Fruits & Vegetables


Botanical Name: Blighia sapida
Family: Sapindaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales
Genus: Blighia
Species:B. sapida

Synonyms: Cupania sapida Voigt

Common Names: Ackee, Ackee apple or Ayee (Blighia sapida)

Habitat:Ackee is native to tropical West Africa. The scientific name honors Captain William Bligh who took the fruit from Jamaica to the Royal Botanic Gardens in Kew, England in 1793, and introduced it to science. The English common name is derived from the West African Akan akye fufo.

Ackee is an evergreen tree that grows about 10 metres tall, with a short trunk and a dense crown. The leaves are paripinnately, compound 15–30 centimetres (5.9–11.8 in) long, with 6–10 elliptical to oblong leathery leaflets. Each leaflet is 8–12 centimetres (3.1–4.7 in) long and 5–8 centimetres (2.0–3.1 in) wide. The inflorescences are fragrant, up to 20 cm long, with unisexual flowers that bloom during warm months. Each flower has five greenish-white petals, which are fragrant.

The fruit is pear-shaped. When it ripens, it turns from green to a bright red to yellow-orange, and splits open to reveal three large, shiny black seeds, each partly surrounded by soft, creamy or spongy, white to yellow flesh — the aril having a nut-like flavor and texture of scrambled eggs. The fruit typically weighs 100–200 grams (3.5–7.1 oz).


A plant of the drier to very wet lowland tropics and subtropics, where it is found at elevations up to 900 metres. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 24 – 27c, but can tolerate 20 – 34c. Mature plants can be killed by temperatures of -3c or lower, but young plants are intolerant of any frost. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 2,000 – 4,000mm, but tolerates 700 – 6,000mm. Grows best in a sunny position. Prefers a moist, loamy, fertile, well-drained soil. Plants can succeed in a range of soils, including infertile, rocky soils. Prefers a pH in the range 5.5 – 6.5, tolerating 4.3 – 8. Established plants are drought tolerant. Initial growth is fast on moderately fertile soils. Seedlings grow best in gaps in the forest canopy, with a mean annual height increment of 70cm. Plants can commence cropping when 3 – 4 years old from seed. The plant has been known to escape from cultivation when grown in sandy soils. Plants flower intermittently throughout the year. A dioecious species, both male and female forms need to be grown if fruit and seed are required.

Edible Uses:
Imported to Jamaica from West Africa in 1773, the use of ackee in Jamaican cuisine is prominent. Ackee is the national fruit of Jamaica, and ackee and saltfish is the national dish.

The akee is allowed to open fully before picking. When it has “yawned”, the seeds are discarded and the fresh, firm arils are parboiled in salted water or milk, and may be fried in butter to create a delicious dish. In Caribbean cooking, they may be cooked with codfish and vegetables, or may be added to stew, curry, soup or rice with seasonings.

Medicinal Uses:
The plant (part not specified) is used to treat anaemia and itching. In traditional medicine , Blighia sapida is widely used for the treatment of yellow fever, epilepsy and oedema, and as a laxative and diuretic. Sap from terminal buds is instilled in the eyes to treat ophthalmia and conjunctivitis. The pulp of ground-up leafy twigs is rubbed on the forehead to treat migraine. The ground-up leaves, combined with plant salts, are applied as a paste to treat yaws and ulcers. The leaves are used in the treatment of fever and vertigo, and twigs to treat hepatitis, cirrhosis and amygdalitis. Bark and leaf decoctions are administered to treat oedema, intercostal pain, dysentery and diarrhoea. Decoctions of bark or fruit walls are applied to wounds. Pounded bark is administered as an antidote to snake and scorpion bites. The bark, ground-up with capsicum pepper (Capsicum annuum), is rubbed on the body as a stimulant. The seeds are taken to treat stomach complaints, including nausea and vomiting. Aqueous seed extracts are administered to expel parasites. The fruit pulp is used to treat whitlow. A water-soluble and heat-stable toxic compound, hypoglycin A, is present in the aril of unripe seeds, as well as in the seed and in the pinkish to reddish tissue at the base of the aril. The Jamaican vomiting sickness is associated with this compound and is characterized by vomiting, generalized weakness, altered consciousness and sometimes even death. Hypoglycaemia and depression of the central nervous system are common. The aril of fully ripe seeds after natural dehiscence of the fruit is nearly free of the toxic compound. The consumption of unripe seed arils has probably caused many cases of encephalopathy in children in Burkina Faso and other West African countries.

Other uses:
Design: Small shade tree; small fruiting tree; specimen tree; xerophytic. Agroforestry Uses: The tree is often planted to provide shade. It is considered useful for soil improvement and erosion control. Other Uses: The dried fruit husks are rich in potash; the ashes can be used in making soap. The flowers are used in the preparation of an aromatic water. Used as a cosmetic. The green fruits lather in warm water and are used as soap for washing and as a mordant for dyeing. The oil from the seeds are used in making traditional soap. The seeds contain about 26% of oil which is suitable for industrial applications. An ink for tattoos is made from the seeds. The heartwood is orange-brown or reddish brown; it is distinctly demarcated from the whitish sapwood. The texture is moderately coarse; the wood has little lustre. It is moderately heavy, hard, moderately durable and quite resistant to termite attack. It is easy to work with both machine and hand tools. The wood moulds and sands well and takes an attractive finish. The wood is mainly used for light construction and furniture, but sometimes also for casks, boxes, crates, food containers, packing cases, tool handles, paddles, pestles, mortars, handicrafts, carving and turnery. It is suitable for interior trim, joinery and railway sleepers. Dried fruit husks are rich in potash. The wood is used for fuel and to make charcoal. Wild fruit for birds and bats nectar for bees. A honey plant.

Known Hazards:
Great care should be exercised if eating this fruit. It must only be eaten when fully ripe since both before and after that stage it is considered to be poisonous. A toxic peptide, hypoglycine A, is contained in the unripe aril. The pink raphe that attaches the aril to its seed is deadly toxic and must be carefully and completely removed. The pounded fruit is used as fish poison.

Though ackee is used widely in traditional dishes, research on its potential hypoglycin toxicity has been sparse and preliminary, requiring evaluation in well-designed clinical research to better understand its pharmacology, food uses, and methods for detoxification.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Fruits & Vegetables


Botanical Name: Malpighia emarginata
Family: Malpighiaceae
Order: Malpighiales
Genus: Malpighia
Species: M. emarginata

*Malpighia berteroana Spreng.
*Malpighia lanceolata Griseb.
*Malpighia punicifolia var. lancifolia Nied.
*Malpighia punicifolia var. obovata Nied.
*Malpighia punicifolia var. vulgaris Nied.
*Malpighia retusa Benth.
*Malpighia umbellata Rose
*Malpighia urens var. lanceolata (Griseb.) Griseb.

Common Names: Barbados Cherry, West Indian Cherry, Cereza, Cerisier, Semeruco

Habitat : The acerola is believed to originate from the Yucatan (linguistic evidence) and is distributed from South Texas, through Mexico (especially on the West Coast from Sonora to Guerrero) and Central America to northern South America (Venezuela, Surinam, Columbia) and throughout the Caribbean (Bahamas to Trinidad). Acerola has now been successfully introduced in sub-tropical areas throughout the world (Southeast Asia, India, South America), and some of the largest plantings are in Brazil.

Acerola is an evergreen shrub or small tree with spreading branches on a short trunk. It is usually 2–3 m (6.6–9.8 ft) tall, but sometimes reaches 6 m (20 ft) in height.

The leaves are simple ovate-lanceolate, 2–8 cm (0.79–3.15 in) long, 1–4 cm (0.39–1.57 in), and are attached to short petioles. They are opposite, ovate to elliptic-lanceolate, and have entire or undulating margins with small hairs, which can irritate skin.

Flowers are bisexual and 1–2 cm (0.39–0.79 in) in diameter. They have five[11] pale to deep pink or red fringed petals, 10 stamens, and six to 10 glands on the calyx. The three to five flowers per inflorescence are sessile or short-peduncled axillary cymes.

After three years, trees produce significant numbers of bright red drupes 1–3 cm (0.39–1.18 in) in diameter with a mass of 3–5 g (0.11–0.18 oz). Drupes are in pairs or groups of three, and each contains three triangular seeds. The drupes are juicy and very high in vitamin C (3-46 g/kg) and other nutrients. They are divided into three obscure lobes and are usually acidic to subacidic, giving them a sour taste, but may be sweet if grown well. While the nutrient composition depends on the strain and environmental conditions, the most common components of acerola and their concentration ranges, per 1000 g, are: proteins (2.1-8.0 g), lipids (2.3-8.0 g), carbohydrates (35.7-78 g), calcium (117 mg), phosphorus (171 mg), iron (2.4 mg), pyridoxine (87 mg), riboflavin (0.7 mg), thiamine (0.2 mg), water (906-920 g), and dietary fibre (30 g).[5] Acerola cherries also have antifungal and antibacterial properties.


Edible Uses:
The fruit is edible and widely consumed in the species’ native area, and is cultivated elsewhere for its high vitamin C content. About 1677 mg of vitamin C are in 100 g of fruit. The fruit can be used to make juices and pulps, vitamin C concentrate, and baby food, among other things.

A comparative analysis of antioxidant potency among a variety of frozen juice pulps was carried out, including the acerola fruit. Among the 11 fruit pulps tested, acerola was the highest-scoring fruit, meaning it had the most antioxidant potency, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity score of 53.2 mg.

Medicinal Uses:
It is used worldwide as an effective remedy for common cold, hay fever, depression, gum infection, tooth decay, and several other health issues. But thorough researches have revealed that it can be consumed to get rid of a number of chronic and deadly diseases too.

Health Benefits Of Acerola:
Acerola comes packed with nutrients, which helps to keep the body fit and disease-free. Here are the top 15 acerola health benefits:

Table Of Contents:

  1. Vitamin C Supplement
  2. Prevents Scurvy
  3. Vitamin A Supplement
  4. Boosts Visionary Health
  5. Provides Essential Nutrients
  6. Rich In Antioxidants
  7. Enhances Immunity
  8. Increases Collagen Production
  9. Improves Metabolism
  10. Less Gastrointestinal Issues
  11. Offers Better Cardiac Health
  12. Reduces Blood Sugar Level
  13. Fights Against Oxidative Stress
  14. Prevents Lung Cancer
  15. Promotes Weight Loss

Other Uses:
Acerola is a popular bonsai subject because of its small leaf and fruit, and fine ramification. It is also grown as an ornamental and for hedges.

It is one of three ingredients in a proprietary herbal medicine for allergic rhinitis.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Fruits & Vegetables


Botanical Name: Pouteria caimito
Family: Sapotaceae
Order: Ericales
Genus: Pouteria
Species:P. caimito

Common/English Name: Abiu, Yellow Star Apple, Blueberry Pie fruit.

Name in Other Languages: Brazil: Abi, Abio, Abieiro, Abiu, Caimito, Abiurana, Camiteiro;
Columbia: Caimito Amarilla, Caimito, Caimo Or Madura Verde;
Ecuador: Cauje, Caimito, Luma;
Peru: Lucuma;
Spanish: Caimito, Cauje, Caimo, Maduraverde;
Trinidad: Yellow Star Apple;
Venezuela: Temare;
English: Caimo, Abiu, Egg fruit;
Japanese: Abiu (???);
Brazil: Abi,
Amazonia: Abieiro, Abiu, Abiurana,
Ecuador: Caimito,
Colombia: Caimo
German: abiu;

Habitat :Abiu is a tropical fruit tree originated in the Amazonian region of South America.It is commonly considered as native to the headwaters of the Amazon. It grows wild in the lower eastern part of the Andes from southwestern Venezuela to Peru. It also grows around Tingo Maria and Iquitos, Peru, and it commonly can be found in the Province of Guayas in Ecuador, where it is sold in the markets. The abiu was cultivated by Amerindians and it became widespread in the Amazon, but the origins of the fruit’s distribution outside the Amazon is uncertain. In the Amazon basin, it is found to grow heavily in the northern Brazilian state of Pará, but is also found sparsely in collections from the Atlantic rainforest near Rio de Janeiro and Bahia.[3] It can also be found in Colombia in areas such as the regions of Caquetá, Meta, and Vaupes and it is very plentiful in Amazonas, Venezuela. It has also been growing for a very long time in Trinidad.

Abiu tree is vergreen and perennial.It grows to an average of 33 feet (10 m) high, and can grow as high as 116 feet (35 m) under good conditions.
The leaves of abiu range from oblong to elliptical. They can be 4-8 in (10-20 cm) in length and 1.5-2.5 in (3.5-6.5 cm) in width. The flowers on the tree may occur either single or in clusters of two to five flowers. They appear on the leaf axils on long, thin shoots. The flowers are small with four to five petals. The petals are cylindrical and are white to greenish in color. The flowers are hermaphroditic, meaning they are both sexes. The flowers open in the morning and can stay open for about two days.


Its fruits’ shape varies from round to oval, pointed at the distal end. When ripe, it has smooth, bright yellow skin and has one to four ovate seeds. The inside of the fruit is translucent and white. It has a creamy and jelly-like texture and its taste is similar to the sapodilla — a sweet caramel custard. The abiu tree is part of the family Sapotaceae and is very similar in appearance to the canistel.

Mature abiu trees produce 100 to 1000 fruits each year. These have a pale, translucent pulp of a custard consistency that is easily scooped out with a spoon; also, a few bits of tougher gel may be found. The seeds are easily removed and are covered with a thin layer of adherent pulp. The fruit has a sweet, mild taste, which may have a hint of pineapple, but is best described as reminiscent of caramel flan. It is often used in ice cream or eaten out of hand.

Unripe fruits contain a gummy and unpalatable latex that hardens upon exposure to air. The skin of the ripe fruit is a pale yellow color with a leathery texture and residual latex. Because mature fruits continue to ripen when picked, the harvest can be timed to allow for transportation to market. However, this period may be as short as five days. Maturation can be recognized by the pale green-to-yellow color break and the ripe fruit can be identified by its yellow coloration and a slight softness.

The tree grows best in tropical areas and in places that have a warm, moist climate all year long, and is slightly less hardy than related sapotes such as the canistel and sapodilla (nispero).[4] Within the United States, it grows well in South Florida as far north as Palm Beach County, and has survived brief freezes. It prefers wet, slightly acidic soil with high organic content, and may suffer from iron deficiency (chlorosis) in alkaline soils. A tree that has just been planted is fragile and needs protection from wind and cold weather. Only light pruning is necessary and feeding should be frequent, but light.

Propagation is nearly always by seeds, but the fruit of seedling trees is variable. Fresh seeds need to be planted within a few days if they are to remain viable, and germinate in two to three weeks. The lower branches of the seedling may be pruned after a year, and the first fruit can be expected in three years, with substantial yields at five years. Grafting, budding, and air layering can be used to propagate superior strains and advance the production schedule.

Edible Uses:
The fruit of the abiu tree is edible and considered one of the best of the sapotes due to having the sweet, caramel-like taste of sapodilla with a smoother texture. It is commonly eaten out of hand, although in Colombia, those eating the fruit this way are advised to grease their lips to keep the gummy latex from sticking; this hazard can be avoided by selecting fully ripe fruits and scooping out the flesh with a utensil. The tartness of a bit of added lime juice may enhance the flavor, especially when chilled. The melting, sweet pulp of the abiu is also used to flavor ice cream and cut into yogurt for a light and delicious breakfast. The subtlety of the flavor limits its use in more complex confections and salads. Abiu fruit is a significant source of calcium, phosphorus, vitamin A, and vitamin C.

Health Benefits of Abiu fruit:
An intake of Abiu fruit provides various health benefits to the health which are discussed below in detail:

1.Antimicrobial activity:
The species of Sapotaceae family showed antifungal, antibacterial, antitumor, antifungal, antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The study revealed presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, lapachol, phenylpropaoids and bezenoids which are responsible for large spectrum of biological activities.

2.Eye health:
Similar to tomatoes, carrot and strawberry, Abiu fruit provides high content of Vitamin A which is essential for maintaining eye health. It also enables to avoid various eye problems as well as difficulty. Add Abiu fruit to the diet to obtain eye health.

3.Strengthen immunity:
Abiu fruit has high content of Vitamin C which enhances defense mechanisms that is essential for preventing harmful bacteria and viruses.

4.Digestive health
Abiu fruit consists of high content of fiber. Fiber assists the people to lose weight and fiber easily upgrades digestive system, eliminate bowel problems as well as digestive problems. The digestive health could be improved by consuming the fruits which have high content of fiber like Abiu fruit.

Other Uses:
The wood of the abiu tree is dense, heavy, and hard and is used as lumber in construction.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Herbs & Plants

Clerodendrum paniculatum

Botanical Name: Clerodendrum paniculatum
Family: Lamiaceae/ Verbenaceae (Verbena family)
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales
Genus: Clerodendrum
Species: C. paniculatum

Caprifolium paniculatum
Cleianthus coccineus
Clerodendrum pyramidale
Clerodendrum diversifolium
Clerodendrum splendidum
Volkameria angulata
Volkameria diversifolia

Common Names: Pagoda flower, Krishna Kireedam (in Tamil)

Habitat : Pagoda flower or Clerodendrum paniculatum is native to tropical Asia and Papuasia (southern China including Taiwan, Indochina, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Borneo, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Philippines, Bismarck Archipelago). It is reportedly naturalized in India, Fiji, French Polynesia, and Central America.

Pagoda flower is an erect, open semiwoody shrub with large evergreen leaves and huge showy clusters of orange-red or scarlet flowers held above the foliage. The plant sometimes has many stems and gets 3-5 ft tall, spreading 2-3 ft across. Oppositely arranged ovate leaves have heart shaped bases; lower leaves are lobed and upper leaves entire. The handsome leaves can be as large as 12 in across. The flowers small, funnel shaped with long tubes. Although the individual flowers are only about 0.5 in long, they are arranged in massive panicles up to 1 ft or more in height, at the end of branches. The flowers within the pyramid shaped cluster are tiered, like a Japanese pagoda. Pagoda flower is native to Sri Lanka, Malaysia and much of southeastern Asia. It was probably introduces in India, and escaped cultivation. It is widely cultivated in tropical gardens throughout the world.

The large, glossy, lobed leaves and fairly robust stems with an almost square cross-sectional form are also prominent characteristics of C. paniculatum . Their ability to produce root suckers allows pagoda flowers to spread vegetatively and they can form apparently clonal stands of several plants together.

Fruits and seeds
Clerodendrum paniculatum frequently has a high percentage of aborted pollen grains and fruit does not appear to set among the populations observed in Java, New Guinea and Sri Lanka. Kew scientist Dr James Wearn has only seen two dried specimens in fruit (collected from Peninsular Malaysia) which, when dissected, had seeds (at least developing) within their fruits. No germination tests have been carried out at Kew to date.


The pagoda flower was taken into cultivation throughout Indomalesia many centuries ago, as it is easy to grow in warm, humid climates and produces large inflorescences nearly all year round. Flowers of cultivated plants are usually sterile and so do not produce fruits. During the eighteenth century, novel ornamental plants from ‘the other side of the world’ were in high demand in Europe and this species was one of the earliest to reach the foremost nurseries of the time, being introduced to Britain from Java in 1809 as a greenhouse plant. It is easily propagated vegetatively and strikes readily from cuttings.

The pagoda flower has a number of medicinal uses in Asia. In Malaysia an infusion is drunk as a purgative and is applied externally to distended stomachs. Various magical attributes have been recorded; indeed the Malay vernacular name pangil-pangil refers directly to the ‘summoning’ of spirits. Clerodendrum paniculatum is also supposed to confer protection from harm and is used as an elephant-medicine! Substances produced by several Clerodendrum species are undergoing more rigorous scientific trials in order to evaluate their medicinal potential. To date, results are promising, and antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties have been verified, as well as antiviral activity.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Herbs & Plants

Vetiveria zizanioides

Botanical Name: Vetiveria zizanioides /Chrysopogon zizanioides
Family: Poaceae or Gramineae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales
Genus: Chrysopogon
Species: C. zizanioides

Agrostis verticillata Lam. nom. illeg.
Anatherum muricatum (Retz.) P.Beauv.
Anatherum zizanioides (L.) Hitchc. & Chase
Andropogon aromaticus Roxb. ex Schult. nom. inval.
Andropogon muricatum Retz. [Spelling variant]

Common Names: Vetiver, Vetiveria, Vetivergrass, Khas-khas, Benaba ,Sirom, Siromu, Bina-Khar.

Habitat: Vetiveria zizanioides is native to India. It grows on Open dry places at elevations up to 1000 metres in Nepal. Though it originates in India, C. zizanioides is widely cultivated in tropical regions. The major vetiver producers include Haiti, India, Indonesia, and Réunion. Almost all vetiver grown worldwide is vegetatively propagated, bioengineering has shown them as essentially the same nonfertile cultigen by DNA profiling. In the United States the cultivar is named ‘Sunshine,’ after the town of Sunshine, Louisiana

Vetiver grows to 150 centimetres (5 ft) high and form clumps as wide. Under favorable conditions, the erect culms can reach 3m in height. The stems are tall and the leaves are long, thin, and rather rigid. The flowers are brownish-purple. Unlike most grasses, which form horizontally spreading, mat-like root systems, vetiver’s roots grow downward, 2 metres (7 ft) to 4 metres (13 ft) in depth.

The vetiver bunch grass has a gregarious habit and grows in tufts. Shoots growing from the underground crown make the plant frost and wildfire resistant, and allow it to survive heavy grazing pressure. The leaves can become up to 300 centimetres (10 ft) long and 8 millimetres (0.3 in) wide. The panicles are 15 centimetres (6 in) to 30 centimetres (12 in) long and have whorled, 25 millimetres (1 in) to 50 millimetres (2 in) long branches. The spikelets are in pairs, and there are three stamens.

The plant stems are erect and stiff. They can survive deep water flow. Under clear water, the plant can survive up to two months.

The root system of vetiver is finely structured and very strong. It can grow 3 metres (10 ft) to 4 metres (13 ft) deep within the first year. Vetiver has neither stolons nor rhizomes. Because of all these characteristics, the vetiver plant is highly drought-tolerant and can help to protect soil against sheet erosion. In case of sediment deposition, new roots can grow out of buried nodes.


The most commonly used commercial genotypes of vetiver are sterile (do not produce fertile seeds), and because vetiver propagates itself by small offsets instead of underground stolons, these genotypes are noninvasive and can easily be controlled by cultivation of the soil at the boundary of the hedge. However, care must be taken, because fertile genotypes of vetiver have become invasive.

Medicinal Uses:
Freshly prepared aqueous decoction of the root (ca.15 ml) is given twice a day before lunch and dinner to cure dyspepsia by the Lodhas. Fresh roots (ca. 10 gm) made into paste, and that is applied on the fore-head to cure head-ache by the Mundas. Root ash with
a glass of lukewarm water is given to cure acidity by the Mundas. Fresh stem collected from the young plants which are yet to bloom is kept in a glass of water for overnight. This aqueous decoction is given (ca. 20 ml) each time in regular intervals of 3 hours to cure
the urinary problems by the Oraons. Fresh root (ca. 25 gm) made into paste with seeds of black pepper (Piper nigrum) (ca. l0 gm) is given with a glass of water or milk to retain vitality and overcome the weakness due to excessive sweating by the Polias. Root paste (ca. l0 gm) with honey is given to check vomiting of children by the Mundas. Fresh root decoction is used as a mouth freshener by the Polias. Root paste is given to the children at bed time to stop the habit of passing urine in bed at night by the Polias.

Other Uses:
Vetiver grass is grown for many purposes. The plant helps to stabilise soil and protects it against erosion, but it can also protect fields against pests and weeds. Vetiver has favourable qualities for animal feed. From the roots, oil is extracted and used for cosmetics, aromatherapy, herbal skincare and ayurvedic soap. Due to its fibrous properties, the plant can also be used for handicrafts, ropes and more.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.