Astragalus canadensis

Botanical Name: Astragalus canadensis
Family: Fabaceae
Genus: Astragalus
Species: A. canadensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales

Synonyms: Astragalus carolinianus. L.
Common Names : Canadian Milkvetch, Shorttooth Canadian milkvetch, Morton’s Canadian milkvetch
Habitat: Astragalus canadensis is native to Central and eastern N. America – Quebec to Saskatchewan, New York, Louisiana, Nebraska and Utah. IIt grows on shores and rich thickets. Rocky and sandy thickets in Texas.

Description:
Astragalus canadensis is a perennial herb growing to 1 m (3ft 3in). It sends out several thin, erect, green stems, bearing leaves that are actually made up of pairs of leaflets, each leaflet up to 3 centimeters in length. It has inflorescences of tubular, greenish-white flowers which yield beanlike fruits within pods that rattle when dry.

Pagoda-like towers of creamy yellow flowers rise above the dark green leaves in mid-summer, followed by scepters of bead-like seed pods in August. This striking member of the Pea family is an important food for birds, as it retains its seed late into the fall and early winter.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, lepidoptera.It can fix Nitrogen.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry soil.

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Cultivation:
Requires a dry well-drained soil in a sunny position. This species is not hardy in the colder areas of the country, it tolerates temperatures down to between -5 and -10°c. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance and are best planted in their final positions whilst still small. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. Many members of this genus can be difficult to grow, this may be due partly to a lack of their specific bacterial associations in the soil.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. A period of cold stratification may help stored seed to germinate. Stored seed, and perhaps also fresh seed, should be pre-soaked for 24 hours in hot water before sowing – but make sure that you do not cook the seed. Any seed that does not swell should be carefully pricked with a needle, taking care not to damage the embryo, and re-soaked for a further 24 hours. Germination can be slow and erratic but is usually within 4 – 9 weeks or more at 13°c if the seed is treated or sown fresh. As soon as it is large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter, planting them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.

Edible Uses:

Root – raw or boiled. They were often used in a broth. The roots are gathered in spring or autumn. Some caution is advised, if the root is bitter it could be due to the presence of toxic alkaloids.
Medicinal Uses:
The root is analgesic and antihaemorrhagic. It can be chewed or used as a tea to treat chest and back pains, coughs and the spitting up of blood. A decoction of the root is used as a febrifuge for children. A poultice made from the chewed root has been used to treat cuts

Known Hazards: Many members of this genus contain toxic glycosides. All species with edible seedpods can be distinguished by their fleshy round or oval seedpod that looks somewhat like a greengage. A number of species can also accumulate toxic levels of selenium when grown in soils that are relatively rich in that element.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astragalus_canadensis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Astragalus+canadensis
http://www.prairienursery.com/store/native-wildflowers/canada-milk-vetch-seed-astragalus-canadensis#.V-3m8ySvE2w

Ferula persica

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Botanical Name: Ferula persica
Family: Apiaceae
Subfamily: Apioideae
Tribes: Scandiceae
Subtribes: Ferulinae
Genus: Ferula
Species: Ferula persica

Synonyms:Ferula puberula Boiss. & Buhse
Vernacular name: English –Ferula ,Sagapenum gum.

Habitat : Ferula persica is native to West Asia – Iran. It grows on dry slopes to 2000 meters.

Description:
Ferula persica is a perennial herb growing to 1 m (3ft 3in). It is in flower from May to July. The leaves are tripinnate or even more finely divided, with a stout basal sheath clasping the stem.The flowers are hermaphrodite, yellow, produced in large umbels. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.

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Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.
Cultivation:
Succeeds in most soils. Requires a deep fertile soil in a sunny position. Plants have a long taproot and are intolerant of root disturbance. They should be planted into their final positions as soon as possible.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as the seed is ripe in a greenhouse in autumn. Otherwise sow in April in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle. Plant them out into their permanent positions whilst still small because the plants dislike root disturbance. Give the plants a protective mulch for at least their first winter outdoors. Division in autumn. This may be inadvisable due to the plants dislike of root disturbance.

Edible Uses: Gum.

Medicinal Uses:
It has been used in folk medicine for treatment of diabetes, lowering of blood pressure and for antispasmodic, carminative, laxative and expectorant effects in central Iran. Dried ground roots of F. persica (150 g) were extracted sequentially with n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol (MeOH), 500 ml each, using a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane extract of the roots (3 g) was subjected to vacuum liquid chromatography on silica gel, eluting with solvent mixtures of increasing polarity: 100% n-hexane-ethyl acetate (EtOAc), to yield a number of fractions, Fraction 4 (80% EtOAc in n-hexane) was further analysed by preparative TLC (mobile phase was 12% acetone in chloroform) to yield a coumarin ester (10.1 mg, Rf = 0.31, blue florescent). The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated by spectroscopic means. The compound is 7-O-(4,8,12 -trihydroxy-4,8,12-trimethyl-tridecanoyl)-coumarin, named, ferulone C as a new natural product.

Other Uses: The gum ‘Sagapenum’ is obtained from the plant (from the root?). It is used in the treatment of rheumatism and lumbago

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.gbpuat-cbsh.ac.in/departments/bi/database/phytodiabcare/phytodiab%20db/165.html
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25427054
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ferula+persica

Ferula narthex

Botanical Name: Ferula narthex
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Ferula
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Apiales

Synonyms : Ferula jaeschkeana. Vatke

Comon Name: Ferula
Sanskrit Name: Jatucom or Sahasrabathi or Hingu
Vernacular Names:
English – Asafotida

Hindi – Hingu

Kannada – Ingu

MalayalamKayam , Perukayam

Gujurati – Bagharani

Tamil – Perukayam

Telugu – Inguva

Punjabi – Hing

Marathi – Hing

Persian – Angoj

Arabic – Hillatil

Burma Shinka Sindh Vagharni

French – Ferula Asafoetida

Germany – Stinkendes

Bengali – Hingu
Habitat: Ferula narthex is native to W. Asia – Afghanistan to Pakistan. It grows on grassy slopes at elevations around 3600 metres in Tibet.
Description:
Ferula narthex is a perennial herb growing to 2.5 m (8ft 2in) with robust carrot-shaped roots. Leaves of two kinds; lower simple, 30-60 cm long, ovate; upper much divided into numerous segments. Young leaves densely hairy. Flowers small, yellow, in large terminal clusters. Fruit 8 mm long, about half as broad or broader.

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It is in flower in July, and the seeds ripen in August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in most soils. Requires a deep fertile soil in a sunny position. This species is not hardy in the colder areas of Britain, it tolerates temperatures down to between -5 and -10°c. The whole plant is very strong-smelling. Plants have a long taproot and are intolerant of root disturbance. They should be planted into their final positions as soon as possible.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as the seed is ripe in a greenhouse in autumn. Otherwise sow in April in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle. Plant them out into their permanent positions whilst still small because the plants dislike root disturbance. Give the plants a protective mulch for at least their first winter outdoors. Division in autumn. This may be inadvisable due to the plants dislike of root disturbance.

Edible Uses: ….Leaves and young shoots are eaten. Used as a pot-herb. The gum obtained from the roots is used as a condiment.
Medicinal Uses:
The gum resin obtained from the root is anthelmintic, antispasmodic, expectorant and nervine. It is used in the treatment of asthma, whooping cough, flatulent colic, and in pneumonia and bronchitis in children. It is applied externally on stomach to stimulate the intestines, even its enema is recommended in intestinal flatulence.The leaves are carminative and diaphoretic. The plant has recently been investigated as a potential contraceptive.

Other Uses: …..The root is a source of the gum ‘asafoetida’, it is used as a condiment and as a medicine. It is obtained by incision of the roots.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferula
http://www.indianmedicinalplants.info/herbs/index.php/sanskrit-names-of-plants/49-2012-03-14-06-48-48/636-ferula-narthex

Hingu – Ferula narthex Boiss – Ayurvedic Herb


http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ferula+narthex

Ferula moschata


Botanical Name:
Ferula moschata
Family:
Apiaceae
Subfamily:
Apioideae
Tribes:
Scandiceae
Subtribes:
Ferulinae
Genus:
Ferula
Species:
Ferula moschata

Synonyms : Ferula sumbul.

Common Names: Musk Root, Eurangium sumbul; Sumbulus moschatus, Ferula sumbul.

Vernacular Names:
English: Musk-root; Sumbul.
German: Echte; Persische Sambulwurzel.
Dutch: Muskuswortel.

Habitat :Ferula moschata is native to W. Asia – Turkestan to Tibet. It grows on mountains of Samarkand at heights of 900 to 1300 metres. Gravel slopes in bushes in Tibet.

Description:
Ferula moschata is a perennial herb, growing to 2.5 m (8ft 2in). Stem slender, corymbose-branched, lower branches alternate, upper branches verticillate. Leaf blade broadly elliptic-triangular, ternate-2-pinnatisect; ultimate segments oblong or lanceolate, 20–35 × 10–15 mm, remote, rather thick, adaxially glabrous, abaxially pubescent, sometimes sparsely papillose along veins, distally lobed, lobules entire or toothed. Terminal umbel long-pedunculate, lateral umbels 1–2, solitary or opposite, slightly exceeding terminal; umbels 4–6 cm across; bracts absent; rays 6–12, subequal; bracteoles lanceolate; umbellules 9–12-flowered. Stylopodium low-conic, base dilated, margins undulate. Fruit ellipsoid, ca. 7 mm; vittae 1 in each furrow, 2 on commissure.

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It is in flower from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in most soils. Requires a deep fertile soil in a sunny position. Plants are hardy to about -5°c. Plants have a long taproot and are intolerant of root disturbance. They should be planted into their final positions as soon as possible.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as the seed is ripe in a greenhouse in autumn. Otherwise sow in April in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle. Plant them out into their permanent positions whilst still small because the plants dislike root disturbance. Give the plants a protective mulch for at least their first winter outdoors. Division in autumn. This may be inadvisable due to the plants dislike of root disturbance.

Edible Uses: Gum is edible.

Medicinal Uses:
The root and the rhizome are antispasmodic, nervine, stimulant and tonic. The medicinal action resembles that of valerian (Valeriana officinalis) and the plant is used in the treatment of various hysterical conditions. It is also believed to have a specific action on the pelvic organs and is used in treating dysmenorrhoea and a wide range of other feminine disorders. The root is also a stimulant to mucous membranes and is used in treating chronic dysentery, diarrhoea, bronchitis and even pneumonia.

Other Uses : Gum……..A gum is extracted from the root. Used as a perfume and an incense, it is a musk substitute.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Ferula_moschata
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ferula+moschata
http://www.qjure.com/remedy/ferula-moschata-0
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=242321996

Ferula gummosa

Botanical Name : Ferula gummosa
Familia: Apiaceae
Subfamily: Apioideae
Genus: Ferula
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Apiales
Tribe: Scandiceae
Subtribes: Ferulinae
Species: Ferula gummosa

Synonyms : Ferula galbaniflua. Bioss.&Buhse.

Common Names: Galbanum
Vernacular names:-
Akan: Prekese
italiano: Galbano

Habitat :Ferula gummosa is native to W. Asia – Central Iran, Turkey and southern Russia. It grows on herbaceous slopes in steppes.

Description:
Ferula gummosa is a perennial herb growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 1 m (3ft 3in).
It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from Jun to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Flies.The plant is self-fertile.

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Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in most soils. Requires a deep fertile soil in a sunny position. This species is not hardy in the colder areas of the country, it tolerates temperatures down to between -5 and -10°c. Another report says that it tolerates temperatures down to at least -15°c and should therefore succeed outdoors in most parts of the country. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance due to their long taproot. They should be planted into their final positions as soon as possible. The flowers have an unpleasant smell.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as the seed is ripe in a greenhouse in autumn. Otherwise sow in April in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle. Plant them out into their permanent positions whilst still small because the plants dislike root disturbance. Give the plants a protective mulch for at least their first winter outdoors. Division in autumn. This may be inadvisable due to the plants dislike of root disturbance.
Edible Uses:
Edible Uses: Condiment…….The gum resin obtained from the root is used as a celery-like food flavouring.
Medicinal Uses:
The whole plant, but especially the root, contains the gum resin ‘galbanum‘. This is antispasmodic, carminative, expectorant and stimulant. It is used internally in the treatment of chronic bronchitis, asthma and other chest complaints. It is a digestive stimulant and antispasmodic, reducing flatulence, griping pains and colic. Externally it is used as a plaster for inflammatory swellings, ulcers, boils, wounds and skin complaints.

Other Uses:
The aromatic gum resin ‘Galbanum’ is obtained from wounds made in the stem. It is collected by removing soil from around the top of the root and then cutting a slice off the root and can also be obtained from incisions made in the stem. It is used medicinally and is also an ingredient of incense. It was an important ingredient of the incense used by the Israelites

Researches:
The whole plant, but especially the root, contains the gum resin “galbanum”. A study of the comparative effects of galbanum gum and two standard binding agents–polyvinylpyrolidone and acacia–on characteristics of acetaminophen and calcium carbonate compacts was made. The Ferula gummosa gum was extracted and its swelling index was determined. Acetaminophen and calcium carbonate granules were prepared using the wet granulation method and were evaluated for their micromeritics and flow properties, while the compacts were evaluated for mechanical properties using the hardness, tensile strength and friability. The drug release from acetaminophen compacts were assessed using dissolution studies. The dry powder of Ferula gummosa gum resin (galbanum) yielded 14% w/w of gum using distilled water as extraction solvent. The swelling index indicates that galbanum gum swelled to about 190% of initial volume in distilled water. Thus galbanum gum has the ability to hydrate and swells in cold water. The bulk and tapped densities and the interspace porosity (void porosity) percent of the granules prepared with different binders showed significant difference. The hardness and tensile strength of acetaminophen and calcium carbonate compacts containing various binders was of the rank order PVP > acacia > galbanum gum (p < 0.05) and the friability percent was of the reverse order (p < 0.05). The ranking for the dissolution rate of tablets containing the different binders was PVP> galbanum gum > acacia. The results of mechanical properties of acetaminophen and calcium carbonate compacts indicate that galbanum gum could be useful to produce tablets with desired mechanical characteristics for specific purposes, and could be used as an alternative substitute binder in pharmaceutical industries.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Ferula_gummosa
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ferula+gummosa
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22568044

Ferula conocaula

Botanical Name : Ferula conocaula
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Ferula
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Apiales
Habitat : Ferula conocaula is native to Central Asia. It grows on montane semi-deserts. Mountain valleys at elevations around 2800 metres in Tibet.
Description:
Ferula conocaula is a perennial monocarpic, strongly onion-scented plant. Stem solitary, very stout, up to 15 cm thick at base, tapering towards apex, hispid, paniculate-branched, branches thick, lower branches alternate, upper branches verticillate, purplish tinged with age. Basal leaves petiolate; blade triangular in outline, ternate-pinnatifid; ultimate segments lanceolate or lanceolate-elliptic, to 27 × 7 cm, finely crenate, adaxially glabrous, abaxially densely puberulous. Cauline leaves reduced with expanded sheaths, uppermost almost wholly sheathing. Terminal umbels often sessile or short-pedunculate, lateral umbels long-pedunculate, usually exceeding terminal; umbels 8–14 mm across; bracts absent; rays 12–50, subequal; bracteoles few, lanceolate, small, deciduous; umbellules ca. 15-flowered. Stylopodium low-conic, base dilated; styles elongate, recurved. Fruit ellipsoid, ca. 10 × 5 mm; vittae 1–2 in each furrow, 8–14 on commissure.

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It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it could succeed outdoors in some parts of this country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Succeeds in most soils. Prefers a deep fertile soil in a sunny position. Plants have a long taproot and are intolerant of root disturbance. They should be planted into their final positions as soon as possible. Monocarpic, the plant takes some years before it flowers and dies after flowering.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as the seed is ripe in a greenhouse in autumn[1]. Otherwise sow in April in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle. Plant them out into their permanent positions whilst still small because the plants dislike root disturbance. Give the plants a protective mulch for at least their first winter outdoors. Division in autumn. This may be inadvisable due to the plants dislike of root disturbance.
Medicinal Uses:
The gum resin, obtained from the roots, is anthelmintic, carminative, digestive and expectorant. It is used in the treatment of indigestion, dysentery, tumours, parasitic and anthelmintic infections. The essential oil in the resin can be expelled through the lungs and so is used in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis and whooping cough.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferula
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200015532
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ferula+conocaula

Ferula communis

Botanical Name : Ferula communis
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Ferula
Species: F. communis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Apiales

Synonyms : F. brevifolia. F. linkii. ,Ferula communis ‘Gigantea’

Common Names: Giant Fennel, Meeting seed

Habitat : Ferula communis is native to Europe – Mediterranean. It grows on dry hills, walls, waste ground and limestone, often in soils that are damp in the spring.
Description:
Ferula communis is a tall herbaceous perennial plant growing to 2.5 m (8ft) by 1 m (3ft 3in). It is found in Mediterranean and East African woodlands and shrublands. It was known in antiquity as Laser or narthex.It has big, pinnately divided large leaves and compound umbels of small white, yellow or purple flowers; that may die after flowering.

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It is not frost tender. It is in flower in June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Flies.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in most soils including dry ones according to one report whilst others say that it requires a deep moist fertile soil in a sunny position. Established plants are drought resistant. This species is hardy to about -10°c, possibly lower if the rootstock is mulched in the winter. A very ornamental plant, though the flowers have a most unpleasant rancid smell. Plants are often monoecious. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance due to their long taproot. They should be planted into their final positions as soon as possible. The sub-species brevifolia is the form used for its gum.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as the seed is ripe in a greenhouse in autumn. Otherwise sow in April in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle. Plant them out into their permanent positions whilst still small because the plants dislike root disturbance. Give the plants a protective mulch for at least their first winter outdoors. Division in autumn. This may be inadvisable due to the plants dislike of root disturbance.
Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Leaves. & Gums

Medicinal Uses:
One report says that the root yields a gum with medicinal properties but no details are are found in internet.

Other Uses :
Furniture; Gum; Miscellany; Tinder.

A gum ‘Gum Ammoniac‘ is obtained by notching the root. It is used as an incense[4], it also has medicinal value. The stems are used in furniture making. The dried pith is used as a tinder, it burns very slowly inside the stem and can thus be carried from one place to another.

Known Hazards: In Sardinia two different chemotypes of Ferula communis have been identified: poisonous (especially to animals like sheep, goats, cattle, and horses) and not-poisonous. They differ for both secondary metabolites pattern and enzymatic composition.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferula_communis#cite_note-4
https://www.rhs.org.uk/plants/details?plantid=791
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ferula+communis

Aconitum kusnezoffii

Botanical Name : Aconitum kusnezoffii
Family: Ranunculaceae
Subfamily: Ranunculoideae
Tribe: Aconiteae
Genus: Aconitum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales
Species: Aconitum kusnezoffii

Common Name: Bei Wu Tou

Habitat: Aconitum kusnezoffii is native to E. Asia – N. China, N. Japan in Kamtschatka, Korea and Siberia. It grows on grassy slopes, grasslands, forests, forest margins, by streams at elevations of 2200 – 2400 metres.

Description:

Aconitum kusnezoffii is a perennial plant growing to 1.5 m (5ft). usually branched, glabrous, with leaves equally arranged along stem.Root stocks are conical or carrot-shaped, 2.5–5 cm, 7–12 mm in diam. Proximal cauline leaves withered at anthesis, middle ones shortly to long petiolate; petiole 3–11 cm, glabrous; leaf blade pentagonal, 9–16 × 10–20 cm, papery or subleathery, abaxially glabrous, adaxially sparsely retrorse pubescent, base cordate, 3-sect; central segment rhombic, apex acuminate, subpinnately divided or lobed; lateral segments obliquely flabellate, unequally 2-parted. Inflorescence terminal, 9–22-flowered; rachis and pedicels glabrous; proximal bracts 3-fid, others oblong or linear. Proximal pedicels 1.8–3.5(–5) cm, with 2 bracteoles at middle or below; bracteoles linear or subulate-linear, 3.5–5 × ca. 1 mm. Sepals purple-blue, abaxially sparsely retrorse pubescent or nearly glabrous; lower sepals oblong, 1.2–1.4 cm; lateral sepals 1.4–1.6(–1.7) cm; upper sepal galeate or high galeate, 1.5–2.5 cm high, shortly or long beaked, lower margin ca. 1.8 cm. Petals glabrous; limb 3–4 mm wide; lip 3–5 mm; spur incurved or subcircinate, 1–4 mm. Stamens glabrous; filaments entire or 2-denticulate. Carpels (4 or)5, glabrous. Follicles erect, (0.8–)1.2–2 cm. Seeds ca. 2.5 mm.

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It is in flower from Jul to September. and are pollinated by Bees.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil
Cultivation:
Thrives in most soils and in the light shade of trees. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers a moist soil in sun or semi-shade. Prefers a calcareous soil. Grows well in open woodlands. Members of this genus seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits and deer. This species is closely related to A. yezoense. A greedy plant, inhibiting the growth of nearby species, especially legumes.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. The seed can be stratified and sown in spring but will then be slow to germinate. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer. Division – best done in spring but it can also be done in autumn. Another report says that division is best carried out in the autumn or late winter because the plants come into growth very early in the year.
Medicinal Uses:
The root is alterative, anaesthetic, antiarthritic, deobstruent, diaphoretic, diuretic, sedative and stimulant. This is a very poisonous plant and should only be used with extreme caution and under the supervision of a qualified practitioner.

Known Hazards : The whole plant is highly toxic – simple skin contact has caused numbness in some people.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Aconitum_kusnezoffii
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200007241
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Aconitum+kusnezoffii

Aconitum heterophyllum

Botanical Name : Aconitum heterophyllum
Family: Ranunculaceae
Tribe: Delphinieae
Genus: Aconitum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales

Synonyms:
Aruna, Ardra, Upavisa, Kasaya Krsna, Ghuna Vallabha, Candri, Pita Vallabha, Prati Visa, Bhangura, Madhya-deastha, Mahausadha, Madri, Mrdvi, Rakta, Visva, Visama, Visa,sisubhaisajya, Suka Kanda, Sukla Kanda, Srngika, Syama Kanda, sveta, Sveta Kanda, sveta vaca

Common Names:
Names in different languages:

Marathi……..Ati Vish
Persian………Vajjcturki
Punjabi……..Atis
Tamil…………Ati Vidayam
Telugu……….Ati Vasa
Bengali……..Ataich
English……….Indian Atees
Gujarati………Ativakhani Kali.
Hindi…………..Atis, Atvika
Kannada………Ati Visha
Malayalam…….Ati Vidayam

Habitat : Aconitum heterophyllum is native to E. Asia – W. Himalayas. Usually found on humus-rich soils in the alpine and subalpine zones, and in forests, 2300 – 2900 metres.
Description:
Aconitum heterophyllum is a perennial plant growing to 1.5 m (5ft). Roots, biennial, paired, tuberous; conical or cylindrical 4-10 cm long, 0.75-3 cm thick.Stem erect.Roots biennial, paired, tuberous; whitish or grey. Stem erect, simple or branched, from 15-20 cm high. glabrous below, finely crispo-pubescent in the upper part.

Leaves heteromorphous, glabrous: lowest on long petioles (13cm); blade orbicular- cordate or ovate-cordate in outline with a usually narrow sinus (1-1.5 cm deep); usually 5- lobed to the middle, amplexicaul.

Inflorescence slender raceme or a lax, leafy panicle, crispo-pubescent; Sepals bluish or violet (rarely whitish); navicular obliquely erect, shortly or obscurely beaked, 18-20 mm high, 8-9 mm wide. Carpels 5, elliptic-oblong. Follicles contagious, linear-oblong, straight, 16-18 mm long.

Seeds pyramidal, 3-4 mm long, blackish brown.

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It is in flower from Aug to September, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October. and are pollinated by Bees.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Thrives in most soils and in the light shade of trees. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers a moist soil in sun or semi-shade. Prefers a calcareous soil. Grows well in open woodlands. The roots of this plant are extensively collected from the wild for medicinal use and the species is becoming much rarer in many areas of its range. Members of this genus seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits and deer. A greedy plant, inhibiting the growth of nearby species, especially legumes.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. The seed can be stratified and sown in spring but will then be slow to germinate. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer. Division – best done in spring but it can also be done in autumn. Another report says that division is best carried out in the autumn or late winter because the plants come into growth very early in the year

Edible Uses: Leaves and root – cooked. This report should be treated with great distrust due to the poisonous nature of the genus, but see the notes  below on known hazards.

Chemical Constituents:
Atidine , hetisine, heteratisine ,Diterpene alkaloids , heterophylline, heterophylline ,heterophyllidine heterophyllisine, hetidine, atidine & ,Atisenol, a new entatisene diterpenoid lactone from roots.

F-dishydrçatisine, hetidine, hetisinone, heteratisine, hetisine, benzylleteratisine, beta —sitosterol, carotene and 3— isoatisine from rhizomes.

Medicinal Uses:
Analgesic; Antiinflammatory; Antiperiodic; Aphrodisiac; Astringent; Cholagogue; Febrifuge; Tonic.

The dried root is analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiperiodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, cholagogue, febrifuge and tonic. It is used in India in the treatment of dyspepsia, diarrhoea and coughs. It is also used in Tibetan medicine, where it is said to have a bitter taste and a cooling potency. It is used to treat poisoning from scorpion or snake bites, the fevers of contagious diseases and inflammation of the intestines. The root is best harvested in the autumn as soon as the plant dies down and is dried for later use. This is a very poisonous plant and should only be used with extreme caution and under the supervision of a qualified practitioner.

External uses:

The crushed eaves, mixed with saindhav are applied focally. The seeds crushed in honey are applied locally on throat, in tonsillitis. Nasal insufflations of roots is beneficial in headache (especially migraine).

Internal uses:

Respiratory system : The juice of roots along with milk is an expectorant Root powder is given orally in cervical lymphadenitis.

Digestive system : Seed and root are used in ascites. Seeds are laxative.

Urinary system : The seeds are diuretic, the root decoction reduces burning of urinary tract. It increases volume of urine,

Reproductive system : Root is used in sperrnatorrhoea. The decoction of roots is also used in burning of vagina.

Circulatory system : The juice of leaves along with juice of zingier reduce perspiration.

Known Hazards:  The whole plant is highly toxic – simple skin contact has caused numbness in some people. One report says that this plant does not contain the toxic alkaloid aconitine, and so is not poisonous. It does, however, still contain an intensely bitter alkaloid.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aconitum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Aconitum+heterophyllum
http://www.indianmedicinalplants.info/d2/Aconitum-heterophyllum(Ativisa%20).html

Aconitum gammiei


Botanical Name;
Aconitum gammiei
Family:
Ranunculaceae
Genus:Aconitum
Species:
Aconitum gammiei
Domain:
Eukaryotic
Kingdom
:Plantae
Division
:Tracheophyta
Class:
Magnoliopsida
Order:
Ranunculales

Synonyms:
*Aconitum wallichianum Lauener
*Aconitum huizenense TL Ming
*Aconitum Dissectum D. Don
Habitat : Aconitum gammiei is native to E. Asia – Himalayas. It grows on the alpine shrubberies and open slopes, 3300 – 4800 metres from C. Nepal to S.E. Tibet.

Description:
Aconitum gammiei is a perennial herb. Stem 75–100 cm tall, branched, basally retrorse pubescent, apically glabrous. Middle cauline leaves long petiolate; petiole to 6 cm; leaf blade subpentagonal, to 9 × 10 cm, both surfaces subglabrous, base cordate, 3-sect; central segment rhombic, pinnately parted to midvein, ultimate lobes narrowly triangular to linear; lateral ones obliquely flabellate, 3-sect. Inflorescence terminal, 6–9 cm, 3–5-flowered; rachis and pedicels glabrous; bracts leaflike. Pedicels 1.5–7.5 cm, with 2 bracteoles proximally or distally; bracteoles leaflike or lanceolate. Sepals blue-purple, glabrous abaxially; lower sepals elliptic; lateral sepals obliquely orbicular-obovate, 1.2–2 cm; upper sepal navicular-galeate, 1.8–2 cm high, 1.2–1.8 cm from base to beak, lower margin concave. Petals ca. 2.4 cm; limb ca. 1 cm, sparsely pubescent; lip ca. 5.5 mm. Stamens sparsely pubescent; filaments entire or 2-denticulate. Carpels 5, glabrous. The plant is polinated by bees and it blooms in September.

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Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by the native range of the plant it should succeed outdoors in many parts of the country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Thrives in most soils and in the light shade of trees. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers a moist soil in sun or semi-shade. Prefers a calcareous soil. Grows well in open woodlands. Members of this genus seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits and deer. A greedy plant, inhibiting the growth of nearby species, especially legumes.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. The seed can be stratified and sown in spring but will then be slow to germinate. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer. Division – best done in spring but it can also be done in autumn. Another report says that division is best carried out in the autumn or late winter because the plants come into growth very early in the year.
Medicinal Uses:
The root is stomachic. The juice of the roots is used in the treatment of stomach aches. This is a very poisonous plant and should only be used with extreme caution and under the supervision of a qualified practitioner.

Known Hazards: The whole plant is highly toxic – simple skin contact has caused numbness in some people.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://translate.google.com/translate?sl=auto&tl=en&js=y&prev=_t&hl=en&ie=UTF-8&u=https%3A%2F%2Fsv.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FAconitum_gammiei&edit-text=
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=3&taxon_id=242000026
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Aconitum+gammiei