Pistachio

Botanical Name:Pistacia Vera/Pistacia atlantica
Family:    Anacardiaceae
Genus:    Pistacia
Species:    P. vera
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:    Sapindales

Common Names: Pistachio, Pistache.Mount Atlas Pistache, Mount Atlas mastic tree, Atlantic Pistachio
Origin: The pistachio tree is native to western Asia and Asia Minor,from Syria to the Caucasus and Afghanistan. Archaeological evidence in Turkey indicate the nuts were being used for food as early as 7,000 B.C. The pistachio was introduced to Italy from Syria early in the first century A.D. Subsequently its cultivation spread to other Mediterranean countries. The tree was first introduced into the United States in 1854 by Charles Mason, who distributed seed for experimental plantings in California, Texas and some southern states. In 1875 a few small pistachio trees, imported from France were planted in Sonoma, Calif. In the early 1900’s the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture assembled a collection of Pistacia species and pistachio nut varieties at the Plant Introduction Station in Chico, Calif. Commercial production of pistachio nuts began in the late 1970’s and rapidly expanded to a major operation in the San Joaquin Valley. Other major pistachio producing areas are Iran and Turkey and to a lesser extent, Syria, India, Greece, Pakistan and elsewhere.

Description:
Pistachio is a desert plant, and is highly tolerant of saline soil. It has been reported to grow well when irrigated with water having 3,000–4,000 ppm of soluble salts.  Pistachio trees are fairly hardy in the right conditions, and can survive temperatures ranging between ?10 °C (14 °F) in winter and 48 °C (118 °F) in summer. They need a sunny position and well-drained soil. Pistachio trees do poorly in conditions of high humidity, and are susceptible to root rot in winter if they get too much water and the soil is not sufficiently free-draining. Long, hot summers are required for proper ripening of the fruit. They have been known to thrive in warm, moist environments.

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The bush grows up to 10 m (33 ft) tall. It has deciduous pinnate leaves 10–20 centimeters (4–8 inches) long. The plants are dioecious, with separate male and female trees. The flowers are apetalous and unisexual, and borne in panicles.

The fruit is a drupe, containing an elongated seed, which is the edible portion. The seed, commonly thought of as a nut, is a culinary nut, not a botanical nut. The fruit has a hard, creamish exterior shell. The seed has a mauvish skin and light green flesh, with a distinctive flavor. When the fruit ripens, the shell changes from green to an autumnal yellow/red, and abruptly splits part way open . This is known as dehiscence, and happens with an audible pop. The splitting open is a trait that has been selected by humans. Commercial cultivars vary in how consistently they split open.

Each pistachio tree averages around 50 kilograms (110 lb) of seeds, or around 50,000, every two years.

The shell of the pistachio is naturally a beige color, but it is sometimes dyed red or green in commercial pistachios. Originally, dye was applied by importers to hide stains on the shells caused when the seeds were picked by hand. Most pistachios are now picked by machine and the shells remain unstained, making dyeing unnecessary except to meet ingrained consumer expectations.

History
Pistachio is often confused with some of the other nine species in the genus Pistacia, such as P. terebinthus and P. lentiscus. These species have a very different distribution, in the Mediterranean and southwest Asia, and have much smaller nuts, lacking the hard shell of P. vera. Their turpentine-flavoured nuts were a popular food in antiquity. Finds of Pistacia from pre-classical archaeological sites, or references in pre-classical texts, always refer to one of these other species (often P. terebinthus).

Pistachio (in the sense of P. vera) was first cultivated in Western Asia. It reached the Mediterranean world by way of central Iran, where it has long been an important crop. Although known to the Romans, the pistachio nut appears not to have reached the Mediterranean or most of the Near East in any quantity before medieval times. More recently pistachio has been cultivated in California (first commercial harvest in 1976) and Australia. The word pistachio is a Persian loanword, coming into English through Italian, and is a cognate to the Modern Persian word Peste’.

Cultivation:
Global Crop;  Management: Coppice;  Management: Standard;  Other Systems: Strip intercrop;  Staple Crop: Protein-oil.

Does well in light calcareous soils. Grows well on poor soils. Prefers long hot summers and low humidity. Plants are not very hardy in Britain and are unlikely to succeed outdoors in any but the mildest areas of the country. They will be hardier in areas with long hot summers that will thoroughly ripen the wood. Plants are prone to fungal root rots. The pistachio nut is often cultivated for its edible seed in warm temperate areas, there are many named forms. It is very unlikely to produce a crop of seeds in Britain, simply because the summers here are not hot enough or long enough. Any pruning that needs to be done is best carried out in the spring. Dioecious, male and female plants must be grown if seed is required. One male plant for every five females is adequate. Special Features: Edible, Not North American native, Attractive flowers or blooms.

Propagation:
Pre-soak the seed for 16 hours in alkalized water, or for 3 – 4 days in warm water, and sow late winter in a cold frame or greenhouse. Two months cold stratification may speed up germination, so it might be better to sow the seed in early winter. The germination is variable and can be slow. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow on the plants for at least their first winter in a greenhouse. Plant out into their permanent positions in early summer and consider giving some protection from winter cold for their first year or two outdoors. Cuttings of half-ripe wood from juvenile trees, July in a frame. Layering.

 

Harvest: The nuts are harvested when the husk or hull covering the shell becomes fairly loose. A single shaking will bring down the bulk of the matured nuts, which can be caught on a tarp or canvas. A fully mature tree may produce as much as 50 pounds of dry, hulled nuts. The hulls should be removed soon after to prevent staining of the shells. To enhance splitting, the hulled nuts may then be dipped into water to moisten the shell and spread out in the sun to dry. One method of salting the split nuts is to boil them in a salt solution for a few minutes, then redry and store them. Stored in plastic bags pistachios will last for at least 4 to 6 weeks in the refrigerator. Frozen they will last for months.
Neutritional Value:
Pistachios are a nutritionally dense food. In a 100 gram serving, pistachios provide 562 calories and are a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value or DV) of protein, dietary fiber, several dietary minerals and the B vitamins, thiamin and especially vitamin B6 at 131% DV (table).[31] Pistachios are a good source (10–19% DV) of calcium, riboflavin, vitamin B5, folate, vitamin E , and vitamin K (table).

The fat profile of raw pistachios consists of saturated fats, monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats. Saturated fatty acids include palmitic acid (10% of total) and stearic acid (2%). Oleic acid is the most common monounsaturated fatty acid (51% of total fat) and linoleic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, is 31% of total fat.[31] Relative to other tree nuts, pistachios have a lower amount of fat and calories but higher amounts of potassium, vitamin K, ?-tocopherol, and certain phytochemicals such as carotenoids and phytosterols

Edible Uses:

The pistachio is unique in the nut trade due to its semi-split shell which enables the processor to roast and salt the kernel without removing the shell, and which at the same time serves as a convenient form of packaging. About 90% of California pistachios are consumed as in-shell snacks. Shelled pistachios are utilized commercially in confectionery, ice cream, candies, sausages, bakery goods and flavoring for puddings. They can also be added to dressings, casseroles and other dishes.

Health Benefits:

The kernels are eaten whole, either fresh or roasted and salted, and are also used in ice cream and confections such as baklava. In July 2003, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first qualified health claim specific to nuts lowering the risk of heart disease: “Scientific evidence suggests but does not prove that eating 1.5 ounces per day of most nuts, such as pistachios, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce the risk of heart disease”.. In research at Pennsylvania State University, pistachios in particular significantly reduced levels of LDL, the ‘bad’ cholesterol, in the blood of volunteers.Pennsylvania State University’s Department of Nutrition and Sciences has also conducted related research on other health benefits of pistachios, including an April 2007 study concluding that pistachios may calm acute stress reaction , and a June 2007 study on the cardiovascular health benefits of eating pistachios. Paramount Farms, the largest commercial producer of pistachios in the United States, operates and maintains a public website with information on pistachio health, nutrition, history, and facts, as well as links or downloadable files for all of the above health research studies and more at PistachioHealth.com.

The pistachio has been used as a dyeing agent and a folk remedy for ailments ranging from toothaches to sclerosis of the liver. The pistachio’s high nutritional value and long storage life also made it an indispensable travel item among early explorers and traders. Along with almonds, pistachios were frequently carried by travelers across the ancient Silk Road that connected China with the West.

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The shell of the pistachio is naturally a beige colour, but it is sometimes dyed red or green in commercial pistachios. Originally the dye was applied by importers to hide stains on the shells caused when the nuts were picked by hand. However most pistachios are now picked by machine and the shells remain unstained, making dyeing unnecessary (except that some consumers have been led to expect coloured pistachios). Roasted pistachio nuts turn naturally red if they are marinated prior to roasting in a salt and strawberry marinade, or salt and citrus salts .
Other Uses:

Landscape Uses:Specimen. Requires a sunny position in a deep well-drained light soil. Succeeds in dry soils.

Pistachio nuts are highly flammable when stored in large quantities, and are prone to self heating and spontaneous combustion

Known Hazards:  Pistachios contain urushiol, an irritant that can cause allergic reactions

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.crfg.org/pubs/ff/pistachio.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pistachio
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Pistacia+vera

 

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4 thoughts on “Pistachio

  1. Esmail mahmoodi

    Thank you
    the information about post processing of pistachio was very brief and good. please if it is possible send me more about industrial pistachio harvesting methods. I research about it.
    best regards

    Esmail Mahmoodi
    Phd student in Tehran University in Iran.

    Reply
  2. Prachi Godbole

    the information is very good. We stay in India at Mumbai and own a farmhouse at Solapur which has a dry and hot atmosphere with well draining soil. However, we have no information about the Pistachio plantation, growing the trees, taking care of trees, processing the pistachios. We do not have even the address of the place from which we can buy pistachio plants for plantation. The summer temperature at Solapur may go up to 45 Degree Celsius and it is a very dry climate. Please guide us whether we can plant Pistachio trees in a large quantity. India has a good market for the nut which is called as Pista. I would like to have your help and guidance for fulfilling my dream of planting Pistachio trees in my farm. I am waiting for your early guidance.

    My email id is dilu.godbole@gmail.com or prachigodbole1970@gmail.com
    Yours Sincerely,

    Prachi Godbole

    Reply
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