Arrowtooth eel

Bionomical Name: Synaphobranchus kaupii
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Anguilliformes
Family: Synaphobranchidae
Genus: Synaphobranchus
Species: S. kaupii

Synaphobranchus kaupi Johnson, 1862
Nettophichthys retropinnatus Holt, 1891

Common Names:Arrowtooth eel, Kaup’s cut-throat eel, the Gray’s cutthroat, the Longnosed eel, the Northern cutthroat eel, or the Slatjaw cutthroat eel

Habitat:Arrowtooth eel is a marine, deep water-dwelling eel which is known from the Indo-Western Pacific and eastern and western Atlantic Ocean, including the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Cape Verde, the Western Sahara, Nigeria, Namibia, South Africa, Greenland, France, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the United Kingdom, Ireland, the Philippines, Portugal, Spain, the Bahamas, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, Japan, Australia, Mauritania, Morocco, and Hawaii. It dwells at a depth range of 120 to 4,800 metres (390 to 15,750 ft), most often between 400 to 2,200 metres (1,300 to 7,200 ft), and inhabits the upper abyssal zone on the continental slope. It is intolerant of the temperatures of higher waters. Males can reach a maximum total length of 100 centimetres (39 in).

Arrowtooth eel may refer to several species of cutthroat eels:

*Shortbelly eel, Dysomma anguillare
*Deepwater arrowtooth eel, Histiobranchus bathybius
*Kaup’s arrowtooth eel, Synaphobranchus kaupii
*Muddy arrowtooth eel, Ilyophis brunneus
*Pignosed arrowtooth eel, Dysomma brevirostre


Edible Uses:
Arrowtooth eel is edible.Different people eat in different ways of cooking.

It is mostly fried, pickled or smoked.
It is used in Japanese and Korean cuisine.

Nutritional value:
159 grams of cooked Eel fish is loaded with 375 calories, 94.3 grams of moisture, 37.6 grams of protein, 23.77 grams of total lipid fat and 2.86 grams of ash. Rich in nutrients, it grants 258.29% of Vitamin A, 191.67% of Vitamin B12, 103.65% of isoleucine, 103.23% of lysine, 95.68 % of tryptophan, 93.69% of threonine, 91.71% of valine, 89.85% of histidine, 82.68 % of leucine, 75.20% of protein, 67.91% of total lipid fat, 62.86% of phosphorus, 44.59% of niacin, 30.09% of zinc, 24.25% of thiamin, 24% of selenium, 12.75% of iron and 11.81% of potassium.

Health benefits of Eel fish:
Mostly it is consumed in Europe, United States, Korea, Japan, New Zealand, China and other countries as well. Aside from its distinct flavor, it offers various health benefits. Eel fish helps to lower cholesterol, blood pressure and chances of arthritis. It enhances the development of brain, good eyesight and functions of nervous system.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Fruits & Vegetables


Botanical Name: Passiflora ligularis/quadrangularis
Family: Passifloraceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malpighiales
Genus: Passiflora
Species: P. ligularis

Common Names: Granadilla or Sweet granadilla

Habitat: Granadilla is native to the Andes Mountains, mainly Peru, including Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela. It grows as far south as northern Argentina and as far north as Mexico. Outside of its native range it grows in the tropical mountains of Africa and Australia (where they are known as passionfruit or Granadilla), and is now common in local markets of Papua New Guinea, where it is known as ‘sugar fruit’. It likes climates ranging from 15° to 18 °C and between 600 and 1000 mm of annual rain. It lives at altitudes ranging from 1700 to 2600 meters above sea level.They It is grown in Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico and Peru; granadilla común in Guatemala; granadilla de China or parcha dulce in Venezuela and granaditta in Jamaica.

Granadilla is an evergreen climbing shrub, producing stems of up to 5 meters long. The stems scramble over the ground or clamber into the surrounding vegetation, attaching themselves by means of coiling tendrils. It is a herbaceous vine capable of growing to 10-15 m long. The leaves are broad to ovate or oblong to ovate; 3 ¼- 6 inch (8.25-15 cm) wide; 4-8 inch (10-20 cm) long, smooth and bright green. The flower is campanulate, white tinged with pink or purple, filamentous and 7-10 cm in diameter. The fruit is oblong, 20-30 cm long and 10-20 cm wide that contain numerous seeds. Seeds are flattened to oval, 7-10 mm long and purplish to brown. Fruit has white or pink flesh which is 1-1 1/2 inch (2.5-4 cm) thick.

Granadilla have abundant, simple leaves and greenish-white flowers. The fruit is orange to yellow colored with small light markings. It has a round shape with a tip ending in the stem. The fruit is between 6.5 and 8 cm long and between 5.1 and 7 cm in diameter. The outer shell is hard and slippery, and has soft padding on the interior to protect the seeds. The seeds, which are hard and black, are surrounded by a gelatinous sphere of transparent pulp.


Edible Uses: The fruit pulp is the edible part of the fruit and has a soft sweet taste. It is very aromatic and contains vitamins A, C, and K, phosphorus, iron, and calcium. The main producers are Peru, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Brazil (where it is known as maracujá doce or “sweet passion fruit”), South Africa, Rwanda and Kenya. The main importers are the United States, Canada, Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain.

Medicinal Uses & health benefits:
Traditional uses:
*In tropics, the fruit is used as stomachic and antiscorbutic.
*In Brazil, flesh is used to provide relief from nervous headache, diarrhea, asthma, dysentery, insomnia and neurasthenia.
*The decoction made from leaves is used as a vermifuge and treats skin disorder.
*The poultice made from leaf is used for liver complaints.
*Unripe fruits are consumed as vegetable.
*Flowers are used to make syrup.
*It is used to treat headaches, diarrhea, asthma, dysentery, insomnia and neurasthenia.
*The fruit is used to provide relief from stomachic and scurvy.
*The leaf extract helps to treat intestinal problems.
*Traditionally, Giant granadilla is used to treat menstrual pain and dysentery.
*The extract of Giant granadilla flower and hawthorn helps to treat congestive heart failure.
*The mixture of Giant granadilla flower and hawthorn berries helps to lower the digestive problems such as colitis and gastritis.
*The fruit juice is used as eyewash to aid sore eyes.
*An infusion or tincture made from dried leaves is an aid for insomnia.
*The homeopathic practitioners use it as a treatment for whooping cough and asthma.

*One should consult a doctor before eating this fruit.
*The side effects such as vomiting, nausea, rapid heartbeat and drowsiness might be experienced.
*Pregnant women should not consume Giant granadilla because it possesses the substances which promote the uterus contraction.
*The flower of Giant granadilla raises the effect of herbals and drugs that enhance sleepiness.
*It promotes the blood thinning effect of antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Fruits & Vegetables

Governor’s Plum

Botanical Name:Flacourtia indica
Family: Salicaceae
Order: Malpighiales
Genus: Flacourtia
Species: F. indica

Synonyms: Flacourtia ramontchi

Common Names: Governor’s plum, Ramontchi, Batoko plum, Madagascar plum and Indian plum

Names in Other Languages:
Spanish: ciruela de Madagascar, ciruela de gobernador, ciruela gobernadora;
French: marromse, grosse prune-café, jujube Malgache, prune pays, prunier d’Inde, prunier de Madagascar, Flacourtie d’Inde;
China: ci li mu; nuo nuo guo, Cìzi,Dà gu? cì lí mù, Sh?n l?z? , Nuó nuó gu? , Mù gu?n gu?, Xì xiáng lè gu?, Y? l?z?
Germany: Batokopflaume, Madagaskar-Pflaumenbaum, Echte Flacourtie, Ramontchi;
Hungary: batokószilva, maronszilva, kormányzószilva, ramoncsi;
India: bilangra, kandai, cottaikkalaa, katai, kondari, kondai, kukai, sottaikala, kurumuli;
Indonesia: duri rukem, rukem minced, rukam sepat;
Japan: ramonchii, indo rukamu ;
Kenya: mgo, mkingii, michongoma, mkingili, ngovigovi, mugovigovi;
Laos: mak keng, mak ken;
Myanmar: nayuwai;
Philippines: bitongol, palutan, bolong;
Portugal: ameixa da Mauricia, cerezo del gobernador, ameixa de Madagascar;
Sri Lanka: uguressa;
Thailand: ta khop pa, ma kwen pa;
Zimbabwe: munhunguru, mutudza, mutombototo, mutunguru;
Hindi: bilangada, bilangra, ibalaanagara, kañcu;
Marathi: athruna, ambut ,
Tamil: cottai-k-kala, Cottaikkalaa, Sottaikala, Mutunguru, sottaikala;
Malayalam: Kurumuli, Cherumullikkachedi, Aghori, Karimulli, Karkkadappazham, Kodumundi, Kattukara, Mullikkachedi, ramontchi, Oushadakkara, Vayankkaitha, Karimulli
Konkani: babhuli tambat
Sanskrit: shruvavrikksha, Vikankata;
Veitnamese: ân do, muôn quân;
Afrikaans: Goewerneurspruim;
Burmese: Naywe, Nayuwai;
Laotian: Mak keng, Mak ken;
Shona: Munhunguru, Munhunguru, Mududwe, Mutombototo, Mutunguru, Mutudza;
Sinhalese: Uguressa;
Swahili: Mchongoma, Mgo, Michongoma, Mkingii, Mkingili, Mkingila, Ngovigovi, Mugovigovi;
Bengali: Bincha, Bewich, Bainchi;
Burmese: Nayuwai, Naywe;
Laotian: Mak ken, Mak keng

Habitat: Governor’s plum is native to much of Africa and tropical and temperate parts of Asia. F. indica and F. ramontchi are sometimes treated as separate species.

Governor’s plum is a bushy shrub or tree with a spiny trunk and branches. In shrub form it grows up to 25 feet (7.6 m) and as a tree it reaches a maximum height around 50 feet (15 m). The drooping branches bear oval leaves. The seeds are dispersed by birds. The fruit contains ten small seeds having a fleshy inner part which is white or yellow. Usually the fruit is green and it turns purple when it got ripened. It has sweet taste with light acidic tang.
Bark is Rough, pale, powdery, grey, brown, Spines are Spiny, drooping, Leaf is Elliptic, ovate to round, scalloped or toothed, Length: 2.5-5 cm


*Flowering Season :December-April
*Flower : Inconspicuous, greenish to yellow
*Sepals : 5 to 6, ovate, acute-rounded, pubescent, Length and Breadth: 1.5-2.5 mm; white; Diameter: 5 mm

The family Salicaceae includes well-known species such as kei apple (Dovyalis caffra) louvi (Flacourtia inermis), paniala (F. jangomas), and rukam (F. rukam).

The plant is known as an occasionally invasive introduced species in some areas. It has been cultivated in Florida in the United States and today it occurs as a weed in some parts of the state.

Edible Uses:
Governor’s plum fruit itself is a pome about an inch thick and red ripening purple. It is very fleshy and has 6 to 10 seeds in layered carpels. The pulp is yellow or white and sweet with an acidic tang.

*Fruits are consumed raw or stewed.
*It is used to make jellies and jams.
*Ripe fruits are dried and kept for later use.
*It is used to make wines, jelly, preserves or jam.
*The pulp is also used in pie and cakes.

Medicinal Uses:
Most parts of the plant are used for cough, pneumonia, and bacterial throat infection. It has also been used for diarrhea.

Traditional uses:
*The roots and leaves help to treat snakebite.
*The bark is an effective treatment for arthritis.
*It is a cure for cough, bacterial throat infection and pneumonia.
*The bark is used to treat intermittent fever.
*The bark infusion is used as a gargle for the hoarseness.
*It is used for parturition as a tonic and antiviral.
*Leaves are regarded as an antidote for snake bites.

Other Uses: The tree is planted as a living fence; it was one of the species used for the Indian Inland Customs Line. The wood is used for firewood and small wooden tools such as plow handles.

Known Hazards:
*Allergic people should avoid Governor’s plum.
*Some allergic reactions might be experienced.
*It should be consumed in limited amounts

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Fruits & Vegetables

Galia melon

Botanical Name: Cucumis melo
Family: Cucurbitaceae
Order: Cucurbitales
Genus: Cucumis
Species: C. melo

Common Names: Galia melon, Muskmelon

Other names:
In French: Melon de Galia
In Arabic: Galia Shamam
In Latin: Galia Cucumis/Cucumis Melo
In Spanish: Galia Melon
In Tamil: Galia Mul?mpa?am
In Hindi: Galia Tarbooj
In Telegu: Galia Puccak?ya

Habitat: The origin of muskmelons is not known. Research has revealed that seeds and rootstocks were among the goods traded along the caravan routes of the Ancient World. Some botanists consider muskmelons native to the Levant and Egypt, while others place their origin in India or Central Asia.[2] Still others support an African origin, and in modern times wild muskmelons can still be found in some African countries.

Galia melon released in the year 1973 and developed in Israel by Dr. Zvi Karchi at the ‘Ne’ve Yaar Research Center of the Agricultural Research Organization,’ the galia melon is a kind of F1 hybrid melon obtained by crossing a honeydew and cantaloupe melon. With its high nutrition content and total soluble solids, it stands as a healthy dietary choice.


Galia melons or Muskmelons are monoecious plants. They do not cross with watermelon, cucumber, pumpkin, or squash, but varieties within the species intercross frequently. ….CLICK & SEE

In its central seed cavity, it has cream colored edible seeds that are flat and oval in shape.

Varieties of galia melon:
*Arava Galia
*Galia Diplomat

Edible Uses:
*Galia melon makes for an ideal ingredient in salads along with other fruits, cold meats or soft cheeses
*It can also be made into jam or marmalade
*Because of its sweet taste, it makes for a fresh topping in a variety of desserts.
*It is an excellent choice for juices, cocktails, sorbet, and smoothies due to its sugary taste, and high water content

Health Benefits:
Heart Health:
The vasodilation caused by the potassium and beta-carotene present in it keep high blood pressure in check, thereby reducing chances of heart ailments such as strokes. Moreover, its dietary fibers also help to reduce bad cholesterol, decreasing the risk of atherosclerosis. Its Vitamin C, on the other hand, is beneficial in strengthening blood vessel walls, contributing to a sound heart health. Moreover, the anticoagulant properties exhibited by its adenosine content also deters the clotting of blood, that is responsible for heart attacks and

Cancer preventive properties:
The antioxidants along with the Vitamin C also help to reduce the risk of cancer by inhibiting free radical damage. The various organic compounds such as carotenoids present in them have been linked to minimizing the risk of breast, oral, colon, and lung cancer, though this matter needs more research for validation.

As an immunity booster:
Vitamin C plays a crucial role in boosting the immune system, while its bioflavonoids, carotenoids, and Vitamin A content act as antioxidants, curbing free radical damage in the body. This fruit is also a good source of citrulline, which the body converts into arginine, an amino acid that speeds up healing and enhances immune function.

Moreover, since its alkaline properties balance the pH levels of the body by nullifying harmful acids, it has a beneficial effect on bone density, inflammation, muscle mass, and chronic pain. Adding it as a part of your fruit salads on a daily basis would, therefore, contribute to maintaining an overall sound health.

Aids in digestion:
Pectin also promotes good bowel movements besides keeping digestive issues like constipation at bay. Its high water and mineral content contribute to reducing other gastrointestinal problems by neutralizing the body’s acidic contents, which interferes with smooth digestion.

Cancer preventive properties:
The antioxidants along with the Vitamin C also help to reduce the risk of cancer by inhibiting free radical damage. The various organic compounds such as carotenoids present in them have been linked to minimizing the risk of breast, oral, colon, and lung cancer, though this matter needs more research for validation.

For the eyes:
The Vitamin A present in this fruit has an abundance of carotenoid, particularly beta-carotene, thus helping to maintain a good eye health by preventing macular degeneration and cataracts amidst other eye ailments.

Diuretic properties:-
Galia melon acts as a diuretic by flushing out sodium and toxins from the body, thereby helping to fight kidney diseases and eczema. The combination of lemon and galia melons also helps in curing gout.

For skin health:
Vitamin A and C also aid in improving the skin texture. The presence of collagen in them accelerates healing of wounds by promoting tissue growth, making the skin firmer as well as improving its cell structure. Its high water content also keeps the skin hydrated and soft.

Helps in weight loss:
Aside from its low calorie count, its high water content combined with dietary fibers gives one the sensation of being full, lessening the chances of overeating. Since it is also low in sodium, it discourages fluid retention and thereby aids in weight control.

For bodybuilding:
The low fructose levels, high fiber, and mineral content of galia melon make it an excellent choice for those committed to bodybuilding. Having a wedge of the fruit for breakfast and before workouts can help to optimize its benefits.

During pregnancy:
Although the high nutrient and folic acid content in these melons are essential for both the mother and the fetus, it is best to consult your doctor before including it in your diet.

Interestingly, this fruit is one of the first preferences for parents trying out the baby-led weaning method.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider



Antarctic cod

Bionomical Name: Dissostichus mawsoni
Family: Nototheniidae
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Genus: Dissostichus
Species: D. mawsoni

Common Name: Antarctic cod fish, Antarctic toothfish,Toothfish

Habitat: Antarctic cod is native to the Southern Ocean. It is often mistakenly referred to as an Antarctic cod, consistent with the misnaming of other notothenioid Antarctic fish as rock cods.

Fully grown, these fish (and their warmer-water relative, the Patagonian toothfish, D. eleginoides) can grow to more than 1.7 m (5 ft 7 in) in length and 135 kg in weight, twice as large as the next-largest Antarctic fish. Being large, and consistent with the unstructured food webs of the ocean (i.e., big fish eat little fish regardless of identity, even eating their own offspring), the Antarctic toothfish has been characterized as a voracious predator. Furthermore, by being by far the largest midwater fish in the Southern Ocean, it is thought to fill the ecological role that sharks play in other oceans. Aiding in that role, the Antarctic toothfish is one of only five notothenioid species that, as adults, are neutrally buoyant. This buoyancy is attained at 100–120 cm in length and enables them to spend time above the bottom without expending extra energy. Both bottom-dwelling and mid-water prey are, therefore, available to them. Most other notothenioid fish and the majority of all Antarctic fishes, including smaller toothfish, are confined to the bottom. Coloring is black to olive brown, sometimes lighter on the undersides, with a mottled pattern on body and fins. Small fish blend in very well among the benthic sponges and corals. The species has a broad head, an elongated body, long dorsal and anal fins, large pectoral fins, and a rudder-like caudal fin. They typically move slowly, but are capable of speed bursts that can elude predatory seals.

Antarctic cods mainly eat fish and are the primary predator of fish in their habitat. They will also eat crustaceans and squid, however. Antarctic cods are preyed on by sperm whales and some species of seals and killer whales.


These fish are commercially fished and are sometimes marketed in the United States as Chilean sea bass. As of 2010, they were in danger of being over-fished. The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) put restrictions on fishing them. In addition, the environmental action group Greenpeace added them to its seafood red list.

In addition to being used for food, the Antarctic cod is also useful in medicine. Its heart has been studied in conjunction with cardiac medicines because of its slow beat. Beating only once every six seconds, the Antarctic cod’s heart might help researchers discover better ways to deal with hypothermia and surgeries in which the heart must be slowed.