Veronica chamaedrys

Botanical Name : Veronica chamaedrys
Family:    Plantaginaceae
Genus:    Veronica
Species: V. chamaedrys
Kingdom:  Plantae
Order:    Lamiales

Synonyms: Fluellin the Male. Veronique petit Chêne. Paul’s Betony. Eye of Christ. Angels’ Eyes. Cat’s Eye. Bird’s Eye. Farewell.

Common Names:  Germander speedwell, Bird’s-eye speedwell

Habitat :   Veronica chamaedrys is native to Europe and northern Asia. It is found on other continents as an introduced species.

Description:
Veronica chamaedrys is a herbaceous perennial plant with hairy stems and leaves. It can grow to 25 cm tall, but is normally about 12 cm tall. The flowers are deep blue, 8 to 12 mm wide with a zygomorphic (bilaterally-symmetrical) four-lobed corolla.This little plant has a creeping, branched root-stock, passing insensibly into the stem, which is weak and decumbent to the point where the leaves commence, and then raises itself about a foot, to carry up the flowers. The leaves are in pairs, nearly stalkless, 1/2 to 1 1/2 inches long, egg-shaped to heart-shaped, deeply furrowed by the veins, the margins coarsely toothed. On the whole length of the stem are two lines of long hairs running down between each pair of leaves, shifting from side to side wherever they arrive at a fresh pair of leaves. These hairy lines act as barriers to check the advance of unwelcome crawling insects. The leaves themselves bear jointed hairs, and the flower-stalks, calyx and capsule also have long, gland-tipped hairs. The leaves are sometimes attacked by a gall mite, Cecidomyia Veronica, and white galls like white buttons are the result on the ends of the shoots.
 CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The numerous flowers are in loose racemes, 2 to 6 inches long in the axils of the leaves, the flowers are rather close together on first expanding, but become distant after the fall of the corolla, which is 1/2 inch across, bright blue with darker lines, and a white eye in the centre, where the four petals join into the short tube. The corolla is so lightly attached that the least jarring causes it to drop, so that the plant at the slightest handling loses its bright blossom – hence, perhaps, its name Speedwell and similar local names, ‘Fare well’ and ‘Good-bye.’ The under lip of the corolla covers the upper in bud. The flower closes at night and also in rainy weather, when the brightness of the blossoms quite disappears, only the pale and pearly underside of its petals being visible.

Medicinal Uses:
Veronica chamaedrys herb has been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally (as tea) for treatment of disorders of the nervous system, respiratory tract, cardiovascular system, and metabolism.

Old writers of all countries speak highly of the virtues of the Speedwell as a vulnerary, a purifier of the blood, and a remedy in various skin diseases, its outward application being considered efficacious for the itch. It was also believed to cure smallpox and measles, and to be a panacea for many ills. Gerard recommends it for cancer, ‘given in good broth of a hen,’ and advocates the use of the root as a specific against pestilential fevers.

It is not to be confused with Germander (Teucrium chamaedrys), the celebrated specific for gout, used by the Emperor Charles V.

The Germander Speedwell has a certain amount of astringency, and an infusion of its leaves was at one time famous for coughs, the juice of the fresh plant also, boiled into a syrup with honey, was used for asthma and catarrh, and a decoction of the whole plant was employed to stimulate the kidneys.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Veronica_chamaedrys

http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/s/speger76.html

Ranunculus flammula

Botanical Name :Ranunculus flammula
Family:    Ranunculaceae
Genus:    Ranunculus
Species:  R. flammula
Kingdom:  Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class:   Magnoliopsida
Order:    Ranunculales

Common Names: Lesser spearwort or Banewort,  creeping crowfoot, creeping spearwort

Habitat : Ranunculus flammula is very common throughout Britain,(Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire Vermont) growing in wet and boggy parts of heaths and commons.(Floodplain (river or stream floodplains), forests, lacustrine (in lakes or ponds), marshes, riverine (in rivers or streams), shores of rivers or lakes, wetland margins (edges of wetlands)

 Description:
Ranunculus flammula is a species of perennial herbaceous plants in the genus Ranunculus (buttercup), growing in damp places throughout the Boreal Kingdom. The stems often root at the lower joints, being more or less horizontal to start with, but afterwards rising to a foot or more in height, being terminated by a few loose flower-bearing branches. It flowers June/July. The flowers are numerous, on long stalks, a light golden-yellow, 1/2 to 3/4 inch across. It has undivided, lanceolate (lance-shaped) leaves, the uppermost being the narrowest and smallest.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Flower petal color is yellow, the leaves are simple (lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets) they are alternate and there is one leaf per node along the stem, the edge of the leaf blade has teeth.

The fruit is dry but does not split open when ripe and the fruit length is 1.2–1.6 mm

Medicinal Uses: A tincture is used to cure ulcers.

Known Hazards: Ranunculus flammula is poisonous.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:

http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/s/spearw74.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ranunculus_flammula

https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/ranunculus/flammula/

Mentha rotundifolia

Botanical Name : Mentha rotundifolia
Family: Lamiaceae
Subfamily: Nepetoideae
Tribes: Mentheae
Subtribes: Menthinae
Genus: Mentha
Species: Mentha x rotundifolia
Kingdom     Plantae
Division:Magnoliophyta
Class: Angiospermae
Order: Lamiales

Synonyms: Egyptian Mint,

Common Names:Round-leaved Mint,False Apple-mint, Wollige mint

Mentha ◊rotundifolia (L.) Huds. (pro sp.) [longifolia ◊ suaveolens]

Habitat :Mentha rotundifolia is native to southern & western Europe.

Description:
Mentha rotundifolia is a perennial plant.The stem is sturdy  having the habit of M. sylvestris, but is more branched. The leaves are very broad, somewhat resembling those of Sage, dull green in colour and much wrinkled above, often densely woolly and whitish beneath. The flowers are pink or white, in tapering, terminal spikes. Flowering time is August to September.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
This species has somewhat the flavour of Spearmint, but is stronger. It is frequently found on the ruins of monasteries, the monks having used it for the languor following epileptic fits, as it was considered refreshing to the brain. It is sometimes found cultivated in cottage gardens under the name of Egyptian Mint.

Cultivation & propagation:
Seeds are swon in spring in a cold frame. Germination is usually fairly quick. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer. Mentha species are very prone to hybridisation and so the seed cannot be relied on to breed true. Even without hybridisation, seedlings will not be uniform and so the content of medicinal oils etc will vary. When growing plants with a particular aroma it is best to propagate them by division. Division can be easily carried out at almost any time of the year, though it is probably best done in the spring or autumn to allow the plant to establish more quickly. Virtually any part of the root is capable of growing into a new plant. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. However, for maximum increase it is possible to divide the roots up into sections no more than 3cm long and pot these up in light shade in a cold frame. They will quickly become established and can be planted out in the summer.

Edible Uses:
Leaves – raw or cooked. A strong spearmint flavour, they are used as a flavouring in salads or cooked foods, this is also the main species that is used to make mint sauce. A herb tea is made from the fresh or dried leaves.

In addition to being tasty, & having a smorgasbord of medicinal uses, the fuzzy leaves & rounded 2’ x 2’ form make a soothing textural mass that gently compliments its neighbors. Grow in a pot if you’re unwilling to mind the runners, as even a well behaved mint is still a mint, after all.

Medicinal Uses:
Mentha rotundifolia  like many other members of this genus, is often used as a domestic herbal remedy, being valued especially for its antiseptic properties and its beneficial effect on the digestion. Like other members of the genus, it is best not used by pregnant women because large doses can cause an abortion. A tea made from the leaves of most mint species has traditionally been used in the treatment of fevers, headaches, digestive disorders and various minor ailments. The leaves are harvested as the plant comes into flower and can be dried for later use. The essential oil in the leaves is antiseptic, though it is toxic in large doses.

Other Uses:
An essential oil is obtained from the whole plant. The plant repels insects and was formerly used as a strewing herb. Rats and mice intensely dislike the smell of mint. The plant was therefore used in homes as a strewing herb and has also been spread in granaries to keep the rodents off the grain.

Known hazards: Although no records of toxicity have been seen for this species, large quantities of some members of this genus, especially when taken in the form of the extracted essential oil, can cause abortions so some caution is advised.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:

http://www.naturalmedicinalherbs.net/herbs/m/mentha-x-villosa-alopecuroides=apple-mint.php

http://myfolia.com/plants/50984-mentha-rotundifolia-mentha-rotundifolia

https://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Mentha_x_rotundifolia?setlang=en

http://www.theplantencyclopedia.org/wiki/Mentha_rotundifolia

Mentha citrata

Botanical Name :Mentha citrata
Family:    Lamiaceae
Genus:    Mentha
Species:M. citrata
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:    Lamiales

Synonym: Mentha odorata.

Common Names: Bergamot mint, Eau-de-cologne Mint, Horsemint, Lemon Mint, Lime Mint, Orange Mint, Pineapple Mint, Su Nanesi, Water Mint, Wild Water Mint, Yerba Buena

Habitat : :Mentha citrata is found in wet places in Staffordshireand Wales, though very rarely, but is often cultivated in gardens.It is found  on the sides of ditches, roadsides etc in S. England.

Description:
Mentha citrata is a perennial herb, growing to a height of about a feet.The whole plant is smooth, dotted with yellow glands and is of a dark green colour, generally tinged with purple, especially the margins of the leaves, which are finelly toothed. There are very conspicuous lines of yellow glands on the purple calyx.It blooms during August to October.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

This Mint has a very pleasant, aromatic, lemon-like odour, somewhat resembling that of the Bergamot Orange, or that of the Oswego Tea (Monarda didyma), also called Bergamot, and its leaves like those of the latter can be employed in pot pourri.

Cultivation & Propagation: A natural hybrid, M. aquatica x M. spicata found in moist soils on the sides of ditches, roadsides etc in S. England.

Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Germination is usually fairly quick. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer. Mentha species are very prone to hybridisation and so the seed cannot be relied on to breed true. Even without hybridisation, seedlings will not be uniform and so the content of medicinal oils etc will vary. When growing plants with a particular aroma it is best to propagate them by division. Division can be easily carried out at almost any time of the year, though it is probably best done in the spring or autumn to allow the plant to establish more quickly. Virtually any part of the root is capable of growing into a new plant. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. However, for maximum increase it is possible to divide the roots up into sections no more than 3cm long and pot these up in light shade in a cold frame. They will quickly become established and can be planted out in the summer.

Edible Uses:
Leaves – raw or cooked. Used as a flavouring in salads or cooked foods. A very pungent flavour, the leaves of the true eau-de-cologne mint are too aromatic for most tastes, though the cultivar “Basil” has an excellent flavour and makes a very good substitute for basil in pesto. A herb tea is made from the fresh or dried leaves.

Medicinal Uses:
Mentha citrata or Eau de Cologne mint, like many other members of this genus, is often used as a domestic herbal remedy, being valued especially for its antiseptic properties and its beneficial effect on the digestion. Like other members of the genus, it is best not used by pregnant women because large doses can cause an abortion. The leaves and flowering plant are anodyne, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, cholagogue, diaphoretic, refrigerant, stomachic, tonic, vasodilator. A tea made from the leaves has traditionally been used in the treatment of fevers, headaches, digestive disorders and various minor ailments. The medicinal uses of this herb are more akin to lavender (Lavandula spp) than the mints. It is used to treat infertility, rapid heartbeat, nervous exhaustion etc. The leaves are harvested as the plant comes into flower and can be dried for later use. The essential oil in the leaves is antiseptic, though it is toxic in large doses.

A tea made from the fresh or dried leaves has traditionally been used:

*For stomach aches, nausea, parasites and other digestive disorders

*For nerves and sick stomach

*For fevers and headaches.

Other Uses: An essential oil obtained from the whole plant is a source of lavender oil which is used in perfumery. It is also used in oral hygiene preparations, toiletries etc. Formerly used as a strewing herb, the plant repels insects, rats etc. Rats and mice intensely dislike the smell of mint. The plant was therefore used in homes as a strewing herb and has also been spread in granaries to keep the rodents off the grain.

Known Hazards:  Although no specific mention has been seen for this sub-species, it should be noted that, in large quantities, the closely allied M. x piperita vulgaris can cause abortions, especially when used in the form of the extracted essential oil, so it should not be used by pregnant women.

Resources:

http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/m/mints-39.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mentha_citrata#Description

http://www.naturalmedicinalherbs.net/herbs/m/mentha-x-piperita-citrata=eau-de-cologne-mint.php

Water mint

Botanical Name : Mentha aquatica
Family:    Lamiaceae
Genus:    Mentha
Species:M. aquatica
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:    Lamiales

Synonyms: Mentha hirsuta Huds

Common Names : Water mint

Habitat :Water mint is native to much of Europe, northern Africa and western Asia. It has been introduced to North and South America, Australia and some Atlantic islands.It grows in damp places,swamps, fen, marshes, near rivers, streams and ponds, in wet woods.

Description:
Water mint is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 90 centimetres (35 in) tall. The stems are square in cross section, green or purple, and variably hairy to almost hairless. The rhizomes are wide-spreading, fleshy, and bear fibrous roots. The leaves are ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 2 to 6 centimetres (0.79 to 2.36 in) long and 1 to 4 centimetres (0.39 to 1.57 in) broad, green (sometimes purplish), opposite, toothed, and vary from hairy to nearly hairless. The flowers of the watermint are tiny, densely crowded, purple, tubular, pinkish to lilac in colour and form a terminal hemispherical inflorescence; flowering is from mid to late summer. Water mint is pollinated by insects, and also spreads by underground rhizomes, like other species of mint. All parts of the plant have a distinctly minty smell. A variety known as Mentha aquatica var. litoralis is native to areas of Sweden and Finland near the Baltic Sea. It is unbranched, hairless, with narrower leaves and paler flowers.

CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Succeeds in most soils and situations so long as the soil is not too dry. Grows well in heavy clay soils. A sunny position is best for production of essential oils, but it also succeeds in partial shade. Plants can grow in water up to 15cm deep. Most mints have fairly aggressive spreading roots and, unless you have the space to let them roam, they need to be restrained by some means such as planting them in containers that are buried in the soil. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. The whole plant, especially when bruised, has a pungent aroma of bergamot. The flowers are especially attractive to bees and butterflies. A good companion for brassicas. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation  :       
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Germination is usually fairly quick. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer. Mentha species are very prone to hybridisation and so the seed cannot be relied on to breed true. Even without hybridisation, seedlings will not be uniform and so the content of medicinal oils etc will vary. When growing plants with a particular aroma it is best to propagate them by division. Division can be easily carried out at almost any time of the year, though it is probably best done in the spring or autumn to allow the plant to establish more quickly. Virtually any part of the root is capable of growing into a new plant. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. However, for maximum increase it is possible to divide the roots up into sections no more than 3cm long and pot these up in light shade in a cold frame. They will quickly become established and can be planted out in the summer.

Edible Uses: Edible Parts: Leaves.
Used as Condiment &  Tea.

Leaves – raw or cooked. A strong distinctive peppermint-like fragrance. Used as a flavouring in salads or cooked foods. The leaves are too pungent for most people to use as a flavouring. A herb tea is made from the leaves

Medicinal Uses:
Water mint is Emetic, stimulant and astringent. Used in herbal medicine in diarrhoea and as an emmenagogue, the infusion of 1 OZ. of the dried herb to 1 pint of boiling water being taken in wineglassful doses.

In severe cold and influenza, or in any complaint where it is necessary to set up perspiration and in all inflammatory complaints, internal or external, the tea made from this plant may be taken warm as freely as the patient pleases. It can be used in conjunction with stomach remedies and in difficult menstruation. A strong infusion is inclined to be emetic.

A decoction of Water Mint prepared with vinegar is recommended to stop blood vomiting.

Other Uses:
Repellent;  Strewing.

The plant repels flies, mice and rats. It has a pleasant, fresh scent and was formerly used as a strewing herb and has been strewn in granaries to keep mice and rats off the grain. The plant, harvested before flowering, yields about 0.8% essential oil[240]. The fresh or dried plant is very good when used in herbal baths and can also be used in herb pillows.

Known Hazards: Although no records of toxicity have been seen for this species, large quantities of some members of this genus, especially when taken in the form of the extracted essential oil, can cause abortions so some caution is advised.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/m/mints-39.html#wil

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mentha_aquatica

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Mentha+aquatica

Wild mint

Botanical Name :Mentha sativa
Kingdom
: Plantae
Order:  
 Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus:   
 Mentha

Synonyms: Water Mint or Marsh Mint. Whorled Mint. Hairy Mint.

Common Name :Wild mint, Mentha longifolia , Horse Mint;

Habitat:Mentha sativa is very  Common in Britain and found all over temperate and Northern Europe and Russian Asia. It prefers marshy land to grow well.

Description:
Mentha sativa is a rather coarse perennial herb, it grows to  1 to 1 1/2 feet high; leaves conspicuously stalked, ovate or oval-ovate, or oval-rounded or wedge-shaped at the base, subacute or acute serrate or crenate serrate, more or less hairy on both sides; flowers in whorls, usually all separate, beginning about or below the middle of the stem; bracts large, similar to leaves, sometimes the upper ones minute, uppermost ones often without flowers; bracteoles strap-shaped, subulate, hairy, shorter than flowers; pedicels hairy, rarely glabrous; calyx hairy, campanulate-cylindrical; teeth triangular, acuminate, half the length of tube, bristly, hairy; corolla scarcely twice as long as the calyx, hairy without and within; nucules rough with small points.

Medicinal:
The herb is considered to have emetic, stimulant, and astringent qualities, and is used in diarrhoea and as an emmenagogue. The infusion of 1 OZ. of the dried herb to 1 pint of boiling water is taken in wineglassful doses.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:

http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/m/mints-39.html#wil

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peppermint

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mentha_sylvestris

Spearmint

Botanical Name :Mentha viridis
Family: Lamiaceae
Subfamily: Nepetoideae
Tribe:     Mentheae
Genus:     Mentha
Species: M. spicata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:     Lamiales

Synonyms :Mentha spicata, Garden Mint. Mentha Spicata. Mackerel Mint. Our Lady’s Mint. Green Mint. Spire Mint. Sage of Bethlehem. Fish Mint. Menthe de Notre Dame. Erba Santa Maria. Frauen Munze. Lamb Mint.

Common Names : Spearmint or spear mint , Mentha  crispa

Habitat : Spearmint  is native to Eaurope and Iceland, but has become naturalized in other parts of the world. It is naturalized throughout the United States and Canada.It is an invasive species in the Great Lakes region of North America, where it was first sighted in 1843.

Description:
Spearmint is a herbaceous, rhizomatous, perennial plant growing 30–100 cm tall, with variably hairless to hairy stems and foliage, and a wide-spreading fleshy underground rhizome. The leaves are 5–9 cm long and 1.5–3 cm broad, with a serrated margin. The stem is square-shaped, a trademark of the mint family of herbs. Spearmint produces flowers in slender spikes, each flower pink or white, 2.5–3 mm long, and broad.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Hybrids involving spearmint include Mentha × piperita (peppermint; hybrid with Mentha aquatica), Mentha × gracilis (ginger mint, syn. M. cardiaca; hybrid with Mentha arvensis), and Mentha × villosa (large apple mint, hybrid with Mentha suaveolens).

The name ‘spear’ mint derives from the pointed leaf tips.

Cultivation:
Spearmint grows well in nearly all temperate climates. Gardeners often grow it in pots or planters due to its invasive, spreading rhizomes. The plant prefers partial shade, but can flourish in full sun to mostly shade. Spearmint is best suited to loamy soils with abundant organic material.

Edible Uses:
Spearmint leaves can be used fresh, dried, or frozen. They can also be preserved in salt, sugar, sugar syrup, alcohol, or oil. The leaves lose their aromatic appeal after the plant flowers. It can be dried by cutting just before, or right (at peak) as the flowers open, about one-half to three-quarters the way down the stalk (leaving smaller shoots room to grow). Some dispute exists as to what drying method works best; some prefer different materials (such as plastic or cloth) and different lighting conditions (such as darkness or sunlight).

Medicinal Uses:
Constituents: The chief constituent of Spearmint oil is Carvone. There are also present Phellandrine, Limonene and dihydrocarveol acetate. Esters of acetic, butyric and caproic or caprylic acids are also present. (An Ester is a combination of an alcohol with an acid, the combination being associated with the elimination of water. The esters are highly important and in many cases dominant constituents of numerous essential oils, which owe their perfume largely, or in some cases entirely, to the esters contained. Many of the esters are used as flavouring or perfumery agents, and many are among the most important constituents of volatile salts.)

There are several different essential oils known under the name of Spearmint oil, the botanical origin of the plant used for distillation differing with the country in which the plant is grown. In the United States and in this country several varieties of M. viridis are distilled. In Russia the plant distilled is M. verticellata, and in Germany either M. longifolia, or more generally M. aquatica var. crispa – a plant cultivated in Northern Germany, the oil (called there Krausemünzöl) being imported into this country as German Spearmint oil. It appears to be identical with that from M. viridis. Oil of Spearmint is little distilled in England, either German oil or American oil distilled from M. viridis being imported.

The carminative, antispasmodic, and stimulant properties of spearmint are somewhat inferior to those of peppermint; its principal employment is for its diuretic and febrifuge virtues. As a febrifuge, it is superior to peppermint, and may be used freely in warm infusion. The cold infusion is beneficial in high color, or scalding of urine, difficult micturition, etc.; it may be used alone or in combination with marshmallow root. In fact, it is one of the best of simple diuretics, and acts nicely with potassium acetate. A saturated tincture of the fresh herb with gin has been found serviceable in gonorrhoea, strangury, suppressed urine, gravel, and as a local application to painful hemorrhoids. The oil is diuretic, stimulant, antispasmodic, and rubefacient, and is used externally in rheumatic and other pains. Dose, same as peppermint.

Other Uses :  Spearmint is often cultivated for its aromatic and carminative oil, referred to as oil of spearmint. The most abundant compound in spearmint oil is R-(–)-carvone, which gives spearmint its distinctive smell. Spearmint oil also contains significant amounts of limonene, dihydrocarvone, and 1,8-cineol. Unlike peppermint oil, oil of spearmint contains minimal amounts of menthol and menthone. It is used as a flavoring for toothpaste and confectionery, and is sometimes added to shampoos and soaps.

Known Hazards:To much use for some persons may cause Scanty secretion of urine with frequent desire to urinate; simple nausea.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spearmint

http://www.henriettes-herb.com/eclectic/kings/mentha-viri.html

http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/m/mints-39.html#spe

Oxyria reniformis

Botanical Name : Oxyria reniformis
Family:    Polygonaceae (Knotweed family)
Genus:    Oxyria
Species:O. digyna
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:   Caryophyllales

Synonyms: Oxyria digyna, Rumex digynus, Rheum digynum, Oxyria reniformis

Common name: Mountain Sorrel, Wood sorrel, Alpine sorrel, Alpine mountainsorrel • Ladakhi, Lamanchu,Chu-lchum.

Habitat : Oxyria reniformis is native to Arctic regions and mountainous parts of the northern hemisphere.It grows in high mountains in many parts of the world.

Description;
Oxyria reniformis is a perennial plant with a tough taproot that grows to a height of 10 to 30 cm (4 to 12 in). It grows in dense tufts, with stems that are usually unbranched and hairless. Both flowering stems and leaf stalks are somewhat reddish. The leaves are kidney-shaped, somewhat fleshy, on stalks from the basal part of the stem. Flowers are small, green and later reddish, and are grouped in an open upright cluster. The fruit is a small nut, encircled by a broad wing which finally turns red. Forming dense, red tufts, the plant is easily recognized. Oxyria digyna grows in wet places protected by snow in winter. Oxyria (from Greek) means “sour”. CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Mountain Sorrel is commonly found on open slopes and grazing grounds of the Himalayas, from Pakistan to SW China, at altitudes of 2400-5000 m. Flowering: May-July.

Edible Uses: The above parts of the plant  are cooked & eaten. , It can be used in salads.It is called qunguliq in Inuktitut.

Medicinal Uses:
The leaves of Oxyria reniformis have a fresh acidic taste and are rich in vitamin C, containing about 36 mg/100g. They were used by the Inuit to prevent and cure scurvy.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Mountain%20Sorrel.html

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxyria_reniformis

http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/s/sormou66.html

Polygonum hydropiper

Botanical Name : Polygonum hydropiper
Family: Polygonaceae
Genus:     Persicaria
Species: P. hydropiper
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:     Caryophyllales

Synonyms:Persicaria hydropiper, Water Pepper. Biting Persicaria. Bity Tongue. Arcmart. Pepper Plant. Smartass. Ciderage. Red Knees. Culrage. Bloodwort. Arsesmart.

Common Names: Water-pepper or water pepper,Smartweed
Habitat:Polygonum hydropiper is a native of most parts of Europe, in Russian Asia to the Arctic regions. It occurs in Great Britain and Ireland, rarer in Scotland. It is a cosmopolitan plant, found in Australia, New Zealand, temperate Asia, Europe, and North America. It is  found abundantly in places that are under water during the winter.
Description:
Water pepper is an annual herb with branched stem, 2 to 3 feet in length, creeps at first, then becomes semi-erect. The leaves are alternate and almost stalkless. The leaf blades are narrowly ovate and have entire margins fringed by very short hairs. They are tapering with a blunt apex. Each leaf base has stipules which are fused into a stem-enclosing sheath that is loose and fringed at the upper end. The inflorescence is a nodding spike. The perianth of each tiny flower consists of four or five segments, united near its green base and white or pink at the edges. There are six stamens, three fused carpels and three styles. The fruit is black and dotted,dark brown oval,  as long as the perianth, three-sided and nut-like. The leaves have a pungent, acrid, bitter taste (something like peppermint), which resides in the glandulat dots on its surface, no odour. The fruit is a dark brown oval, flattened nut.
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Edible Uses:
In Japan this plant’s leaves are used as a vegetable – these are from the cultivar, not the wild type which has a far more pungent taste. Wild waterpepper produces oils that cause skin irritation, and the many acids in its tissues, including formic acid, make the plant unpalatable to livestock. Young red sprouts are used as a sashimi garnish, and are known as beni-tade ( red water pepper). Though livestock do not eat the wild type, some insects do, giving rise to the Japanese saying Tade ku mushi mo suki zuki, Some insects eat water pepper and like it), which may be translated as “There is no accounting for taste.” or more narrowly “Some prefer nettles.”

The seeds of the water-pepper may be added to wasabi.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts Used:  Whole herb and leaves.

Constituents: Water-pepper has several active ingredients. Two bicyclic sesquiterpenoids are present, polygodial (tadeonal, an unsaturated dialdehyde with a drimane backbone) and waburganal, which has been found responsible for the pungent taste (hence its edibility). The plant also contains rutin, a source of the bitter taste impression.

The plant contains an essential oil (0.5%) which consists of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids: alpha-pinene, bita-pinene, 1,4-cineol, fenchone,  alpha-humulene, bita-caryophyllene, trans-bita-bergamotene. Carboxylic acids (cinnamic, valeric and caproic acid) and their esters were present in traces. The composition depends strongly on genetic factors.

Stimulant, diuretic, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, efficacious in amenorrhoea. A cold water infusion is useful in gravel, colds and coughs.

In combination with tonics and gum myrrh, it is said to have cured epilepsy – probably dependent on some uterine derangement. The infusion in cold water, which may be readily prepared from the fluid extract, has been found serviceable in gravel, dysentery, gout, sore mouths, colds and coughs, and mixed with wheat bran, in bowel complaints. Antiseptic and desiccant virtues are also claimed for it. The fresh leaves, bruised with those of the Mayweed (Anthemis Cotula), and moistened with a few drops of oil of turpentine, make a speedy vesicant.

Simmered in water and vinegar, it has proved useful in gangrenous, or mortified conditions. The extract, in the form of infusion or fomentation, has been beneficially applied in chronic ulcers and haemorrhoidal tumours, also as a wash in chronic erysipetalous inflammations, and as a fomentation in flatulent colic.

A hot decoction made from the whole plant has been used in America as a remedy for cholera, a sheet being soaked in it and wrapped round the patient immediately the symptoms start.

In Mexico, the infusion is used not only as a diuretic, but also put into the bath of sufferers from rheumatism.

A fomentation of the leaves is beneficial for chronic ulcers and haemorrhoids – in tympanitis and flatulent colic, and as a wash in chronic inflammatory erysipelas.

It was once held that a few drops of the juice put into the ear would destroy the worms that it was believed caused earache.

There is a tradition, quoted in old Herbals, that if a handful of the plant be placed under the saddle, a horse is enabled to travel for some time without becoming hungry or thirsty, the Scythians having used this herb (under the name of Hippice) for that purpose.

It was an old country remedy for curing proud flesh in the sores of animals. Culpepper tells us also that ‘if the Arsemart be strewed in a chamber, it will soon kill all the fleas.’

The root was chewed for toothache – probably as a counter-irritant – and the bruised leaves used as a poultice to whitlows.

A water distilled from the plant, taken in the quantity of a pint or more in a day, has been found serviceable in gravel and stone.

The expressed juice of the freshly gathered plant has been found very useful in jaundice and the beginning of dropsies, the dose being from 1 to 3 tablespoonfuls.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/s/smartw54.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polygonum_hydropiper

Odontoma

Definition:
Odontoma is a benign tumor that usually forms at the root of a tooth. It may have genetic origins or may result from some sort of trauma to the tooth.
It  is a hamartoma of odontogenic origin.The average age of people found with an odontoma is 14, and the condition is frequently associated with an unerupted tooth…..CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

There are two types: compound and complex.

A compound odontoma still has the three separate dental tissues (enamel, dentin and cementum), but may present a lobulated appearance where there is no definitive demarcation of separate tissues between the individual “toothlets” (or denticles). It usually appears in the anterior maxilla.

 

The complex Odontoma is unrecognizable as dental tissues, usually presenting as a radioopaque area with varying densities. It usually appears in the posterior maxilla or in the mandible.

In 2011; 66% of odontogenic tumors are odontomas (University of Louisville School of Dentistry). 22% of odontogenic tumors are odontomas.

In July of 2014 in Mumbai, India, surgeons at Mumbai’s JJ Hospital removed 232 tooth-like growths from a complex odontoma growing in the lower jaw of 17 year old Ashik Gavai. This odontoma is proposed as “The World Record” to date.

Symptoms:

The most common symptoms are:Pain,Rash,Diarrea,Headache,Back pain,Constipation,Fever,Caugh,Runing nose,Vision change.

The list of signs and symptoms mentioned in various sources for Odontoma includes the 6 symptoms listed below:

*Dysphagia ( Dysphagia is difficulty in swallowing.There are about 194 causes of Dysphagia, including diseases and drug side effect causes.)
*Lump on gums
*Delayed tooth eruption (It is a condition in which there is a slow or late development of a tooth. There are about  60 causes of Delayed tooth eruption)
*Absent tooth
*Delayed primary tooth loss
*Increased bone size under tooth

Causes:
There are several causes of odontoma, some of them are :

*Dental conditions(Any condition that affects dental organs such as the teeth and gums. Examples of dental conditions include tooth decay, tooth infection, gingivitis, periodontitis, impacted tooth and canker sores)

*Oral conditions(Any condition affecting the mouth. Mouth conditions can affect any structure of the mouth such as teeth, gums, lips, tongue and cheeks. Conditions that can affect the mouth include candidiasis, oral cancer, stuttering, cleft palate, bad breath and gingivitis. )

*Head conditions(Any condition affecting the head. Some head conditions can be serious such as cancers and skull fractures whereas other conditions may be less threatening such as headaches and head lice)

*Benign tumors (A benign tumor is one that does not spread or “metastasize” to other parts of the body; a “malignant tumor” is one that does. A benign tumor is caused by cell overgrowth, and thus is different from a cyst or an abcess,)

Diagnosis:
Odontoma does not usually show external symptoms. These tumors are revealed when the x-rays are examined by the dentist. Although it is true that a delayed tooth or absent tooth may suggest there is a need for further examination.

The presence of an a tumor of dental origin requires further examination to determine what type of tumor it is before further action is taken. In addition, a histological diagnosis of the tissues that were extracted provides valuable information to the dentist.

No one really knows why an odontoma forms. The most likely reasons are trauma and/or infection at the site. Some dentists and researchers believe they are hereditary or they develop because of genetic mutations. One example of an inherited syndrome is known as Gardener Syndrome. It is responsible for a wide range of tumors in the body, including occasional odontoma.  When examined at the cellular level, all of the dental tissues are found, but in an abnormal combination.

Pulp, dentin, enamel and cementum may sometimes resemble a tooth like structure in a compound odontoma. These denticles are found in a surrounding supporting layer of fibrous cells. Since it is decalcified, the enamel looks like spaces around the tiny tooth structures.   Looking closer, you can see the calicified material either as a solid mass or as multiple, small tooth-like bodies visible by x-rays. Because it is easily separated from its bony location it can be distinguished from other possible tumors.

A complex odontoma has no specific sequence for all of the dental tissue. It does not resemble normal tooth structure. At the cellular level it appears as mostly tubular dentin that encloses hollow spaces. These circular spaces are decalcified but they once held enamel. On the edges there may be a thin layer of cementum which forms a capsule like tissue surrounding the mass.

Treatment :
The only real treatment of an these dental tumors is removal by surgery. An early discovery and treatment will be beneficial to the patient. It is a benign tumor made of dental tissue and it is a fairly simple extraction in most cases. A speedy recovery is generally expected.  Some complex tumors can result in complications after extraction. So it is essential to stay in contact with the dental surgeon.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odontoma

http://www.allhealthsite.com/odontoma.html

http://www.rightdiagnosis.com/o/odontoma/intro.