Nymphaea caerules

Botanical Name : Nymphaea caerules
Family: Nymphaeaceae
Genus: Nymphaea
Species: N. caerulea
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Nymphaeales

Common Names: Blue lotus (or Blue Egyptian lotus), Blue water lily (or Blue Egyptian water lily), and sacred Blue lily (or sacred narcotic lily of the nile)

Habitat :Nymphaea caerules is native to Nile and other parts of East Africa. It spread more widely in ancient times, including to the Indian Subcontinent and Thailand. It grows in water like any other water lily.

Description:
The leaves are broadly rounded, 25–40 cm across, with a notch at the leaf stem. The flowers are 10–15 cm in diameter. Reports in the literature by persons unfamiliar with its actual growth and blooming cycle have suggested that the flowers open in the morning, rising to the surface of the water, then close and sink at dusk. In fact, the flower buds rise to the surface over a period of two to three days, and when ready, open at approximately 9–9:30 am and close about 3 pm. The flowers and buds do not rise above the water in the morning, nor do they submerge at night. The flowers have pale bluish-white to sky-blue or mauve petals, smoothly changing to a pale yellow in the centre of the flower.
CLICK & SEE
Religion and art:
Along with the white lotus Nymphaea lotus, also native to Egypt, the plant and flower is very frequently depicted in Egyptian art. It has been depicted in numerous stone carvings and paintings, including the walls of the famous temple of Karnak. It is frequently depicted in connection with “party scenes”, dancing or in significant spiritual / magical rites such as the rite of passage into the afterlife. N. caerulea was considered extremely significant in Egyptian mythology, regarded as a symbol of the sun, since the flowers are closed at night and open again in the morning. At Heliopolis, the origin of the world was taught to have been when the sun-god Ra emerged from a lotus flower growing in “primordial waters”. At night he was believed to retreat into the flower again. Due to its colour, it was identified, in some beliefs, as having been the original container, in a similar manner to an egg, of Atum, and in similar beliefs Ra, both solar deities. As such, its properties form the origin of the lotus variant of the Ogdoad cosmogeny. It was the symbol of the Egyptian deity Nefertem…..click & see: Ancient Egyptian funerary stele showing a dead man, named Ba, seated in the center, sniffing a sacred lily. New Kingdom, Dynasty XVIII, c. 1550–1292 BC.
Properties and uses:
There is evidence that the clinical effects of plants including N. caerulea that contain the psychoactive alkaloid apomorphine were known to both the Mayans and the Ancient Egyptians.
The mildly sedating effects of N. caerulea makes it a likely candidate (among several) for the lotus plant eaten by the mythical Lotophagi in Homer’s Odyssey. This lotus has been used to produce perfumes since ancient times; it is also used in aromatherapy.

Medicinal Uses:
An aphrodisiac for both men and women as well as a general remedy for all illness enhancing sexual vigor and general good health. A tonic like ginseng, pain reliever like arnica, circulation stimulant richer than ginkgo biloba, and sexual stimulant richer than Viagra. It creates a feeling of well being, euphoria and ecstasy, as well as being widely used as a general remedy against illness, and is still used as a tonic for good health, consumed as an extract, 6-12 drops or up to 1 tsp to 1 Tbs in juice taken 1 to 3 times daily. Traditionally, fresh Blue Lotus was made into a tea or drank after being soaked in wine, usually followed by a cigarette made of the dried plant material. Dried flowers are sometimes smoked for a mild sedative effect. By itself, Lotus produces an opiate-like intoxication. Traditionally, Nymphaea caerulea was drunk after being soaked in warm water or wine, while the dried flowers were also smoked. About 5 grams of dried petals steeped in small amount of alcohol for a few hours to a week is said to have a synergistic effect with the Lotus, producing a euphoria. The overall effect of this combination is a narcotic empathogenic experience. According to recent studies, Blue Lily was found to be loaded with health-giving phytosterols and bioflavonoids. It turned out to be one of the greatest daily health tonics ever found.

According to Shaman Australis, (2009), “The story of the sacred Blue Lotus makes a mockery of modern science. It has been known for several years now that this species is psychoactive to some degree, but little concrete knowledge exists in the scientific arena and the psychoactive effect is vigorously disputed by conservative scientists. So a couple of wiseguy pharmacologists decided to make a name for themselves by researching the active constituents and making a documentary about it. It is shown on the discovery channel and other media, and once you’ve experienced the effects of Blue Lotus you will understand just how ridiculous their research is. In years to come it will be better suited for the comedy channel.

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First they compared the Mass Spectrometer analysis of a mummy with that of some Blue Lotus flowers with the result that they matched. This indicated that the mummy had consumed Sacred Blue Lotus not long before his death. They also looked for narcotics in the mummy and found none. The substances found were listed as phosphodiastrates, bioflavonoids and phytosterols. The first is similar to viagra, the second group is common in many fresh foods, and the last is similar to the known active constituent of Ginko biloba. At no stage in the research did they bother trying to consume a flower or an extract and this is where one has to wonder what the purpose of science is if it only serves to prove the absolute. The result of their expensive and drawn out study was that the “mild” activity of sacred Blue Lotus is due to the phytosterols. It is obvious that this conclusion can be dimissed as poor science, poor logic and above all poor representation of the lily itself.

Blue Lotus was assumed to contain nuciferine (1,2-dimethoxy-aporphine) just like Nelumbo nucifera, but this does not appear to be so according to the MS data. Aporphine and Apomorphine (6a-beta-aporphine-10,11-diol) have also been excluded.
Essentially this means that at this time no one knows what is causing the Blue Sacred Lotus to be a potent narcotic and inebriant. All we know is that 2-4 flowers soaked in wine for 24 hours will give a noticable and very pleasant synergy with the wine. Seed extracts and flower extracts can be consumed orally with or without alcohol, while dried flowers are easily dosed by smoking. All product forms will produce noticable effects. These can range from mild sedation to a fairly strong narcotic state”.

So, what are the psychoactive constituents?
More research is needed, but according to Kandeler and Ullrich, “Nymphaeas have long had a particular significance as intoxicants for shamans because of their alkaloid and glycoside content. They contain compounds similar to atropin and papaverin (nupharin, nymphalin, ellagic acid)(Roth et al., 1994).”
Also, Nymphaea caerulea could still contain Apomorphine (6a-beta-aporphine-10,11-diol) and Nuciferine (1,2-dimethoxy-aporphine). The sample used in the Shaman Australis MS study could have been the wrong plant, harvested at a bad time, had less than optimal growing conditions, etc.
Different Uses:
Recent studies have shown Nymphaea caerulea to have psychoactive properties, and may have been used as a sacrament in ancient Egypt and certain ancient South American cultures. Dosages of 5 to 10 grams of the flowers induces slight stimulation, a shift in thought processes, enhanced visual perception, and mild closed-eye visuals. Nymphaea caerulea is distantly related to, and possesses similar activity as Nelumbo nucifera, the Sacred Lotus.
These psychoactive effects make Nymphaea caerulea a likely candidate (among several) for the lotus plant eaten by the mythical Lotophagi in Homer’s Odyssey.

According to Shaman Australis, (2009), “Nymphaea nouchali has featured heavily in Egyptian history. The goddess Isis is said to have pointed out that the rhizomes were edible. Pharaohs wre buried with them and their pyramids adorned with images of them. There is also evidence, in the form of a painting in a tomb dating back to 3000-2500 BCE, that nymphaeas were deliberately cultivated in square, evenly spaced beds fed by canals. The blooms were in great demand for religious festivals, offerings of the flowers being made to the dead or to the gods, as well as for gifts to visiting noblemen as a gesture of friendship and goodwill. Both Amenhotep IV and Ramses III (1225 BCE) are known to have had them growing in their palace gardens. It is commonly assumed that this was purely for ornamental purposes, but given what we know now about their psychoactivity, there may have been more to this. Many ancient paintings depict the Sacred Blue Lotus in conjunction with wine symbols and among the consumed items rather than the decorative items. It has also long been cultivated by the Chinese and Japanese.

In modern times, the name lotus is used almost exclusively for Nelumbo nucifera. Nelumbo nucifera is not a native of Egypt. It actually comes from south-east Asia where it is often found near temples and is regarded as sacred in China and Japan. It was introduced to the Nile by the Romans, probably for food. The true Egyptian lotus is Nymphaea nouchali var. caerulea (syn. N. caerulea) and Nymphaea lotus. In in South Africa (c 1800), the rootstock of the blue water lily was collected and eaten, either raw or in curries, in particular by the Cape Malays and farming communities in the Cape.”
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nymphaea_caerulea
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm
http://www.neurosoup.com/blue-lotus-nymphaea-caerulea/

Hepatica americana

Botanical Name : Hepatica americana
Family: Ranunculaceae
Genus: Hepatica
Species: H. nobilis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales

Common Names: Liverwort, Ker-gawl ,Hepatica tribola, Hepatica nobilis,American Liverleaf, Alumroot, Round Lobed Hepatica

Habitat : Hepatica americana is native to the eastern United States and to central and eastern Canada. It grows on the dry woods. Mixed woods, often in association with both conifers and deciduous trees, usually in drier sites and more acid soils, from sea level to 1200 metres. ( Rich or rocky wooded slopes, ravines, mossy banks, ledges. Usually on acid soils.)
Description:
Hepatica americana is a herbaceous perennial, growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in) at a slow rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 4. It is in flower from Apr to May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, beetles, lepidoptera……..CLICK &  SEE  THE  PICTURES

USDA hardiness zone : 3-9

Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Rock garden, Woodland garden. Prefers a deep light soil with leafmold. Grows well on limey woodland soils in half shade, though it also succeeds in deep shade and in full sun[1]. Plants resent root disturbance and should be placed in their permanent positions as soon as possible. This species is closely related to H. acutiloba. A greedy plant, inhibiting the growth of nearby plants, especially legumes. Special Features: Attractive foliage, North American native, Naturalizing, Attracts butterflies.
Propagation:
Seed – sow in a moist soil in a shady position. The stored seed requires stratification for about 3 weeks at 0 – 5°c. Germination takes 1 – 12 months at 10°c. It is probably worthwhile sowing the seed as soon as it is ripe in a shady position in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division just as the leafless plant comes into flower in late winter. Replant immediately into their permanent positions.
Medicinal Uses:
Hepatica americana was used widely by natives and colonists to treat a variety of ailments. A tea made from the leaves is laxative. It is used in the treatment of fevers, liver ailments and poor indigestion. At one time it became a cult medicine as a liver tonic and 200,000 kilos of dried Hepatica leaves were used in 1883 alone. Externally, the tea is applied as a wash to swollen breasts[

It was used most commonly as a leaf tea to treat liver disorders. This was thought to work because the plants leaves are shaped much like the human liver. This practice of treating organ ailments with the plants that most resembled them is known as the “doctrine of signatures.” The practice originated in China and, fortunately, is no longer

While rarely found in herbal remedies today, it is a mild astringent and a diuretic. It stimulates gall bladder production and is a mild laxative. Its astringency has also stopped bleeding in the digestive tract and the resultant spitting of blood. Historically, liverwort has been used for kidney problems and bronchitis. It’s active constituent, protoaneminin, has been shown to have antibiotic action. The Russians use it in their folk medicine and also to treat cattle with mouth sickness.

Known Hazards : Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, most plants in this family are poisonous. This toxicity is usually of a low order and the toxic principle is destroyed by heat or by drying.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepatica_nobilis
http://www.missouriplants.com/Bluealt/Hepatica_americana_page.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Hepatica+americana
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm

Coccydynia

Definition:
Coccydynia is a medical term meaning pain in the coccyx or tailbone area, usually brought on by sitting too abruptly.
We humans have evolved biologically so much that we tend to forget that we were once animals and had a tail. That is, till we suddenly develop a pain deep down in the cleft between the buttocks, making it difficult to abruptly shift positions, from sitting to standing or getting up after lying down. This pain is called coccydynia.

That last bone in the vertebral column is called a coccyx. It actually is a vestigial tail, which has shrunk over generations. About 2.7 per cent of patients who see a doctor for “backache” actually had pain in the tailbone. It is more likely to occur in physically active youngsters and adults over the age of 40. Women, with their wide pelvis, are more prone to coccodynia.

Coccydynia occurs in the lowest part of the spine, the coccyx, which represents a vestigial tail, or in other words the “tail bone”. The name coccyx is derived from the Greek word for cuckoo due to its beak like appearance. The coccyx itself is made up of 3 to 5 vertebrae, some of which may be fused together. The ventral side of the coccyx is slightly concave whereas the dorsal aspect is slightly convex. Both of these sides have transverse grooves that show where the vestigial coccygeal units had previously fused. The coccyx attaches the sacrum, from the dorsal grooves with the attachment being either a symphysis or as a true synovial joint, and also to the gluteus maximus muscle, the coccygeal muscle, and the anococcygeal ligament.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES:

Symptoms:
Pain and local tenderness at the tailbone are the major symptoms of coccydynia. This can lead to difficulty sitting or leaning against the buttocks. Along with the pain with sitting, there is typically exquisite tenderness at the tailbone area. Coccydynia is also known as coccygodynia, coccygeal pain, coccyx pain, or coccalgia.

Causes:
One way of classifying coccydynia is whether the onset was traumatic versus non-traumatic. In many cases the exact cause is unknown and is referred to as idiopathic coccydynia.

The coccyx is prone to injury. Acute dislocations, sprains and fractures can occur. Usually there is a history of having fallen abruptly, on a staircase, the side of the swimming pool or some other hard surface. It can also occur while cycling or rowing. Chronic injury can occur if work or academics involves sitting for prolonged periods on hard surfaces like a wooden bench or a chair without cushions. In women, the coccyx can be injured during childbirth, especially if labour is prolonged. Overweight and obese men and women are more likely to develop problems with the coccyx.

There are common pathophysiological ways that a person may develop coccydynia. The two main causes for this condition are sudden impact due to fall, and coccydynia caused by childbirth pressure in women. Other ways that coccydynia develops are partial dislocation of the sacrococcygeal synchondrosis that can possibly result in abnormal movement of the coccyx from excessive sitting, and repetitive trauma of the surrounding ligaments and muscles, resulting in inflammation of tissues and pain.

Coccydynia is a fairly common injury which can often result from falls, particularly in leisure activities such as cycling and skateboarding. Coccydynia is often reported following a fall or after childbirth. In some cases, persistent pressure from activities like bicycling may cause the onset of coccyx pain. Coccydynia due to these causes usually is not permanent, but it may become very persistent and chronic if not controlled. Coccydynia may also be caused by sitting improperly thereby straining the coccyx.

Rarely, coccydynia is due to the undiagnosed presence of a sacrococcygeal teratoma or other tumor in the vicinity of the coccyx. In these cases, appropriate treatment usually involves surgery and/or chemotherapy.
Diagnosis:
A number of different conditions can cause pain in the general area of the coccyx, but not all involve the coccyx and the muscles attached to it. The first task of diagnosis is to determine whether the pain is related to the coccyx. Physical rectal examination, high resolution x-rays and MRI scans can rule out various causes unrelated to the coccyx, such as Tarlov cysts and pain referred from higher up the spine. Note that, contrary to most anatomical textbooks, most coccyxes consist of several segments: ‘fractured coccyx’ is often diagnosed when the coccyx is in fact normal or just dislocated at an intercoccygeal joint.

A simple test to determine whether the coccyx is involved is injection of local anesthetic into the area. If the pain relates to the coccyx, this should produce immediate relief.

If the anesthetic test proves positive, then a dynamic (sit/stand) x-ray or MRI scan may show whether the coccyx dislocates when the patient sits.

Use of dynamic x-rays on 208 patients who gave positive results with the anesthetic test showed:

* 31% Not possible to identify the cause of pain
* 27% Hypermobility (excessive flexing of the coccyx forwards and upwards when sitting)
* 22% Posterior luxation (partial dislocation of the coccyx backwards when sitting)
* 14% Spicule (bony spur) on the coccyx
* 5% Anterior luxation (partial dislocation of the coccyx forwards when sitting)

This study found that the pattern of lesions was different depending on the obesity of the patients: obese patients were most likely to have posterior luxation of the coccyx, while thin patients were most likely to have coccygeal spicules.

Angle of incidence:
Sagittal coccygeal movement is measured using the angle of incidence—or the angle at which the coccyx strikes the seat when an individual sits down. A smaller angle indicates the coccyx being more parallel to the seat, resulting in flexion (or “normal” movement) of the coccyx. A larger angle indicates the coccyx being more perpendicular to the seat, causing posterior subluxation (or “backward” movement) of the coccyx. CLICK & SEE THE PICTURE : Stand to Sit Coccyx

Treatment:
Once coccydynia has been diagnosed, conservative treatment can make the pain disappear in 8-12 weeks. This involves sitting in a basin of hot water (sitz bath) for 10-15 minutes at least twice a day. A donut shaped cushion makes sitting during work easier. Inflatable rubber cushions are available which can be carried around. When seated on chairs or in the toilet, try to lean slightly forwards.

Stretches can be done for that area. The two common ones are the kneeling stretch, when you kneel on one leg keeping the other bent at a right angle. After 30 seconds switch sides. The other stretch involves lying down, bending the knees, crossing the legs at the ankle and then pulling the legs towards you with your arms.
You may click & see : BACK PAIN REMEDY.. 

Since sitting on the affected area may aggravate the condition, a cushion with a cutout at the back under the coccyx is recommended. If there is tailbone pain with bowel movements, then stool softeners and increased fiber in the diet may help. For prolonged cases, anti-inflammatory medications such as NSAIDS(non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs) or pain-relieving drugs may be prescribed. The use of anti-depressants such as Elavil (amitriptyline) may help alleviate constant pain. Tailbone pain physicians specializing in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at New Jersey Medical School have published that sometimes even just a single local nerve block injection at the ganglion impar can give 100% relief of coccydynia when performed under fluoroscopic guidance.

Additionally if the pain is caused by a malignment of the coccyx, manipulation by a chiropractor, osteopathic physician (D.O.) or physical therapist can offer relief.

In rare cases, surgery to remove the coccyx (coccygectomy) may be required. Typically, surgery is reserved for patients with cancer (malignancy) or those whose tailbone pain has failed to respond to non-surgical treatment (such as medications by mouth, use of seat cushions, and medications given by local injections done under fluoroscopic guidance, as noted above.

Prevention:
Body positioning and alignment is significant for producing less stress in the coccyx region. Bad posture can influence coccyx pain. People may not realize that they are over stressing their coccyx while doing daily activities. Pain in the coccyx can be caused from many incidents like falling, horseback riding, or even sitting on hard surfaces for a long period of time. The main focus is to prevent coccyx pain from occurring, by correcting everyday activities that contribute to tailbone pain.

Proper equipment used to preventing coccyx pain:
There is no definite way to fully prevent coccyx pain because an accident can occur at any given time. However, people who are obese are at a higher risk for developing coccyx pain. Carrying excessive weight contributes to more stress on the coccyx while sitting down causing increased chances of pain.  Prevention of carrying excessive weight gain can help reduce the tension and pressure on the coccyx. In other words the coccyx for obese people may be more posteriorly outward when they are sitting down.  Avoidance of contact sports like basketball, football, and or hockey can decrease the risks of coccyx pain, because it can help reduce the chances of falling. Another method is proper safety equipment for sports is to prevent coccyx pain. For example, there are hockey pants that provide extra cushion that protect the thigh, coccyx, and buttocks. These results will lead to less falls that can cause trauma to the coccyx.

Stretches & strengthening exercises for prevention:
A kneeling groin stretch can help prevent coccyx pain from occurring after long periods of sitting. The adductor magnus is involved in the kneeling groin stretch, and when it is tight it can contribute to tailbone pain, so stretching can help prevent tailbone pain. Other stretches like piriformis stretch, and hands to feet stretch, can relieve stress off the muscles around the coccyx, after sitting for a long time. These release tension built up around the muscles in the coccyx.
Every part of our body (even the coccyx) needs looking after.

*While cycling on a stationery bike or on the road, make sure the cycle seat is soft and comfortable. Special “cycling innerwear” is available with padding and should be used.

*Do not run on slippery surfaces like the edges of the swimming pool.

*Wear footwear that is rubber soled or has a “grip”, not smooth leather.

*Maintain ideal body weight. This can be calculated as height in metre squared X 23.

*Walk and sit with the correct posture. If you feel you are slouching, stand with both shoulders touching the wall and balance a book on your head.

*Do not sit on hard surfaces for prolonged periods of time.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coccydynia
http://www.medicinenet.com/coccydynia/article.htm
http://www.telegraphindia.com/1160201/jsp/knowhow/story_66774.jsp

Achillea santolina

 
Botanical Name : Achillea santolina
Family:  Asteraceae
Genus : Achillea
Kingdom : Plantae
Division:  Marchantiophyta
Class : Angiospermae
Order :  Asterales

Common Name : Santolina yarrow

Habitat: Achillea santolina is native to E. Asia – Himalayas. It grows well in cultivated bed.

Description:
Achillea santolina is a herbaceous perennial plant, growing to 0.3 m (1ft). The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Succeeds in most soils but prefers a well-drained soil in a sunny position. Plants in this genus generally live longer when growing in a poor soil. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring or early autumn in a cold frame. The seed usually germinates in 1 – 3 months[133]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. Division in spring or autumn. Very easy, the divisions can be planted direct into their permanent positions. Basal cuttings of new shoots in spring. Very easy, collect the shoots when they are about 10cm tall, potting them up individually in pots and keeping them in a warm but lightly shaded position. They should root within 3 weeks and will be ready to plant out in the summer.
Medicinal Uses:
The plant is carminative and tonic. It is used to treat stomach aches in children.

Other Uses : … Repellent……..The plant is insect repellent.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources;
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achillea
http://eol.org/pages/6173218/names/common_names
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Achillea+santolina

Achillea ptarmica

 

Botanical Name : Achillea ptarmica
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Achillea
Species: A. ptarmica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Name : Sneeze-Wort, Sneezeweed , Sneezewort, Bastard pellitory, European pellitory, Fair-maid-of-France, Goose tongue, Sneezewort yarrow, Wild pellitory, White tansy

Habitat :Achillea ptarmica is native to Europe, including Britain but excluding the Mediterranean, east to Siberia and W. Asia. It grows on the damp meadows, marshes and by streams.

Description:
Achillea ptarmica is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.6 m (2ft in) at a fast rate. It is widespread across most of Europe and naturalized in scattered places in North America.

Achillea ptarmica has loose clusters of showy white, flower heads that bloom from June to August. Its dark green leaves have finely toothed margins. Like many other plants, the sneezewort’s pattern of development displays the Fibonacci sequence.CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The name ptarmica comes from the Greek word ptairo (=sneeze) and means ’causes sneezing’

It is hardy to zone (UK) 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, self. The plant is self-fertile.
Cultivation & propagation: Achillea ptarmica is a hardy, drought-tolerant plant that prefers full sun and moist but well-drained soil. Propagation is by sowing seed or division in Spring

Edible Uses: Leaves are eaten raw or cooked. Used as a flavouring in salads.
Medicinal Uses:
Antidiarrhoeal; Antiemetic; Antiflatulent; Antirheumatic; Appetizer; Cardiac; Diaphoretic; Digestive; Emmenagogue; Miscellany; Odontalgic;
Sternutatory; Styptic.

Achillea ptarmica yields an essential oil that is used in herbal medicine. The leaf is chewed to relieve toothache.
Other Uses:
Landscape Uses:Border, Container, Rock garden, Seashore, Specimen. Succeeds in most soils but prefers a moist well-drained soil in a sunny position. The dried, powdered leaves are used as a sneezing powder. Yields an essential oil that is used medicinally. The report does not say what part of the plant the oil is obtained from, it is most likely to be the leaves harvested just before flowering. The leaves are used as an insect repellent.

Known Hazards:  The plant is poisonous to cattle, sheep, and horses. Symptoms are generally slow to develop, and include fever, rapid pulse, difficulty breathing, weight loss, drooling, spasms and loss of muscular control, and convulsions

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achillea_ptarmica
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Achillea+ptarmica

Calochortus gunnisonii

 

Botanical Name ; Calochortus gunnisonii
Family: Liliaceae
Genus: Calochortus
Species: C. gunnisonii
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Liliales

Common Names: Gunnison’s mariposa lily, Lily, Mariposa, Mariposa Lily, Gunnison’s mariposa lily

Habitat : Calochortus gunnisonii is native to the western United States, primarily in the Rocky Mountains and Black Hills: Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, northwestern Nebraska (Sioux County) and eastern Idaho (Fremont County).
It grows on grassy hillsides and open coniferous woods[60]. Found in a variety of habitats from moist meadows and open woods to sandy and rocky hillsides and dry gulches between 1,200 and 3,300 metres.

Description:
Calochortus gunnisonii is a bulb-forming perennial with straight stems up to 55 cm tall.It is a typically large and beautiful member of the genus; its bell-shaped flowers have three broad, rounded white (rarely pink or pale yellow) petals and three thin, shorter, pointed sepals, with a ring of fine greenish-yellow hairs around the center and a circular band of purple. In the middle are six anthers and a three pronged stigma. Flowers are about 2 inches in diameter. The thin, bendy stalks bear a few grass-like leaves, and can branch a few times towards the top. Stem and leaves are hairless. Plants sprout from (edible) bulbs, usually deeply buried.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES 

 Varieties:
*Calochortus gunnisonii var. gunnisonii – most of species range
*Calochortus gunnisonii var. perpulcher Cockerell – New Mexico

USDA hardiness zone : 3-7 Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.
Cultivation:
Requires a deep very well-drained fertile sandy soil in a sunny position and must be kept dry from mid summer to late autumn. This is a rather difficult plant to cultivate in Britain, it is very cold hardy but is intolerant of wetness especially in the winter. It is easiest to grow in a bulb frame but is worth trying outdoors at the base of a south-facing wall, especially with shrubs that like these conditions. Bulbs can be lifted as soon as the foliage dies down in the summer and stored overwinter in a cool dry place, replanting in the spring. The bulbs must be replanted immediately according to another report. Bulbs frequently divide after flowering, the bulblets taking 2 years to reach flowering size. This species is closely related to C. ambiguus. Hand pollination is necessary if seed is required.
Propagation:
Seed – sow as soon as ripe or early spring in a cold frame in a very sharply draining medium. Stratification may be helpful. Germination usually takes place within 1 – 6 months at 15°c. Leave the seedlings undisturbed for their first two years growth], but give them an occasional liquid feed to ensure they do not become nutrient deficient. It is quite difficult to get the seedlings through their first period of dormancy since it is all too easy either to dry them out completely or keep them too moist when they will rot. After their second year of growth, pot up the dormant bulbs in late summer and grow them on for at least another 2 years in the greenhouse before trying them outside. Seedlings take about 5 – 7 years to come into flower. Division of the bulbs as soon as the foliage dies down. The bulbs can be planted straight out into their permanent positions but in areas with wet winters it might be best to store them overwinter and replant them in the spring. Stem bulbils, harvested from the stems after flowering. They can be stored cool and dry then planted in pots in the cold frame in the spring
Edible Uses :
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Root; Seed.
Edible Uses:

Bulb – raw or cooked. One report says that the raw bulb tastes like a raw new potato. It has a crisp nut-like texture and a pleasant flavour when cooked. The bulb can be dried and ground into a powder for making a sweet porridge, mush etc. Leaves – cooked. It is hard to obtain a sufficient quantity and use of the leaves will weaken the bulbs. Seed – ground into a powder. Flower buds – raw. Added to salads.

Medicinal Uses:
An infusion of the plant has been taken internally to treat rheumatic swellings by the Acoma and Laguna Indians and by the Navajo to ease the delivery of the placenta. Juice of the leaves were applied to pimples.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calochortus_gunnisonii
http://www.americansouthwest.net/plants/wildflowers/calochortus-gunnisonii.html
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Calochortus+gunnisonii

Syringa vulgaris

Botanical Name : Syringa vulgaris
Family: Oleaceae
Genus: Syringa
Species: S. vulgaris
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Common Name: Lilac or Common lilac

Habitat : Syringa vulgaris is native to the Balkan Peninsula, where it grows on rocky hill slopes in Europe. Found in hedges, thickets and shrubberies in Britain. This species is widely cultivated as an ornamental and has been naturalized in other parts of Europe (UK, France, Germany, Italy, etc.) as well as much of North America. It is not regarded as an aggressive species, found in the wild in widely scattered sites, usually in the vicinity of past or present human habitations.

Description:
Syringa vulgaris is a large deciduous shrub or multi-stemmed small tree, growing to 6–7 m (20–23 ft) high, producing secondary shoots (“suckers”) from the base or roots, with stem diameters of up to 20 cm (8 in), which in the course of decades may produce a small clonal thicket. The bark is grey to grey-brown, smooth on young stems, longitudinally furrowed and flaking on older stems. The leaves are simple, 4–12 cm (2–5 in) and 3–8 cm broad, light green to glaucous, oval to cordate, with pinnate leaf venation, a mucronate apex and an entire margin. They are arranged in opposite pairs or occasionally in whorls of three. The flowers have a tubular base to the corolla 6–10 mm long with an open four-lobed apex 5–8 mm across, usually lilac to mauve, occasionally white.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Blooming time is early spring, Late spring, Mid spring. Form: Rounded. They are arranged in dense, terminal panicles 8–18 cm (3–7 in) long. The fruit is a dry, smooth brown capsule, 1–2 cm long, splitting in two to release the two winged seeds.

It is hardy to zone (UK) 5. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, lepidoptera.It is noted for attracting wildlife.
Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Border, Standard, Seashore, Specimen. Succeeds in most soils, including chalk, but dislikes acid soils. Prefers a deep stiff well-drained loam in a warm sunny position. A very ornamental plant, it does tend to sucker quite freely though. There are many named varieties, developed for their ornamental value. The flowers attract butterflies and moths. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus. Special Features: Not North American native, Fragrant flowers, Blooms are very showy.

Propagation:
Seed – sow March in a north facing cold frame. Pre-treating the seed with 4 weeks warm then 3 weeks cold stratification improves germination. It is probable that sowing the seed as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame would be a more reliable method. Prick the seedlings out into individual pots once they are large enough to handle. Plant them out in the summer if sufficient growth has been made, otherwise grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter and plant out in late spring of the following year. Cuttings of young shoots, 7cm with a heel, June in a frame. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Layering in spring before new growth begins. Takes 12 months. Division of suckers in late winter. They can be planted straight out into their permanent positions.

Edible Uses: ..Flowers are eaten raw or folded into batter and fried to make fritters.
Medicinal Uses:
The leaves and the fruit are antiperiodic, febrifuge, tonic and vermifuge. The bark or leaves have been chewed by children as a treatment for sore mouth.
Used as a vermifuge in the US and as a tonic anti-periodic and febrifuge; used as a substitute for aloes and in the treatment of malaria.

Other Uses: Dye; Essential; Hedge; Hedge; Rootstock.
An essential oil is obtained from the flowers. Used in perfumery. A green dye is obtained from the flowers. Green and brown dyes can be obtained from the leaves. A yellow-orange dye is obtained from the twigs. Plants can be grown as an informal hedge. The plant is often used as a rootstock for the various ornamental cultivars of lilac. Its main disadvantage is that it can be sucker very freely.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Syringa+vulgaris
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syringa_vulgaris
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm

Cymbopogon citrates

Botanical Name : Cymbopogon citrates
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Cymbopogon
Species: C. citratus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales

Common Names : Lemon grass or Oil grass, Fever Grass, Citronella, Capim

Habitat : Cymbopogon citrates is native to tropical regions ( Indonesia, and introduced and cultivated in most of the tropics, including Africa, South America and Indo-China.) It grows in clusters. The plant has globular stems that eventually become leaf blades.

Description:
The Cymbopogon citrates is a perennial plant with brawny stalks and somewhat broad and scented leaves. This species of plant is usually cultivated commercially for oil refinement and is different by its individual aroma and chemical composition of the oil. Apart from C. citratus, or Cymbopogon citratus, there are other varieties of lemongrass such as C. nardus (also known citronella grass that is a source of citronella oil), C. martini (known as ginger grass, palma-rosa or rusha) and C. winterianus (Java citronella oil).
Cymbopogon citrates is also a resourceful plant in the garden. This grass, native of the tropical regions, usually grows in thick bunches that often develop to a height of six feet (1.8 meters) and approximately four feet (1.2 meters) in breadth. The leaves of the plant are similar to straps and are 0.5 inch to 1 inch (1.3 cm to 2.5 cm) in width and around three feet (0.9 meter) in length, and possess stylish apexes. The plant bears leaves round the year and they are vivid bluish-green and when mashed they emit an aroma akin to lemons. The leaves of this plant are used for flavoring and also in the manufacture of medications. The leaves are refined by steam to obtain lemongrass oil – an old substitute in the perfume manufacturers’ array of aroma. The most common type of lemongrass found is a variety of plants that originated and persisted under cultivation and do not usually bear flowers…….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Over the years, lemongrass has fast turned out to be the most wanted plant for the American gardeners and this is attributed to the increasing popularity of Thai culinary in the United States. The aromatic lemongrass is considered to be of multi-purpose use in the kitchen as it is used in teas, drinks, herbal medications and the soups and delicacies originated in the Eastern region of the world and now popular all over. In fact, the worth of this aromatic and cosmetic plant was known to the ancient Greeks, Romans and Egyptians.
Edible Uses:
The stalks and leaves of the lemongrass are widely used in culinary in different Asian countries.

Cymbopogon citratus is abundant in the Philippines and Indonesia where it is known as tanglad or sereh. Its fragrant leaves are traditionally used in cooking, particularly for lechon and roasted chicken.

The dried leaves can also be brewed into a tea, either alone or as a flavoring in other teas, imparting a flavor reminiscent of lemon juice but with a mild sweetness without significant sourness or tartness.

Medicinal Uses:
Apart from the herb’s aromatic, ornamental and culinary uses, lemongrass also provides a number of therapeutic benefits. Lemongrass leaves and the essential oils extracted from them are utilized to cure grouchy conditions, nervous disorders, colds and weariness. It may be mentioned here that many massage oils and aromatherapy oils available in the market enclose lemongrass oil as an important ingredient. The essential oils extracted from lemongrass have a yellow or yellowish-brown hue and this liquid is known to be antiseptic. Very often the oil is applied externally to treat disorders like athlete’s foot (tinea pedia). Among other things, lemongrass is also used as a carminative to emit digestive gas, a digestive tonic, a febrifuge or analgesic as well as an antifungal. In addition, lemongrass is prescribed to treat rheumatism and sprains, suppress coughs, and as a diuretic and sedative.

In East India and Sri Lanka, where it is called “fever tea,” lemon grass leaves are combined with other herbs to treat fevers, irregular menstruation, diarrhea, and stomachaches. Lemon grass is one of the most popular herbs in Brazil and the Caribbean for nervous and digestive problems. The Chinese use lemon grass in a similar fashion, to treat headaches, stomachaches, colds, and rheumatic pains. The essential oil is used straight in India to treat ringworm or in a paste with buttermilk to rub on ringworm and bruises. Studies show it does destroy many types of bacteria and fungi and is a deodorant. It may reduce blood pressure – a traditional Cuban use of the herb – and it contains five different constituents that inhibit blood coagulation.

The leaves of Cymbopogon citratus have been used in traditional medicine and are often found in herbal supplements and teas. Many effects have been attributed to both their oral consumption and topical use, with modern research supporting many of their alleged benefits.

In the folk medicine of Brazil, it is believed to have anxiolytic, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant properties.

In traditional medicine of India the leaves of the plant are used as stimulant, sudorific, antiperiodic, and anticatarrhal, while the essential oil is used as carminative, depressant, analgesic, antipyretic, antibacterial, and antifungal agent.

Laboratory studies have shown cytoprotective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro, as well as antifungal properties (though Cymbopogon martinii was found to be more effective in that study).

Citronellol is an essential oil constituent from Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon winterianus, and Lippia alba. Citronellol has been shown to lower blood pressure in rats by a direct effect on the vascular smooth muscle leading to vasodilation. In a small, randomized, controlled trial, an infusion made from C. citratus was used as an inexpensive remedy for the treatment of oral thrush in HIV/AIDS patients.

Lemon grass oil contains 65-85% citral in addition to myrcene, citronella, citronellol, and geraniol. Hydrosteam distillation, condensation, and cooling can be used to separate the oil from the water. The hydrosol, as a by-product of the distillation process, is used for the production of skin care products such as lotions, creams, and facial cleansers. The main ingredients in these products are lemon grass oil and “negros oil” (mixture of lemon grass oil with virgin coconut oil) used in aromatherapy.
Other Uses:
Effects on insects: Beekeepers sometimes use lemon grass oil in swarm traps to attract swarms. Lemon grass oil has also been tested for its ability to repel the pestilent stable fly, which bite domestic animals. The oil is used as insect replants.

The leaves and essential oils of the plant are also utilized in herbal medications. In addition, Cymbopogon citratus is extensively used by the cosmetic industry in the manufacture of soaps as well as hair care products. Finally, these days, lemongrass is being appreciated for its effectiveness in repelling mosquitoes. The essential oils of Cymbopogon species are basically used in the fragrance industry as they possess very restrained therapeutic uses.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cymbopogon_citratus
http://www.herbs2000.com/herbs/herbs_lemongrass.htm
http://www.kew.org/science-conservation/plants-fungi/cymbopogon-citratus-lemon-grass
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm
http://findmeacure.com/wp-admin/post.php?post=1821&action=edit

Macrotyloma uniflorum

Botanical Name : Macrotyloma uniflorum
Family: Fabaceae
Genus: Macrotyloma
Species: M. uniflorum
Kingdom: Plantae

Synonyms:
*Dolichos benadirianus Chiov.
*Dolichos uniflorus Lam. var. stenocarpus Brenan
*Dolichos biflorus auct.
*Dolichos uniflorus Lam.

Common Names : Biflorus (Australia); Horse gram, Horse grain,Kulthi bean, Madras bean, Madras gram, Poor man’s pulse (English); Dolic biflore, Grain de cheval (French); Kerdekorn, pferdebohne, Pferdekorn (German); Gahat, hurali, Kalai, Kallu, Kollu, Kulat, kulatha, kurtikalai, kekara, kulthi, Muthera, Muthira, Muthiva, Ulavalu, Wulawula (India); Dolico cavallino (Italian); Faveira (Portuguese); Frijol verde (Spanish); Pé-bi-zât.

In India it is also known as Gahat, Muthira, Kulath or Kulthi, (huraLi).
In South Canara region of Karnataka, in Tulu it is also called as Kudu In Odisha it is known by the name (Kolatha).
In Kerala, horse gram, (called (Muthira) in Malayalam which almost sounds like (kuthira), Malayalam word for horse), is used in special kinds of dishes.
In Maharashtra, and specifically the coastal Konkan region and Goa, horse gram (Kulith) is often used to make Kulith Usual, pithla and laddu.

Habitat :Macrotyloma uniflorum is native to tropics and subtropics. (Africa: Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaire), Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa (Transvaal), Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe.
Asia: Bhutan, China, India, Indonesia (Java), Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan.
Australasia: Australia.) It is grown mostly under dry-land agriculture.
Description:
Macrotyloma uniflorum is a twining, sub-erect annual plant with cylindrical, slightly hairy to tomentose stems, 30–60 cm tall in pure stands, or 60–90 cm with support framework. Leaves trifoliolate; stipules 7–10 mm long; leaflets ovate, rounded at the base, acute or slightly acuminate, terminal leaflet symmetrical, laterals asymmetrical, (2.5–) 3.5–5 (–7.5) cm long, 2–4 cm broad, softly tomentose on both surfaces, fimbriolate, paler beneath. Flowers yellow or greenish yellow, single or in short, sessile or subsessile, 2- to 4-flowered axillary racemes, calyx tomentose, standard oblong, 9–10.5 mm long, 7–8 mm broad, with two linear appendages about 5 mm long, wings about as long as the keel, 8–9.5 mm long. Pod shortly stipitate, slightly curved, smooth or tomentose, linear-oblong, 2.5–6 cm long, about 6 mm broad, with a point about 6 mm long. Seed ovoid, 5–8 per pod, 4–6 (–8) mm long, 3–5 mm broad, pale fawn, light red, brown, or black sometimes with faint mottles or with small, scattered black spots, (or both), hilum central. 33,000–75,000 seeds/kg

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Uses/applications:
Usually grown as a pulse for livestock and human consumption, mostly as an intercrop with annual grains (e.g. sorghum) or in orchards. Has value as a pioneer legume or sometimes a regenerating annual in permanent pasture . Can be used for deferred grazing or as a fodder crop for dry season feed.

In Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, horse gram (Ulava (singular) Ulavalu (plural), is prescribed for persons suffering from jaundice or water retention, and as part of a weight loss diet. It is considered helpful for iron deficiencies, and is considered helpful for maintaining body temperature in the winter season. Ulavacharu (Horse gram soup) is popular dish in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, it is served in most of the Telugu speaking people’s weddings and ceremonies and tastes wonderful with boiled rice.
In Tamil Nadu, horse gram (called Kollu), in the southern districts it is called Kaanam) is commonly used in Tamil dishes, including kollu chutney, kollu porial, kollu avial, kollu sambar, and kollu rasam. In traditional siddha cuisine, horse gram is considered a food with medicinal qualities.

It is used to make popular dishes like Kulitan Saaru, Kulitan Upkari, Kulitan Ghassi(coconut curry preparation) and idli like preparation(but not fermented) called Kulitan Sannan.

In Karnataka cuisine, (huraLi saaru), (huraLi) is a main ingredient. Hurali is also used in preparation like usali,chutney and Basaaru and upsaaru or upnesaru (Particularly in Old Mysore Regions like Mandya & Chamrajnagara Districts)
Gahat or Kulath is a major ingredient in the food of Pahari region of northern India. In Himachal Pradesh, Kulath is used to make Khichdi. In Uttarakhand, it is cooked in a round iron saute pan (“kadhai”) to prepare Ras, a favorite of most Kumaonis. In Garhwal region, another more elaborate dish is “phanu” which is made in a kadhai with roughly ground gahat (previously soaked overnight) boiled over several hours. Towards the end, some finely chopped greens (like palak or spinach, rai, tender radish leaves, or dhania (coriander leaves) if nothing else is available) are added to complete the dish. Served with boiled rice, jhangora (a millet-like grain, used as a staple by poorer Garhwalis only a decade ago and now a prized health-food) or just roti, phanu is a wholesome and nutritious meal. Phanu is somewhat heavy to digest; it’s quite possible to go through the whole day without feeling in the least bit hungry, after having a big phanu meal in the morning. Similar Botanical name of horse gram/Gahat or Kulath/KULTHI IS Dolichos biflorus from the Leguminiaceae family.
Chemical Constituents:
The chemical composition is comparable with more commonly cultivated legumes. Like other legumes, these are deficient in methionine and tryptophan, though horse gram is an excellent source of iron and molybdenum. Comparatively, horse gram seeds have higher trypsin inhibitor and hemagglutinin activities and natural phenols than most bean seeds. Natural phenols are mostly phenolic acids, namely, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, syringic and sinapic acids. Dehusking, germination, cooking, and roasting have been shown to produce beneficial effects on nutritional quality of both the legumes. Though both require prolonged cooking, a soak solution(1.5% NaHCO
+ 0.5% Na2CO3 + 0.75% citric acid) has been shown to reduce cooking time and improve protein quality. Moth bean is mostly consumed as dhal or sprouts.

Medicinal Uses:
Scientists from the Indian Institute of Chemical Technology have found that unprocessed raw horse gram seeds not only possess anti-hyperglycemic properties but also have qualities which reduce insulin resistance. The scientists made a comparative analysis between horse gram seeds and their sprouts and found that the seeds would have greater beneficial effects on the health of hyperglycemic individuals. The majority of anti-oxidant properties are confined to the seed coat and its removal would not do any good. Raw horse gram seed is rich in polyphenols, flavonoids and proteins, major anti-oxidants present in fruits and other food materials. The seed has the ability to reduce post-prandial hyperglycemia by slowing down carbohydrate digestion and reduce insulin resistance by inhibiting protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1 beta enzyme

A teaspoonful of horse gram boiled in about 2 cups of water makes an infusion which is prescribed for colds and high blood pressure.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macrotyloma_uniflorum
http://www.tropicalforages.info/key/Forages/Media/Html/Macrotyloma_uniflorum.htm
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_IJK.htm

Solanum paniculatum

Botanical Name : Solanum paniculatum
Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Solanum
Species: S. paniculatum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Solanales

Synonyms:
* Solanum belfort Vand.
*Solanum belfortianum Dunal
*Solanum botelhianum Dunal (unjustified emendation)
*Solanum botelho Vand.
*Solanum chloroleucum Dunal
*Solanum dictyoticum Roem. & Schult.
*Solanum jubeba Vell.
*Solanum macronema Sendtn.
*Solanum manoelii Moric.
*Solanum reticulatum Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.
*Solanum reticulatum of de Jussieu from Dunal in de Candolle is S. vellozianum.
*Solanum reticulatum of Dunal in Poiret is S. crotonoides as described by Lamarck
*Solanum rothelianum Steud. (lapsus)

Common Name  :  Jurubeba, Jurubeba-branca, Jurubeba-verdadeira , Jubeba, Juribeba, Juripeba, Jupela, Juripeba, Juuna, Juvena, Jurubebinha

Habitat : Solanum paniculatum is native to to Brazil as well as Paraguay and Argentina.

Description:
Solanum paniculatum is a small tree that grows up to 3 m high, with heart-shaped leaves that are smooth on top and fuzzy underneath. It produces a small, yellow fruit and lilac or white flowers. There exsits both mail & female Solanum paniculatum trees, the female trees are slightly taller than male ones and have large leaves and bear fruits. The leaves and roots of both female and male specimens (as well as the fruit) are used interchangeably for medicinal purposes with equal effectiveness…...CLICK & SEE THE  PICTURES

Jurubeba tea is a very common household remedy throughout Brazil. It helps to tone, balance and strengthen the liver from overeating and too much alcohol.

Medicinal Uses:
While solanum paniculatum is a very popular natural remedy, its use has been mostly confined to South America. The plant has demonstrated little toxicity: a recent study showed that a water extract of the flower, fruit, leaf, stem, or root (given orally to mice at 2 g/kg) had no toxicity. It is a great liver tonic and a wonderful remedy for many types of digestive disorders (especially for sluggish digestion), working quickly and efficiently, and is deserving of much more attention in the United States.

Jurubeba is listed as an official drug in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia as a specific for anemia and liver disorders. Jurubeba has long been used for liver and digestive disorders. The leaves and roots are used today as a tonic and for fevers, anemia, erysipelas, hepatitis, liver and spleen disorders, uterine tumors, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic gastritis, and other such digestive problems as sluggish digestion, bloating, and flatulence. Jurubeba leaf tea is a very common household remedy throughout Brazil for hangovers and overeating. It is relied on to speed the digestive process and promote gastric emptying. After a heavy meal or drinking bout, Brazilians drink a cup of Jurubeba tea. After just a few minutes the symptoms of indigestion and that bloated feeling disappear. It is also a powerful tonic for the liver. The roots, leaves and fruits are used as a tonic and decongestive. It is a good remedy against chronic hepatitis, intermittent fever and hydropsy. It is also sometimes employed externally in poultices to heal wounds and ulcers. The leaves are applied externally for dressing ulcers. Jurubeba has been used to treat uterine tumors.

Warnings:
*This plant has been documented to have mild hypotensive activity as well as a stimulating action on the heart. Those with cardiovascular disorders, hypotension, or those on blood-pressure-lowering medications should only use this plant under the care and direction of a qualified health care professional.

*Herbalists in Brazil report that prolonged or chronic use of this plant may irritate the stomach lining in some individuals. So it is advised not to use this daily for longer than 30 days.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solanum_paniculatum
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_IJK.htm
http://azarius.net/lifestyle/healthy-lifestyle/health_tea/jurubeba/