Tag Archives: Xinjiang

Fritillaria pallidiflora

Botanical Name : Fritillaria pallidiflora
Family: Liliaceae
Genus: Fritillaria
Species: F. pallidiflora
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Liliales

Synonymys:
*Fritillaria bolensis G.Z.Zhang & Y.M.Liu
*Fritillaria halabulanica X.Z.Duan & X.J.Zheng
*Fritillaria pallidiflora var. halabulanica (X.Z.Duan & X.J.Zheng) G.J.Liu
*Fritillaria pallidiflora var. plena X.Z.Duan & X.J.Zheng
*Fritillaria pallidiflora var. pluriflora Regel
*Fritillaria pallidiflora var. uniflora Regel

Common Names: Siberian fritillary, Pale-Flowered Fritillary
Habitat : Fritillaria pallidiflora is native to E. Asia – China to E. Siberia.(Xinjiang, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan) It grows in the Alpine meadows, woods and scrub. Slopes in the sub-alpine zone. Forests, thickets, meadows, grassy slopes, mountain steppes, 1300 – 2500 metres in NW Xinjiang, China.

Description:
Fritillaria pallidiflora is a bulb growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in) It is in flower from May to June. The flowers are yellow, and nodding (hanging downward).

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
One of the best species in this genus for growing outdoors in Britain, it is easily grown in a moderately fertile well-drained soil so long as it is not allowed to dry out. Prefers a rich peaty soil in semi-shade. Another report says that it succeeds outdoors when grown in a bed of river sand and leafmould about 60cm deep. A very ornamental plant. Cultivated for medicinal use in China.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as ripe in a cold frame, it should germinate in the spring. Protect from frost. Stored seed should be sown as soon as possible and can take a year or more to germinate. Sow the seed quite thinly to avoid the need to prick out the seedlings. Once they have germinated, give them an occasional liquid feed to ensure that they do not suffer mineral deficiency. Once they die down at the end of their second growing season, divide up the small bulbs, planting 2 – 3 to an 8cm deep pot. Grow them on for at least another year in light shade in the greenhouse before planting them out whilst dormant. Division of offsets in August. The larger bulbs can be planted out direct into their permanent positions, but it is best to pot up the smaller bulbs and grow them on in a cold frame for a year before planting them out in the autumn. Bulb scales.
Medicinal Uses:
The bulbs are antitussive, expectorant, febrifuge and pectoral. They contain fritimine which lowers blood pressure, diminishes excitability of respiratory centres, paralyses voluntary movement and counters effects of opium. An infusion of the dried powdered bulb is used internally in the treatment of coughs, bronchitis, pneumonia, feverish illnesses, abscesses etc. The bulbs also have a folk history of use against cancer of the breast and lungs in China. This remedy should only be used under the supervision of a qualified practitioner, excessive doses can cause breathing difficulties and heart failure. The bulbs are harvested in the winter whilst they are dormant and are dried for later use.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritillaria_pallidiflora
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Fritillaria+pallidiflora

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Sonchus palustris

Botanical Name : Sonchus palustris
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Cichorieae
Genus: Sonchus
Species: S. palustris
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Name: Marsh sow-thistle

Habitat : Sonchus palustris is native to temperate regions of the Europe, Russia, Central Asia, and the Province of Xinjiang in western China. It has also become naturalized in a few locations in the Canadian Province of Ontario. It grows in damp peaty or silty soils rich in nitrogen.

Description:
Sonchus palustris is a much taller species than either of the preceding, attaining a height of 6 to 8 feet, being one of the tallest of our English herbaceous plants.The root is perennial, fleshy and branched, but not creeping; the leaves, arrow-shaped at the base, large, shiny on the under surfaces; the flowers, large and pale yellow, with hairy involucres, are in bloom in September and October, much later than the last species, which it somewhat resembles, though the edges of the leaves are minutely toothed, not waved. It grows in marshy places but is rare in this country, being now extinct in most of the places in Norfolk, Suffolk, Kent and Essex where it was formerly found, and only occurring on the Thames below Woolwich. This thistle was placed by mediaeval botanists under the planetary influences of Mars: ‘Mars rules it, it is such a prickly business.It produces an array of numerous flower heads, each with numerous yellow ray flowers but no disc flowers......CLICK &  SEE THE PICTURES

Edible Uses: No data is found.

Medicinal Uses: No data is found
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sonchus_palustris
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/s/sowthi71.html

Juglans regia (walnut)

Botanical Name : Juglans regia
Family: Juglandaceae
Genus: Juglans
Species: J. regia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fagales

Common Names:Black Walnut,Persian walnut, English walnut, common walnut or California walnut

Habitat : Juglans regia is native to the mountain ranges of Central Asia, extending from Xinjiang province of western China, parts of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and southern Kirghizia and from lower ranges of mountains in Nepal, Bhutan, Tibet, northern India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, through Afghanistan, Turkmenistan and Iran to portions of Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia and eastern Turkey. In these countries, there is a great genetic diversity, in particular ancestral forms with lateral fruiting. During its migration to western Europe, the common walnut lost this character and became large trees with terminal fruiting. A small remnant population of these J. regia trees have survived the last glacial period in Southern Europe, but the bulk of the wild germplasm found in the Balkan peninsula and much of Turkey was most likely introduced from eastern Turkey by commerce and settlement several thousand years ago

Description:
Juglans regia is a large, deciduous tree attaining heights of 25–35 m, and a trunk up to 2 m diameter, commonly with a short trunk and broad crown, though taller and narrower in dense forest competition. It is a light-demanding species, requiring full sun to grow well.

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The bark is smooth, olive-brown when young and silvery-grey on older branches, and features scattered broad fissures with a rougher texture. Like all walnuts, the pith of the twigs contains air spaces; this chambered pith is brownish in color. The leaves are alternately arranged, 25–40 cm long, odd-pinnate with 5–9 leaflets, paired alternately with one terminal leaflet. The largest leaflets are the three at the apex, 10–18 cm long and 6–8 cm broad; the basal pair of leaflets are much smaller, 5–8 cm long, with the margins of the leaflets entire. The male flowers are in drooping catkins 5–10 cm long, and the female flowers are terminal, in clusters of two to five, ripening in the autumn into a fruit with a green, semifleshy husk and a brown, corrugated nut. The whole fruit, including the husk, falls in autumn; the seed is large, with a relatively thin shell, and edible, with a rich flavour.

Cultivation:
Walnut trees grow best in rich, deep soil with full sun and long summers, such as the California central valley. In the U.S., J. regia is often grafted onto a rootstock of a native black walnut, Juglans hindsii to provide disease resistance. Other plants often will not grow under walnut trees because the fallen leaves and husks contain juglone, a chemical which acts as a natural herbicide. Horses that eat walnut leaves may develop laminitis, a hoof ailment. Mature trees may reach 50 feet in height and width, and live more than 200 years, developing massive trunks more than eight feet thick.

Edible Uses: Like all other nuts walnuts are eaten and are used in making various  sweet dishes.

Chemical Constituents:
Seven phenolic compounds (ferulic acid, vanillic acid, coumaric acid, syringic acid, myricetin, juglone and regiolone) have been identified in walnut husks by using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography or crystallography.

Walnuts also contain the ellagitannin pedunculagin.

-Regiolone has been isolated with juglone, betulinic acid and sitosterol from the stem-bark of . regia

Medicinal Uses:
Scientists are not yet certain whether walnuts act as a cancer chemopreventive agent, an effect which may be a result of the fruit’s high phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and potent in vitro antiproliferative activity.

Compared to certain other nuts, such as almonds, peanuts and hazelnuts, walnuts (especially in their raw form) contain the highest total level of antioxidants, including both free antioxidants and antioxidants bound to fiber.

Walnuts are a good source dietary source of serotonin, which is important in maintaining a healthy emotional balance. A lack of serotonin in the brain is thought to be a cause of depression. Walnuts are also one of the best plant based sources of omega-3 fatty acids. Both research and population studies have shown that having the right balance of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet reduces inflammation and may help lower risk such as heart disease, cancer, and auto-immune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis.1

Herbalists are most interested in the bark, leaves and nut husks of black walnut. Black walnut hulls contain juglone, a chemical that is antibacterial, antiviral, antiparasitic, and a fungicide. As a skin wash, black walnut is used to treat ringworm and yeast infections of the skin. Black walnut hull extract is unquestionably one of the best and safest worming agents offered by the plant world. But it can be toxic if not used with proper care, caution, and training. It is an herb best reserved for use by experienced practitioners.

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GOING (WAL)NUTS

– FITNESS

Other uses:
Walnut heartwood is a heavy, hard, open-grained hardwood. Freshly cut live wood may be Dijon-mustard colour, darkening to brown over a few days. The dried lumber is a rich chocolate-brown to black, with cream to tan sapwood, and may feature unusual figures, such as “curly”, “bee’s wing”, “bird’s eye”, and “rat tail”, among others. It is prized by fine woodworkers for its durability, lustre and chatoyance, and is used for high-end flooring, guitars, furniture, veneers, knobs and handles as well as Gunstocks.

Methyl palmitate, which has been extracted from green husks of J. regia has insecticidal properties: at a concentration of 10 mg/ml, it killed 98% of Tetranychus cinnabarinus (carmine spider mites) in one study.

Known Hazards:To remove the husk from kernel can lead to hand staining. Walnut hulls contain phenolics that stain hands and can cause skin irritation.

Black Walnut Side Effects:  Not for long term or chronic use, the juglone in black walnut has carcinogenic effects. Can be toxic if not used with proper care and respect. Remember anything that can kill a tapeworm has the potential of being harmful to the host.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juglans_regia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walnut
http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail221.php

Physalis alkekengi (Chinese Lantern)

Botanical Name: Physalis alkekengi
Family: Solanaceae

Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Solanales
Genus: Physalis
Species: Physalis alkekengi
Common Name:  Chinese Lantern
Other Common Names: Alkekengi, Alkekenje, Cape Gooseberry, Chinese Lantern Plant, Chinese Lanterns, Chinese-lantern-plant, Coqueret, Echte Lampionplant, Guveyfeneri, Strawberry Ground-cherry, Strawberry Groundcherry, Strawberry Tomato, Suan Chiang, Teng Leng Ts’Ao, Winter Cherry

Habitat: Central Asia through China. Has naturalized in some parts of the United States and many other countries.

Description:
Plant Type: Perennial
Where To Plant: Full Sun to Partly Shady
Soil Types: Average
Germination: Easy
Number of Seeds Per Pack: 50
Physalis alkekengi, grows to two feet tall and bears small, white flowers followed by large, balloon-like husks. Inside each 2-inch long husk is a small edible scarlet fruit. The Chinese lantern plant is valued for its inflated orange-red seed coverings which resemble miniature Chinese lanterns.
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Largely grown for its vividly colored, orange-red, lantern-shaped fruits which cut and dried are widely used for dried bouquets. Spreads rampantly.

Cultivation:
Plants often self-sow in the garden. Set Chinese lantern plants from 2 to 3 feet apart as they tend to spread rapidly. They are a very strong perennial, hardy from zone 3-9. They prefer a sunny location with well-drained soil.
Propagation: By seed.
Growing Environment: Can be successfully grown in full sun or part shade. Generally likes moist soil so watering is neccessary in drier climates.

Largely grown for its vividly colored, orange-red, lantern-shaped fruits.

Uses: Berries are eaten raw, or in preserves and pies. Recommended for fevers and gout.  Almost always grown as an ornamental for its brightly colored, orange husks (lanterns) which cover the fruit. The lanterns are sometimes used in floral decorations, usually with leaves removed. The fruits are edible and suprisingly, are higher in vitamin C than lemons. Care should be taken though, as all other parts of the plant are poisonous.
For winter bouquets, cut the stems in fall just as the lanterns turn color, remove the leaves and hang them, right side up, to dry in a shady, airy place.
Medicinal Uses:
The plant  has a long history of medicinal uses.

Berries eaten raw or in preserves and pies. Good for fevers and gout.
Physalis is the Greek word for bladder. It provides the plant its botanical name because the pod resembles a bladder; and because of the pod’s appearance, preparations from the red berry in the pod were used in the past as a diuretic and for the treatment of kidney and bladder stones. These medicinal properties have not been scientifically confirmed. It has not been prescribed since the end of the seventeenth centu.

Known Hazards: All parts of the plant, except the ripe fruit, are poisonous.
Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:

http://www.tradewindsfruit.com/chinese_lantern.htm
http://www.piam.com/mms_garden/plants.html
http://www.burpee.com/product/code/46490A.do
http://www.sandmountainherbs.com/lantern_chinese.html
http://www.about-garden.com/a/en/1706-physalis-alkekengi-chinese-lantern-plant-strawberry-ground-cherry/