Urinary tract infection (UTI)

OTHER  NAMES: Acute cystitis or Bladder infection,

A urinary tract infection (UTI), is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.(kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra.) Most infections involve the lower urinary tract — the bladder and the urethra.When it affects the lower urinary tract it is known as a simple cystitis (a bladder infection) and when it affects the upper urinary tract it is known as pyelonephritis (a kidney infection). …..CLICK & SEE… :Female urinary system .……. Male urinary system 

Women are at greater risk of developing a UTI than men are. Infection limited to your bladder can be painful and annoying. However, serious consequences can occur if a UTI spreads to kidneys.


Doctors typically treat urinary tract infections with antibiotics. But you can take steps to reduce your chances of getting a UTI in the first place.

Urinary tract infections don’t always cause signs and symptoms, but when they do they may include:

*A strong, persistent urge to urinate
*A burning sensation when urinating
*Passing frequent, small amounts of urine
*Urine that appears cloudy
*Urine that appears red, bright pink or cola-colored — a sign of blood in the urine
*Strong-smelling urine
*Pelvic pain, in women — especially in the center of the pelvis and around the area of the pubic bone

UTIs may be overlooked or mistaken for other conditions in older adults.

Types of urinary tract infection:

Each type of UTI may result in more-specific signs and symptoms, depending on which part of your urinary tract is infected.

These symptoms may vary from mild to severe and in healthy persons last an average of six days.

KIDNEYS (acute pyelonephritis):...CLICK & SEE
*Upper back and side (flank) pain
*High fever
*Shaking and chills

BLADDER (cystitis): ….CLICK & SEE
*Pelvic pressure
*Lower abdomen discomfort (Some pain above the pubic bone or in the lower back may be present.)
*Frequent, painful urination
*Blood in urine (Rarely the urine may appear bloody  or contain visible pus in the urine.)

URETHRA (urethritis): …….CLICK & SEE
:Burning with urination

In young children, the only symptom of a urinary tract infection (UTI) may be a fever. Because of the lack of more obvious symptoms, when females under the age of two or uncircumcised males less than a year exhibit a fever, a culture of the urine is recommended by many medical associations. Infants may feed poorly, vomit, sleep more, or show signs of jaundice. In older children, new onset urinary incontinence (loss of bladder control) may occur.

Urinary tract symptoms are frequently lacking in the elderly. The presentations may be vague with incontinence, a change in mental status, or fatigue as the only symptoms, while some present to a health care provider with sepsis, an infection of the blood, as the first symptoms. Diagnosis can be complicated by the fact that many elderly people have preexisting incontinence or dementia.

It is reasonable to obtain a urine culture in those with signs of systemic infection that may be unable to report urinary symptoms, such as when advanced dementia is present. Systemic signs of infection include a fever or increase in temperature of more than 1.1 °C (2.0 °F) from usual, chills, and an increase white blood cell count.

Urinary tract infections typically occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract through the urethra and begin to multiply in the bladder. Although the urinary system is designed to keep out such microscopic invaders, these defenses sometimes fail. When that happens, bacteria may take hold and grow into a full-blown infection in the urinary tract.

The most common UTIs occur mainly in women and affect the bladder and urethra.

E. coli is the cause of 80–85% of community-acquired urinary tract infections, with Staphylococcus saprophyticus being the cause in 5–10%. Rarely they may be due to viral or fungal infections. Healthcare-associated urinary tract infections (mostly related to urinary catheterization) involve a much broader range of pathogens including: E. coli (27%), Klebsiella (11%), Pseudomonas (11%), the fungal pathogen Candida albicans (9%), and Enterococcus (7%) among others. Urinary tract infections due to Staphylococcus aureus typically occur secondary to blood-borne infections. Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium can infect the urethra but not the bladder. These infections are usually classified as a urethritis rather than urinary tract infection

In young sexually active women, sexual activity is the cause of 75–90% of bladder infections, with the risk of infection related to the frequency of sex. The term “honeymoon cystitis” has been applied to this phenomenon of frequent UTIs during early marriage. In post-menopausal women, sexual activity does not affect the risk of developing a UTI. Spermicide use, independent of sexual frequency, increases the risk of UTIs. Diaphragm use is also associated. Condom use without spermicide or use of birth control pills does not increase the risk of uncomplicated urinary tract infection.

Women are more prone to UTIs than men because, in females, the urethra is much shorter and closer to the anus. As a woman’s estrogen levels decrease with menopause, her risk of urinary tract infections increases due to the loss of protective vaginal flora. Additionally, vaginal atrophy that can sometimes occur after menopause is associated with recurrent urinary tract infections.

Chronic prostatitis may cause recurrent urinary tract infections in males. Risk of infections increases as males age. While bacteria is commonly present in the urine of older males this does not appear to affect the risk of urinary tract infections.

Urinary catheters:
Urinary catheterization increases the risk for urinary tract infections. The risk of bacteriuria (bacteria in the urine) is between three to six percent per day and prophylactic antibiotics are not effective in decreasing symptomatic infections. The risk of an associated infection can be decreased by catheterizing only when necessary, using aseptic technique for insertion, and maintaining unobstructed closed drainage of the catheter.

Male scuba divers utilizing condom catheters or the female divers utilizing external catching device for their dry suits are also susceptible to urinary tract infections.

A predisposition for bladder infections may run in families. Other risk factors include diabetes, being uncircumcised, and having a large prostate. Complicating factors are rather vague and include predisposing anatomic, functional, or metabolic abnormalities. In children UTIs are associated with vesicoureteral reflux (an abnormal movement of urine from the bladder into ureters or kidneys) and constipation.

Persons with spinal cord injury are at increased risk for urinary tract infection in part because of chronic use of catheter, and in part because of voiding dysfunction. It is the most common cause of infection in this population, as well as the most common cause of hospitalization. Additionally, use of cranberry juice or cranberry supplement appears to be ineffective in prevention and treatment in this population.

The bacteria that cause urinary tract infections typically enter the bladder via the urethra. However, infection may also occur via the blood or lymph. It is believed that the bacteria are usually transmitted to the urethra from the bowel, with females at greater risk due to their anatomy. After gaining entry to the bladder, E. Coli are able to attach to the bladder wall and form a biofilm that resists the body’s immune response.

*Urinary tract abnormalities. Babies born with urinary tract abnormalities that don’t allow urine to leave the body normally or cause urine to back up in the urethra have an increased risk of UTIs.

*Blockages in the urinary tract. Kidney stones or an enlarged prostate can trap urine in the bladder and increase the risk of UTIs.
A suppressed immune system. Diabetes and other diseases that impair the immune system — the body’s defense against germs — can increase the risk of UTIs.

*Catheter use. People who can’t urinate on their own and use a tube (catheter) to urinate have an increased risk of UTIs. This may include people who are hospitalized, people with neurological problems that make it difficult to control their ability to urinate and people who are paralyzed.

*A recent urinary procedure. Urinary surgery or an exam of your urinary tract that involves medical instruments can both increase your risk of developing a urinary tract infection.
When treated promptly and properly, lower urinary tract infections rarely lead to complications. But left untreated, a urinary tract infection can have serious consequences.

Complications of a UTI are as follows::

*Recurrent infections, especially in women who experience three or more UTIs.
*Permanent kidney damage from an acute or chronic kidney infection (pyelonephritis) due to an untreated UTI.
*Increased risk in pregnant women of delivering low birth weight or premature infants.
*Urethral narrowing (stricture) in men from recurrent urethritis, previously seen with gonococcal urethritis.
*Sepsis, a potentially life-threatening complication of an infection, especially if the infection works its way up to urinary tract to the kidneys.

In straightforward cases, a diagnosis may be made and treatment given based on symptoms alone without further laboratory confirmation. In complicated or questionable cases, it may be useful to confirm the diagnosis via urinalysis, looking for the presence of urinary nitrites, white blood cells (leukocytes), or leukocyte esterase. Another test, urine microscopy, looks for the presence of red blood cells, white blood cells, or bacteria. Urine culture is deemed positive if it shows a bacterial colony count of greater than or equal to 103 colony-forming units per mL of a typical urinary tract organism. Antibiotic sensitivity can also be tested with these cultures, making them useful in the selection of antibiotic treatment. However, women with negative cultures may still improve with antibiotic treatment. As symptoms can be vague and without reliable tests for urinary tract infections, diagnosis can be difficult in the elderly.

A urinary tract infection may involve only the lower urinary tract, in which case it is known as a bladder infection. Alternatively, it may involve the upper urinary tract, in which case it is known as pyelonephritis. If the urine contains significant bacteria but there are no symptoms, the condition is known as asymptomatic bacteriuria. If a urinary tract infection involves the upper tract, and the person has diabetes mellitus, is pregnant, is male, or immunocompromised, it is considered complicated. Otherwise if a woman is healthy and premenopausal it is considered uncomplicated. In children when a urinary tract infection is associated with a fever, it is deemed to be an upper urinary tract infection.

To make the diagnosis of a urinary tract infection in children, a positive urinary culture is required. Contamination poses a frequent challenge depending on the method of collection used, thus a cutoff of 105 CFU/mL is used for a “clean-catch” mid stream sample, 104 CFU/mL is used for catheter-obtained specimens, and 102 CFU/mL is used for suprapubic aspirations (a sample drawn directly from the bladder with a needle). The use of “urine bags” to collect samples is discouraged by the World Health Organization due to the high rate of contamination when cultured, and catheterization is preferred in those not toilet trained. Some, such as the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends renal ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram (watching a person’s urethra and urinary bladder with real time x-rays while they urinate) in all children less than two years old who have had a urinary tract infection. However, because there is a lack of effective treatment if problems are found, others such as the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence only recommends routine imaging in those less than six months old or who have unusual findings.

Differential diagnosis:
In women with cervicitis (inflammation of the cervix) or vaginitis (inflammation of the vagina) and in young men with UTI symptoms, a Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrheae infection may be the cause. These infections are typically classified as a urethritis rather than a urinary tract infection. Vaginitis may also be due to a yeast infection. Interstitial cystitis (chronic pain in the bladder) may be considered for people who experience multiple episodes of UTI symptoms but urine cultures remain negative and not improved with antibiotics. Prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate) may also be considered in the differential diagnosis.

Hemorrhagic cystitis, characterized by blood in the urine, can occur secondary to a number of causes including: infections, radiation therapy, underlying cancer, medications and toxins. Medications that commonly cause this problem include the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide with rates of 2 to 40%. Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare condition where eosinophiles are present in the bladder wall. Signs and symptoms are similar to a bladder infection. Its cause is not entirely clear; however, it may be linked to food allergies, infections, and medications among others.

For those with recurrent infections, taking a short course of antibiotics when each infection occurs is associated with the lowest antibiotic use. A prolonged course of daily antibiotics is also effective. Medications frequently used include nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX). Methenamine is another agent used for this purpose as in the bladder where the acidity is low it produces formaldehyde to which resistance does not develop. Some recommend against prolonged use due to concerns of antibiotic resistance.

In cases where infections are related to intercourse, taking antibiotics afterwards may be useful. In post-menopausal women, topical vaginal estrogen has been found to reduce recurrence. As opposed to topical creams, the use of vaginal estrogen from pessaries has not been as useful as low dose antibiotics. Antibiotics following short term urinary catheterization decreases the subsequent risk of a bladder infection. A number of vaccines are in development as of 2011.

The evidence that preventative antibiotics decrease urinary tract infections in children is poor. However recurrent UTIs are a rare cause of further kidney problems if there are no underlying abnormalities of the kidneys, resulting in less than a third of a percent (0.33%) of chronic kidney disease in adults. Whether routine circumcisions prevents UTIs has not been well studied as of 2011.

Alternative medicine:
Some research suggests that cranberry (juice or capsules) may decrease the number of UTIs in those with frequent infections. A Cochrane review concluded that the benefit, if it exists, is small. Long-term tolerance is also an issue with gastrointestinal upset occurring in more than 30%. Cranberry juice is thus not currently recommended for this indication. As of 2011, intravaginal probiotics require further study to determine if they are beneficial.

Lifestyle and home remedies:

Urinary tract infections can be painful, but you can take steps to ease your discomfort until antibiotics treat the infection.
The following tips should be followed:

*Drink plenty of water. Water helps to dilute your urine and flush out bacteria.

*Avoid drinks that may irritate the bladder. Avoid coffee, alcohol, and soft drinks containing citrus juices or caffeine until your infection has cleared. They can irritate the bladder and tend to aggravate frequent or urgent need to urinate.

*Use a heating pad. Apply a warm, but not hot, heating pad to your abdomen to minimize bladder pressure or discomfort.
The following steps can be taken to reduce the risk of urinary tract infections:

*Drink plenty of liquids, especially water. Drinking water helps dilute your urine and ensures that you’ll urinate more frequently — allowing bacteria to be flushed from your urinary tract before an infection can begin.

*Drink cranberry juice. Although studies are not conclusive that cranberry juice prevents UTIs, it is likely not harmful.

*Wash  or  Wipe properly   from front to back. Doing so after urinating and after a bowel movement helps prevent bacteria in the anal region from spreading to the vagina and urethra.

*Empty the bladder soon after intercourse. Also, drink a full glass of water to help flush bacteria.

*Avoid potentially irritating feminine products. Using deodorant sprays or other feminine products, such as douches and powders, in the genital area can irritate the urethra.

*Change the birth control method. Diaphragms, or unlubricated or spermicide-treated condoms, can all contribute to bacterial growth.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.


Zanthoxylum limonella

Botanical Name : Zanthoxylum limonella
Family: Rutaceae
Subfamily: Toddalioideae
Genus: Zanthoxylum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales

Common Names: Badrang , “prickly ash” and “Hercules club”

Habitat :Zanthoxylum limonella is native to the middle latitudes of North America, South America, Africa, Asia, and Australia. (found in India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Myanmar, Indo-China, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, the Lesser Sunda Island, Moluccas (Wetar), Sulawesi, the Philippines and southern Papua New Guinea)

Zanthoxylum limonella is a deciduous, aromatic, medium-sized tree reaching a height of 35 meters (Fig 1a). The green young bark is covered with spines while mature bark is grey with straight or ascending prickles of 2 – 3 cm . Small prickles occur on the twigs, and all parts of tree have a characteristic lemon-like smell. The leaves are paripinnate or imparipinnate, 30 – 40 cm long. The leaflets are opposite to sub opposite, ovate to elliptical, 7 – 13 cm long, 3 – 5 cm wide, pellucid dots, the margins entire to glandular crenate. Inflorescense panicles have a terminal or axillary, 8 – 14 cm long. The flowers are white or pale yellow, 2 – 3 mm long, 4 sepals and 4 petals. The male flowers have 4 stamina and 1 rudimentary carpel while female flowers with ovary 1 carpellate. The fruit is a follicle, subglobose, 6 – 7 mm in diameter, with 1 seed per carpel, green turning red when ripe. Seeds are hard and black in colour, 5 mm in diameter.


Medicinal Uses:
The different parts of Z. limonella have been used in Thai folk medicine. The bark contains febrifugal, sudorific, and diuretic properties, while the essential oil of fruit is used for treatment of dental caries . In India traditional medicine, the bark has been used to treat cardiac, respiratory diseases, tooth infection, stomach infection and rheumatism . The fruits are used as spice and the essential oil extracted from the fruits is known as “Mullilam oil” used as anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, anticholera, diarrhoea, hypocholesterolemic, mosquito repellent and soothing agent for dental caries. The Kanikkars tribe prepare a paste of hard spines prepared by rubbing them against rock with water and apply the extract to the breast of a nursing mother to relief pain and also to increase milk supply. In the Phillippines, the pounded bark mixed with oil is a good formula to treat stomach ache. In addition, the bark decoction is also taken to treat chest pain and chewed bark applied as antidote for snake bites .
The bark and fruit are attributed with stomachic properties. Mullilam oil, an orange-scented, steam-distilled extract from the fruits, is reported to have a variety of medical applications. The methanolic extract of the Zanthoxylum rhetsa Roxb. stem bark, given by oral route to mice at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, significantly reduced the abdominal contraction induced by acetic acid and the diarrheal episodes induced by castor oil in mice.


Fraxinus excelsior


Botanical Name: Fraxinus excelsior
Family: Oleaceae
Genus: Fraxinus
Species: F. excelsior
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Common Names: Ash, or European ash or Common ash

Habitat : Fraxinus excelsior is native to most of Europe from Portugal to Russia, with the exception of northern Scandinavia and southern Iberia. It is also considered native in southwestern Asia from northern Turkey east to the Caucasus and Alborz mountains. The northernmost location is in the Trondheimsfjord region of Norway. The species is widely cultivated and reportedly naturalized in New Zealand and in scattered locales in the United States and Canada (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Maryland, Ontario, Ohio, Kentucky and British Columbia). It grows in forming woods on calcareous soils in the wetter parts of Britain, also in oakwoods, scrub, hedges etc. It is also often found on acid soils.

Fraxinus excelsior is a large deciduous tree growing to 20–35 m (66–115 ft) (exceptionally to 46 m or 151 ft) tall with a trunk up to 2 m (6.6 ft) (exceptionally to 3.5 m or 11 ft) diameter, with a tall, domed crown. The bark is smooth and pale grey on young trees, becoming thick and vertically fissured on old trees. The shoots are stout, greenish-grey, with jet black buds (which distinguish it from most other ash species, which have grey or brown buds). The leaves are 20–35 cm (7.9–13.8 in) long, pinnate compound, with 7-13 leaflets, the leaflets 3–12 cm (1.2–4.7 in) long and 0.8–3 cm (0.31–1.18 in) broad, sessile on the leaf rachis, and with a serrated margin. The leaves are often among the last to open in spring, and the first to fall in autumn if an early frost strikes; they have no marked autumn colour, often falling dull green. The flowers open before the leaves, the female flowers being somewhat longer than the male flowers; they are dark purple, and without petals, and are wind-pollinated. Both male and female flowers can occur on the same tree, but it is more common to find all male and all female trees; a tree that is all male one year can produce female flowers the next, and similarly a female tree can become male. The fruit is a samara 2.5–4.5 cm (0.98–1.77 in) long and 5–8 mm (0.20–0.31 in) broad, often hanging in bunches through the winter; they are often called ‘ash keys’. If the fruit is gathered and planted when it is still green and not fully ripe, it will germinate straight away, however once the fruit is brown and fully ripe, it will not germinate until 18 months after sowing (i.e. not until two winters have passed)


European Ash rarely exceeds 250 years of age. However, there are numerous specimens estimated between 200 and 250 years old and there are a few over 250. The largest is in Clapton Court, England and is 9 m (29.5 ft) in girth. There are several examples over 4.5 metres (14.8 ft) in Derbyshire alone.

Landscape Uses:Firewood, Pollard, Specimen. Prefers a deep loamy soil, even if it is on the heavy side. Most members of this genus are gross feeders and require a rich soil. Plants can succeed in very exposed positions, including maritime exposure, though they can become wind-shaped. Thrives in alkaline soils but not in shallow soils over chalk. Tolerates a pH as low as 4.5, but prefers a base-rich soil above 5.5. Trees are surprisingly tolerant of seasonally water-logged soils. Dislikes dryness at the roots, especially in late spring. Very intolerant of shade, young plants fail to develop properly in such a position and often die. Although the dormant plant is very cold-hardy, the young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun. A fast growing tree, it is sometimes cultivated for its valuable timber. Very tolerant of cutting, ash was also at one time frequently coppiced for its wood. However, modern use of plastics have reduced its economic values. There are many named varieties, selected for their ornamental value. Trees have a light canopy and cast little shade. A food plant for many insect species, there are 41 associated insect species. Trees can be male, female, monoecious or hermaphrodite, they can also change sex from year to year. Trees take 30 – 40 years to flower from seed. The flowers are produced on one-year old wood. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus. Special Features: Not North American native, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.

The seed is best harvested green – as soon as it is fully developed but before it has fully dried on the tree – and can then be sown immediately in a cold frame. It usually germinates in the spring. Stored seed requires a period of cold stratification and is best sown as soon as possible in a cold frame. Approximately 5% of stored seed will germinate in the first year, the remainder germinating in the second year. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions or a nursery bed in late spring or early summer of the following year. If you have sufficient seed then it is possible to sow it directly into an outdoor seedbed, preferably in the autumn. Grow the seedlings on in the seedbed for 2 years before transplanting either to their permanent positions or to nursery beds. Cuttings of mature wood, placed in a sheltered outdoor bed in the winter, sometimes strike.
Edible Uses : Immature seed – usually pickled by steeping in salt and vinegar, and then used as a condiment for other foods. The leaves are sometimes used as an adulterant for tea. A manna is obtained from the tree. No further details are available. An edible oil similar to sunflower (Helianthus annuus) oil is obtained from the seed.
Medicinal Uses:

The leaves are astringent, cathartic, diaphoretic, mildly diuretic, laxative and purgative. The have been used as a laxative, making a mild substitute for senna pods. The leaves should be gathered in June, well dried and stored in airtight containers. The bark is antiperiodic, astringent and a bitter tonic. Little used in modern herbalism, it is occasionally taken in the treatment of fevers. The seeds, including their wings, have been used as a carminative. They will store for 12 months if gathered when ripe.

Taken regularly, the ash is said to prevent the recurrence of bouts of malaria and is a substitute for quinine. It is also said to be excellent for treatment of arthritic conditions. The seeds, including their wings, have been used as a carminative.
Other Uses:
Dye; Fuel; Oil; Shelterbelt; String; Tannin; Wood.

A green dye is obtained from the leaves. The bark is a source of tannin. A tying material can be obtained from the wood (does this mean the bark?). Very tolerant of extreme exposure and relatively fast growing, though often windshaped in exposed positions, it can be grown as a shelterbelt tree. However, it is late coming into leaf and also one of the first trees to lose its leaves in the autumn and this makes it less suitable in a shelter belt. Wood – hard, light, flexible, strong, resilient. A very valuable wood, it is much used for tool handles, oars, furniture, posts etc. An excellent fuel, burning well even when green. There is some doubt over how well the green wood burns with several people claiming that it needs to be properly seasoned.

In the 13th century Edda and other writing relating to Norse mythology, a mythological ash tree called Yggdrasil serves as the center of the world. Though traditionally Yggdrasill was often seen as a giant ash tree, many scholars[citation needed] do now agree that in the past an error has been made in the interpretation of the ancient writings, and that the tree is most likely an European yew (Taxus baccata). This mistake would find its origin in an alternative word for the yew tree in the Old Norse, namely Needle Ash (barraskr). In addition, ancient sources, including the Eddas, write about a vetgrønster vida which means “evergreen tree”. An ash sheds its leaves in the winter, while yew trees retain their needles.

It is recorded that on the Isle of Bute in Scotland lovers used to eat leaves of an ash tree known at the “Dreamin’ Tree” that grew near the church of St Blane and the pleasant dreams they then experienced revealed their actual spouses and intended fates.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Solidago suaveolens


Botanical Name ; Solidago suaveolens
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Astereae
Genus: Solidago
Species: S. odora
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms: Solidago odora Aiton var. odora

Common Names: Anisescented goldenrod

Habitat : Solidago suaveolens is native to North America.
Solidago suaveolens is a perennial slender herb. It grows from woody caudices or rhizomes. They have stems that can be decumbent to ascending or erect, ranging in height from 5 to 100 or more centimeters. Some species have stems that branch near the top. Some Solidago species are hairless others have strigose, strigillose, hispid, or short-villous hairs. The basal leaves in some species remain persistent through flowering, while in others the basal leaves are shed before flowering. The leaf margins are often serrate, and leaf faces may be hairless or densely hairy; the distal leaves are sometimes 3-nerved, and hairless or sparsely to densely hairy with scabrous, strigillose, or villous hairs.


In some species the upper leaves are stipitate-glandular or sometimes resinous. The flowering heads usually radiate, sometimes discoid, with (1–)2 to 1500+ florets in racemiform (club-shaped or pyramidal), paniculiform or corymbo-paniculiform, or sometimes secund arrays. The involucres are campanulate to cylindric or attenuate. The ray florets are pistillate and fertile.

The corollas are yellow or rarely white and are usually hairless. The disc florets are bisexual and fertile and number 2 to 35 typically, but in some species there may be up to 60 florets. The corollas of the disc florets are yellow and the tubes are shorter than the throats. The fruits are cypselae, which are narrowly obconic to cylindric in shape, they are sometimes somewhat compressed. The cypselae have 8 to 10 ribs usually and are hairless or moderately covered with stiff slender bristles. The pappi are very big with barbellate bristles.

We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will succeed in Britain, though judging by its native range it could succeed outdoors in many parts of the country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Succeeds in any moderately fertile moisture retentive soil in sun or semi-shade. Grows well in heavy clay soils. A rather greedy plant, it is apt to impoverish the soil. The plant attracts various beneficial insects such as ladybirds, lacewings and hoverflies to the garden, these insects will help to control insect pests in the garden.

Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Only just cover the seed and do not allow the compost to become dry. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle, and grow them on for their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in spring or early summer. Division in spring or autumn. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found it best to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in a lightly shaded position in a cold frame, planting them out once they are well established in the summer.
Edible Uses :   The flowers and leaves are used to make tea.
Medicinal Uses: An infusion of the dried powdered herb can be used as antiseptic.

Other Uses: Mustard, orange and brown dyes can be obtained from the whole plant

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Solidago odora

Botanical Name : Solidago odora
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Astereae
Genus: Solidago
Species: S. odora
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Names : Sweet goldenrod, Anise-scented goldenrod or Fragrant goldenrod, Chapman’s goldenrod

Habitat ; Solidago odora is native to Eastern N. America – New Hampshire to Florida, west to Texas and Oklahoma. It grows in dry sterile soil or thin woodlands. Woods and roadsides in Texas.
Sweet goldenrod is a perennial with 2-5 ft (0.6-1.5 m) stems arising from short rhizomes. The hairy stems bear alternate stemless single-veined narrow dark green leaves with smooth or hairy margins and pointed tips. The leaves are 1-4 in (2.5-10.2 cm) long and smell like licorice when crushed. In late summer, densely crowded golden-yellow flowers appear in branched clusters at the tops of the stems. The individual blossoms are arranged in rows along the upper sides of the flower head branchlets. Fuzzy pale gray seedheads containing tiny nutlets replace the blossoms later in the season. S. odora var. chapmanii is recognized as a separate botanical variety from S. odora var. odora. (The hairs on the stems of var. chapmanii are fairly evenly distributed, though perhaps a bit sparse in a strip below each leaf base, whereas the hairs on var. odora stems are in distinct vertical lines.) Goldenrods tend to hybridize, so identifying them to species, much less variety, may be challenging.


It is in flower from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.It is noted for attracting.
*Solidago odora ssp. odora – most of species range
*Solidago odora ssp. chapmanii (Gray) Semple – Florida only

Solidago odora is mostly used as a herbal/medicinal team with a variety of ethnobotanical uses reported, especially from the Cherokee. It has been considered both a stimulant and a sedative.
Edible Uses :
Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed.

Leaves – cooked. Seed. No more details are given but the seed is very small and fiddly to harvest. An aromatic, anise-flavoured tea is made from the dried leaves and dried fully expanded flowers. The blossoms are used as a flavouring.

Medicinal Uses:

Antiseptic; Aperient; Astringent; Carminative; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Febrifuge; Stimulant; Tonic.

An infusion of the dried powdered herb is antiseptic. The leaves make a very pleasant-tasting tea that is mildly astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge and stimulant. It is useful in the treatment of coughs and colds, dysentery and ulceration of the intestines. The essential oil has been used as a diuretic for infants, as a local application for headaches and for the treatment of flatulence and vomiting. The flowers are aperient, astringent and tonic. An infusion is beneficial in the treatment of gravel, urinary obstruction and simple dropsy. The root can be chewed as a treatment for sore mouths.

Other Uses:
Dye; Essential.

An anise-scented essential oil is obtained from the plant. It is used medicinally and in perfumery – especially for scenting soaps. Mustard, orange and brown dyes can be obtained from the whole plant.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Osmorhiza longistylis

Botanical Name; Osmorhiza longistylis
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Osmorhiza
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Apiales

Common Names; Aniseroot, Longstyle sweetroot, American sweet cicely, Licorice root, Wild anise, or Simply sweet cicely

Habitat : Osmorhiza longistylis is native to Eastern N. America – Nova Scotia to Ontario, Alabama, Tennessee, Kansas and Colorado. It grows in rich, often alluvial woods and thickets. Woods, often along the sides of streams in Texas.

Osmorhiza longistylis is a herbaceous perennial plant is about 1.2 m (4ft) ‘ tall, branching occasionally. The stems are light green to reddish purple, terete, and glabrous (var. longistylis) to hairy (var. villicaulis). The alternate leaves are ternately compound; the lower compound leaves are up to 9″ long and 9″ across, while the upper compound leaves are much smaller in size. Each compound leaf is divided into 3 compound leaflets; the terminal compound leaflet is the largest. Each compound leaflet is further divided into 3 subleaflets; the terminal subleaflet is the largest, sometimes appearing to be divided into 3 even smaller subleaflets. The subleaflets are 1-4″ long, ½-1½” across, and lanceolate to oval-ovate shape in shape; their margins are coarsely serrated-crenate or shallowly cleft. The upper subleaflet surface is yellowish green to green and nearly glabrous (var. longistylis) to moderately covered with appressed hairs (var. villicaulis).


The petioles of compound leaves are light green to reddish purple and up to 6″ in length. The petiolules of leaflets are light green to reddish green and up to 2″ long, while those of subleaflets are nearly sessile to ¼” (6 mm.) long. The foliage of this plant releases a mild anise fragrance when it is rubbed. The upper stems terminate in compound umbels of white flowers about 1½-3″ across. There are about 3-6 umbellets per compound umbel on rays (floral stalks) up to 2″ long. An umbellet has 7-16 flowers that are clustered together on rays (floral stalklets) up to ¼” (6 mm.) long. Each flower (about 3 mm. across) has 5 white petals with incurved tips, 5 white stamens, a pistil with a divided white style (stylopodium), and an insignificant calyx that is light green. At the base of each compound umbel, there are several linear-lanceolate bracts with ciliate margins; they are up to 8 mm. in length. At the base of each umbellet, there are several linear-lanceolate bractlets with ciliate margins; they are also up to 8 mm. in length.

The blooming period occurs during the late spring or early summer, lasting about 2-3 weeks. Afterwards, the flowers are replaced by 2-seeded fruits (schizocarps). While these fruits are still immature, the persistent divided style is 2.0-3.5 mm. in length (it is smaller than this when the flowers are still in bloom). The small seeds are narrowly ellipsoid-oblanceoloid, 5-ribbed, and slightly bristly along their ribs. The root system consists of a cluster of fleshy roots with a strong anise fragrance.


Succeeds in any deep moisture-retentive soil in sun or dappled shade. Plants are hardy to about -20°c. Well suited to naturalistic plantings in a woodland or wild garden. A sweetly aromatic plant.

Seed – we have no information on this species but suggest sowing the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible, otherwise sow it in early spring. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.

Edible Uses :
Edible Parts: Leaves; Root.
Edible Uses: Condiment; Tea.

Root – raw or cooked. Very sweet, aromatic and fleshy. A spicy flavour similar to anise, the roots are chewed, made into a tea or used as a flavouring. Leaves and young shoots – raw. An anise flavour, they are added to salads. The green seeds have an anise flavour and are used as a flavouring in salads, the dry seeds are added to cakes etc.
Medicinal Uses:

Osmorhiza longistylis  was used extensively by Native American Indian tribes to treat digestive disorders and as an antiseptic wash for a range of problems. Sweet Cicely is medicinal and edible, the root being the strongest for use in alternative medicine it is antiseptic, aromatic, febrifuge, oxytocic, pectoral, stomachic, carminative, tonic, ophthalmic, and expectorant. Medicinal tea made from the root is a very good digestive aid and is a gentle stimulant for debilitated stomachs. A weak herb tea is used to bath sore eyes. A strong infusion has been used to induce labor in a pregnant woman and to treat fevers, indigestion, flatulence, stomach aches. The crushed root is an effective antiseptic poultice for the treatment of boils and wounds. A medicinal cough syrup can be made of the fresh juice and honey, it is very effective and quite tasty, children take it readily.

 A decoction of the herb was used as nostril wash to increase dog’s sense of smell. A valuable tonic for girls from 15 to 18 years of age, according to an old herbal. The aromatic scent is said to be an aphrodisiac, used as a love medicine.

In use it should not be confused with species of poison hemlock, water hemlock, or baneberry.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.



Illicium floridanum

Botanical Name : Illicium floridanum
Family: Schisandraceae
Genus: Illicium
Species: I. floridanum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Austrobaileyales

Common Names: Aniseed Tree, Florida anisetree, Purple Anise, Star Anise, Florida anise, Stink-bush

Habitat : Illicium floridanum is native to South-eastern N. America – Florida to Louisiana. It grows in lowland wet areas, often in sandy soils along streams, swamps and at the head of bays, in light woodland and thickets.

Illicium floridanum is an upright, rounded, aromatic, evergreen shrub that grows to 6-10′ tall. Smooth, glossy, elliptic, dark olive-green leaves (to 6″ long) emit an anise-like aroma when crushed. Nodding, dark red flowers (to 2″ diameter), each with 20-30 strap-shaped petals, bloom in spring (April-May). Flower aroma is malodorous. Fruit is a star-shaped cluster of follicles. Purple anise is protected in Florida as a threatened species.


It is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are a deep carmine red or maroon with narrow widely separated petals. The whole plant and especially the flowers have a fishy smell, hence the common names stink-bush, dead fish tree, or wet dog bush. The crushed foliage, however, has an aroma akin to lemon-lime or aniseed.The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

Landscape Uses:Border, Foundation, Pest tolerant, Massing, Screen, Specimen, Woodland garden. Prefers a light, moist well-drained loam and a sheltered position Prefers a humus-rich lime-free soil. A plant of woodland shade in its native habitat, in the less sunny British climate it succeeds in sun or semi-shade. This species is not very cold-hardy, it tolerates temperatures down to between -5 and -10°c, only succeeding outdoors in the mildest areas of Britain. A slow-growing tree, the whole plant is very aromatic. The bruised leaves have a strong scent of aniseed, whilst the flowers have a powerful spicy odour. Suckers can spring up at some distance from the parent plant. Special Features:Attracts birds, Attractive foliage, North American native, Fragrant foliage, Wetlands plant, Suitable for cut flowers, Attractive flowers or blooms.

Propagation :
Seed – it does not require pre-treatment and can be sown in early spring in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts, and give some protection from the cold over the winter for the first year or two. Layering in early spring. Takes 18 months. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, August in a frame. Pot up the cuttings when they start to root and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter, planting out after the last expected frosts. Suckers are sometimes produced at some distance from the parent plant. These suckers can be potted up in early spring, then grown on for a year before planting them out into their permanent positions.

Medicinal Uses: Not known.

Other Uses: Not known.

Known Hazards: Although no mention of toxicity has been seen for this species, at least one other member of the genus has a fruit that is poisonous in quantity.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Illicium anisatum

Botanical Name : Illicium anisatum
Family: Schisandraceae
Genus: Illicium
Species: I. anisatum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Austrobaileyales

*Illicium japonicum Sieb.
*Illicium religiosum Sieb. et

Common Names: Star Anise, Chinese Anise,Japanese Anise, Japanese star anise, Aniseed tree, and Sacred anise tree

Habitat : Illicium anisatum is native to E. Asia – S. China, Japan, Taiwan. It grows in the thickets and woods in foothills, S. and C. Japan.
Illicium anisatum is an evergreen Shrub. It is an upright, rounded, bushy shrub or small tree that attains a height of 10 to 15 feet . The foliage of this plant is exceptional. In contrast to Illicium parviflorum and Illicium floridanum, the evergreen leaves of Illicium anisatum are a lustrous medium to dark green color with undulate margins. All anise leaves smell a little like root beer when they are crushed. Leaves of anise tree are generally 2 to 4 inches long, a little smaller than those on the other two species. Many yellowish-white or greenish-white flowers, with up to 30 petals, are produced in spring. These axillary flowers are star-shaped and have no fragrance, but can be showy if you are close to the plant. They are produced in abundance in some years. The fruits of the anise tree are star-shaped follicles that eventually release dark brown seeds………..CLICK  &  SEE  THE  PICTURE
It is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Mar to May, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)

Bloom Color: White, Yellow. Main Bloom Time: Early summer, Late summer, Mid summer. Form: Oval
Cultivation :
Landscape Uses:Border, Pest tolerant, Massing, Screen, Woodland garden. Prefers a light, moist well-drained loam and a sheltered position. Prefers a humus-rich lime-free soil. Succeeds in sun or semi-shade. A slow-growing plant. This species is not very cold-hardy, it tolerates temperatures down to about -10°c but normally requires the protection of a wall in most of Britain. It succeeds outdoors in the mildest areas of the country. Star anise is a very ornamental and aromatic plant that is much planted near Buddhist shrines and temples in Japan. The plants have the scent of anise. All parts of the plant are pleasingly aromatic. The leaves release a powerful aromatic odour when touched and the flowers have a spicy odour. Plants seldom grow larger than about 2 metres in Britain, but are often 10 metres tall in their native habitat. Special Features: Attracts birds, Fragrant foliage, Not North American native, Fragrant flowers, Attractive flowers or blooms.

Propagation :
Seed – it does not require pre-treatment and can be sown in early spring in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts, and give some protection from the cold over the winter for the first year or two. Layering in early spring. Takes 18 months. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, August in a frame. Pot up the cuttings when they start to root and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter, planting out after the last expected frosts
Edible Uses:…. Condiment……The fruit is used as a flavouring and is also chewed after meals in order to sweeten the breath. The fruit is about 25mm in diameter. Some caution is advised because it is said to be poisonous in quantity.

Medicinal Uses:
Diuretic, odontalgic, stimulant. The fruit is carminative, stimulant and stomachic. It is used primarily to promote digestion and the appetite, and to relieve flatulence. It also makes a good additive to other medicines to improve their taste. The leaves and the seeds are antibacterial

It has been burned as incense in Japan, where it is known as shikimi . Cases of illness, including serious neurological effects such as seizures, reported after using star anise tea may be a result of using this species.

Known Hazards: The essential oil obtained from this plant is poisonous. The fruit is poisonous in quantity. Japanese star anise contains anisatin, shikimin, and sikimitoxin, which cause severe inflammation of the kidneys, urinary tract, and digestive organs. Other compounds present in toxic species of Illicium are safrole and eugenol, which are not present in I. verum and are used to identify its adulteration. Shikim Illiciumi gave its name to shikimic acid, a substance also present in the plant.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Anemone chinensis

Botanical Name : Anemone chinensis
Family: Ranunculaceae
Genus: Anemone
Species: A. chinensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales

Common Name : Bai Tou Weng, , Pulsatilla chinensis

Habitat : Anemone chinensis is native to E. Asia – N. China to E. Siberia. It grows in dry grassy places and rocky hillsides. Forest margins and slopes at elevations of 200 – 3200 metres in China.
Pulsatilla chinensis is a perennial plant, growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is in flower from Mar to May, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

Requires a well-drained humus-rich gritty soil and a sunny position. Tolerates alkaline soils. Plants are hardy to about . They are said to be difficult to grow in Britain, requiring a dry winter and spring followed by a warm humid summer. Large plants have a deep woody rootstock and transplant badly. A greedy plant, inhibiting the growth of nearby plants, especially legumes.

Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in early summer in a cold frame. The seed usually germinates in about 2 – 3 weeks. Sow stored seed in late winter in a cold frame. Germination takes about 1 – 6 months at 15°c. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in the spring. Root cuttings, 4cm long taken in early winter, potted up in a mixture of peat and sand. They can also be taken in July/August, planted vertically in pots in a greenhouse or frame.
Chemical composition: The whole herb contain protoanemonin; Root contain triterpene saponins. Contain anemonin, saponin about 9%. In addition, contain Anemonin, is a kind of strong heart poison, but remove root whole herb have strong heart effect, its strong heart composition have Okinalin, C32 H64 O2, Okinalein, C4 H6 O2. Congener Pulsatilla cernua root contain Stigma- sterol, C29 H46 O and B-Sitosterol, and contain Hederagenin, Oleanolic acid and minute quantity of Acetyloleanolic acid. And from the
Ulsatilla nigricans root separate a kind of glycoside, named Pulsatoside A, its aglucone is Hederagenin, its sugar is arabinose, galactose, glucose and rhamnose. Root contain: Okinalin.
Medicinal Uses:
In Traditional Chinese Medicine, pulsatilla is used as an anti-inflammatory and is considered specific for amoebic and bacterial dysentery with bloody stool, abdominal pain and tenesmus and is often used with phellodendron bark, coptis rhizome and ash bark, known as Pulsatilla Decoction (Baitouweng Tang). It is most commonly taken as a decoction to counter infection within the gastrointestinal tract. The root is also used to treat malarial fever. In addition, this herb can be used with flavescent sophora to prepare a lotion for the treatment of trichomoniasis vaginalis. The root contains the lactone protoanemonin which has an irritant and antibacterial action. Protoanemonin is destroyed when the root is dried. The fresh herb is a cardiac and nervous sedative, producing a hypnotic state with a diminution of the senses followed by a paralyzing action. A constituent similar to digitalis can be extracted from the whole herb with the roots removed. This is cardiotonic.
Bai Tou Weng is thought to clear toxicity and to lower fever. It is most commonly taken as a decoction to counter infection within the gastro-intestinal tract. The root is anodyne, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, astringent and sedative. The root is an effective cure for bacterial and amoebic dysentery. It is also used in the treatment of malaria, nose bleeds and haemorrhoids and is used externally to treat Trichomonas vaginitis. The root is harvested in the autumn or before the plant comes into flower in the spring, it can be dried for later use. The root contains the lactone protoanemonin which has an irritant and antibacterial action. Protoanemonin is destroyed when the root is dried. The fresh herb is a cardiac and nervous sedative, producing a hypnotic state with a diminution of the senses followed by a paralysing action. A constituent similar to digitalis can be extracted from the whole herb with the roots removed. This is cardiotonic

Known Hazards : Although no mention has been seen for this species, at least one member of the genus is slightly toxic, the toxins being dissipated by heat or by drying the plant

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

https://en .wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulsatilla_chinensis

Pulsatilla alpina

Botanical Name: Pulsatilla alpina
Family: Ranunculaceae
Genus: Pulsatilla
Species: P. alpina
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales

*Anemone alpina subsp. apiifolia (Scop.) O. Bolòs & Vigo
*Anemone alpina L.
*Anemone apiifolia Scop.
*Anemone gredensis Rivas Mart.
*Preonanthus alpinus (L.) Fourr.
*Preonanthus apiifolius (Scop.) Skalický
*Pulsatilla alpina subsp. apiifolia (Scop.) Nyman
*Pulsatilla alpina subsp. cantabrica M. Laínz
*Pulsatilla alpina subsp. font-queri M. Laínz & P. Monts.

Common Names : Alpine pasqueflower or Alpine anemone, Pasque-flowe, Anemone, Alpine

Habitat : : Pulsatilla alpina is native to the mountain ranges of central and southern Europe, from central Spain to Croatia. It can be found at altitudes of 1,200–2,700 m (3,900–8,900 ft).

Pulsatilla alpina is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant growing to 15–30 cm (6–12 in) tall by 20 cm (8 in) wide. It has deeply divided, hairy leaves and has more upright flowers than other species of Pulsatilla, which generally have drooping flowers. They are white or, in the case of subsp. apiifolia, yellow. The flowers are produced very early, often opening while still under snow cover. They have prominent yellow stamens. As with all pasqueflowers, the flowers have a silky, hairy texture, and are followed by prominent seedheads which persist on the plant for many week


A number of subspecies are recognised, based largely on the form and hairiness of the leaves. P. alpina subsp. schneebergensis is endemic to the easternmost Alps of Austria, and is named after the Schneeberg mountain. It is replaced further west by the widespread taxon P. alpina subsp. alpina. P. alpina subsp. austroalpina is found in the Southern Alps from Switzerland eastwards, most commonly over dolomite. P. alpina subsp. apiifolia and P. alpina subsp. alba grow over siliceous rock, but are easily distinguished by the flower colour. Further subspecies have been named for local variants in the Cantabrian Mountains (subsp. cantabrica) and Corsica (subsp. cyrnea).

Cultivation: Pulsatilla alpina is suitable for cultivation in an alpine garden, or in any sharply drained soil in full sun. It is extremely hardy but dislikes winter wet. The subspecies P. alpina subsp. apiifolia has gained the Royal Horticultural Society‘s Award of Garden
Medicinal Uses: Anemone patens was the chief medicinal plant of the Minnesota tribes of Indians. They considered it a “cure-all,” and valued it highly, and it was by their recommendation that the plant was brought to the notice of Dr. W. H. Miller.

The first recorded recognition that we can find of American pulsatilla, is a note in Griffith’s Medical Botany (1847), which was followed by a recommendation from Dr. Clapp, in his account of the medical plants of the United States (1850), and by Dr. John King, in his Dispensatory of 1852. These seem to have been only suppositions, drawn both from the relationships which exist between this plant and the European Pulsatillas, and their similar acrid properties. At any rate, these authors bring no evidence to indicate a personal experience with the plant, and produce no reference to show that others had employed it. The whole, dried flowering plant was formerly used in the treatment of toothache and rheumatic pain, but due to its toxicity is has fallen into disuse.

Homeopathic Uses: The uses of this plant coincides nearly with the uses of the European variety introduced by Hahnemann. Those who have used it to any extent, declare it to be of great value in nervous erethism, especially when reflex, and due to disordered states of the sexual organs or the digestive tract. It is useful in chlorosis, with great nervousness, in neuralgia, characterized by its wandering, erratic character. It is as useful in nervous or gastric sick headache, as is the pulsatilla of Europe. The pain commences in the nape of the neck, ascends to one side of the head and eye, and is attended by chilliness and vomiting. It has proved specific in conjunctivitis catarrhalis, ophthalmia tarsi, hordeolum, opacity of the cornea, pustules and granulations in the eyes. It is useful in otitis and otalgia from catarrh; in catarrhal angina, when the mucous surfaces are of a livid, purple hue, and covered with mucus. This light purple, or dark violet hue, attends all the local disorders indicating pulsatilla. The indications for its use in gastric troubles are the same as for Pulsatilla nig. It has great curative power over disorders of menstruation, regulating irregular menses, restoring suppressed menses, and modifying painful or profuse menses. It successful in the treatment of gonorrhoea and orchitis; as well as ovaritis due to suppression of the menses. It is well known that when a catarrhal flux from any organ is suddenly checked, a rheumatic affection of some muscle or joint may result. Here both species of pulsatilla act promptly curative, restoring the discharge and arresting the inflammation. I is advised to use for all the symptoms of Pulsatilla nig. It has the advantage of being indigenous, and obtainable pure, and in inexhaustible quantities.

Known Hazards:  Pasque flower is extremely toxic and should not be ingested or applied to the skin.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.