases may require CPAP (Continuous Positive Airways Pressure), or surgery.

Reactive Airways Disease or name bronchial asthma is a condition where the smaller airways in the lungs constrict when exposed to many triggers. These may be a viral or bacterial infection, pollen, food, or odours in the air. As the breathing pipes become smaller, the outflow of air is obstructed and there is whistling sound with each breath. The person may start coughing vigorously or panic as they feel the air supply is being cut off.

This can be tackled with nebulisers, inhalers and rotahalers. These devices deliver dilating medication directly to the breathing pipes. The effect is almost instantaneous and there are practically no side effects.

Our airways are designed to filter out dust and other harmful particles. Unfortunately our inbuilt air purification system can only filter out particles of 2·5 µm (PM2 ) in diameter. The smaller – found around us both indoors and out – can enter the lungs. Indoor pollution comes from the use of solid fuels, such as coal, wood, or charcoal (even when it is only used to heat water), burning rubbish and waste, particularly plastic. Cigarette smoke harms the smoker and the polluting particles secondarily affect others in the environment. Agarbattis release many polluting chemicals as do mosquito repelling coils, mats and liquids.

Industrialisation and urbanisation have? resulted in fossil fuels being used in factories and for transport. Smoke from factories is sent high into the sky through industrial chimneys, but that just means that the particles spread over a wider area. The petrol and diesel vehicles on the road also emit particulate material and harmful gases. Seven million deaths occur annually because of air pollution alone. Pregnant women and children are particularly vulnerable. Constant exposure to a polluted environment affects long-term growth and cognitive ability in children. If we keep polluting the environment like this, our IQ levels will be affected.
Eventually, constant exposure to pollutants over many years can also result in COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) with breathlessness with the slightest activity. This too is treated with nebulisers and inhalers.

• We all breathe but this does not mean we breathe correctly. Lungs need regular breathing exercises and correction of faulty breathing techniques. Yoga corrects the technique.

• Exercise early in morning when pollution is less or indoors in a gym.

• Keep indoor plants in your home. They reduce particulate matter and pollutants.

Source: The Telegraph (India, Kolkata)

Solidago fistulosa

 

Botanical Name : Solidago fistulosa
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Astereae
Genus: Solidago
Species: S. fistulosa
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Names : Pine barren goldenrod

Habitat : Solidago fistulosa is native to low-lying coastal areas of eastern North America. It grows in every state bordering on the Gulf of Mexico or on the Atlantic Ocean from Louisiana to New Jersey. It is generally found in bogs, along the edges of marshes, in drainage ditches, etc.

Description:
Solidago fistulosa is a perennial deciduous herb growing up to 150 cm (5 feet) tall, spreading by underground rhizomes. It has winged petioles, broad leaf blades, and sometimes as many as 500 small yellow flower heads born in large branching arrays. It appears each spring and grows vigorously upward through the summer. Flowering occurs in fall; October-November. The heads are open panicles and each flower is typical of the genus; small and bright yellow. Pinebarren goldenrod is a robust species that spreads rapidly in the landscape by suckering.The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.It is noted for attracting wildlife……..CLICK  & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will succeed in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in many parts of the country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Succeeds in any moderately fertile moisture retentive soil in sun or semi-shade. Grows well in heavy clay soils. A rather greedy plant, it is apt to impoverish the soil. The plant attracts various beneficial insects such as ladybirds, lacewings and hoverflies to the garden, these insects will help to control insect pests in the garden.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Only just cover the seed and do not allow the compost to become dry. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle, and grow them on for their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in spring or early summer. Division in spring or autumn. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found it best to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in a lightly shaded position in a cold frame, planting them out once they are well established in the summer.

Medicinal Uses: Antiseptic. An infusion of the dried powdered herb can be used.

.
Other Uses..…Dye; Latex.……A good quality rubber can be made from a latex that is obtained from the leaves[46, 61, 110]. Mustard, orange and brown dyes can be obtained from the whole plant.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solidago_fistulosa
http://www.floridawildflowers.com/products/Soligago-fistulosa.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Solidago+fistulosa