Mishamitita (Coptis teeta)

Botanical Name:Ranunculaceae/Yunnan goldthread/Coptis teeta WAL
Family: Ranunculaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Ranunculales
Genus: Coptis
Species: C. teeta
Common name: Yun lian

Arabic: mamiran chini
Assamese: misimi tita
Hindi: haladiya bachnaga, mahamirana, mamira, mamiram, mamiran, mimira, mishmitita
Malayalam: pitarohini
Sanskrit: mamira, mamirah, mishamitita, mishamlita, pita, pitamula, supita, tikta, tiktamula
Tamil : pitarohini, pitarokini, peetarogini, pidarokini, mamiran
Urdu : mameeran, mameesa (mamira,mamiran), mamiran-i-chini, mamira
Other Common Names: From various places around the Web, may not be correct. See below.
Altin Ipligi [E], Chih Lien [E], Chonlin [H], Chuen-lien [H], Coptidis Radix [H], Coptidis Rhizoma [H], Honglane [H], Huang Lien [E], Hwang-lien [H], Mahmira [H], Mishmi Bitter [H], Mishmi Tita [H], Mu-lien [H], Tita [H], Wang Lien [E]

Mainly Used: In Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha L.

Parts Used: Dried Root

Habitat :E. Asia – N. China to the temperate regions of the Himalayas. Few species are endemic to India recorded only in the Himalayan region across Darjeeling in the West Bengal, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh in an altitude range of 2500-3000 m. It has been recorded in Lohit district, Dibang Valley district, Siang and upper Subansiri districts of Arunachal Pradesh.

Description: An evergreen perennial growing to 0.15m. . It is in leaf all year. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects. We rate it 1 out of 5 for usefulness.

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The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers acid soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

Coptis teeta is a rare species of flowering plant in the buttercup family. It is a species of importance in Chinese herbology. Known as Yunnan goldthread, its rhizome is used as an antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory. A number of factors contribute to its endangerment. It is endemic to a very small area in the eastern Himalayas where its habitat is rapidly declining, due in part to deforestation, it is overcollected for medicinal use, and its reproductive success is low. The plant is cultivated on a small scale in Yunnan using techniques that aim to conserve the species within its natural habitat. The Lisu people of the local area earn much of their income from cultivation of the plant, which they grow using traditional agroforestry methods that have little adverse impact on the ecosystem.

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Cultivation details
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in many parts of this country. It is cultivated as a medicinal plant in China. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus.

Succeeds in a light moist humus-rich slightly acidic soil with a northerly aspect or light shade.

Propagation
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in an ericaceous compost[164]. Seal the pot in a polythene bag until germination takes place, which is usually within 1 – 6 months at 10°c. Stored seed should be sown as early in the year as possible. Four weeks cold stratification may be beneficial. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a shady part of the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out in mid-autumn or in spring.
The root is harvested in the autumn and can be used fresh or dried.


Medicinal Uses:

Alterative; Anaesthetic; Analgesic; Antibacterial; Antispasmodic; Febrifuge; Ophthalmic; Pectoral.

The root is a pungent, very bitter, cooling herb that controls bacterial and viral infections, relaxes spasms, lowers fevers and stimulates the circulation. It is locally analgesic and anaesthetic and is used in Chinese medicine as a general panacea with alterative, ophthalmic and pectoral activity. The root contains several compounds that are effective in inhibiting various bacteria and they are a safe and effective treatment for many ailments, such as some forms of dysentery, that are caused by bacteria.

Improves appetite, restores digestion, gas, visceral obstructions, jaundice,improves bile flow, chronic gall bladder inflammation, debility, convalescence after fevers, debilitating diseases, atonic indigestion, mild forms of intermittent fevers, catarrhal and rheumatic conjunctivitis, dries excessive body moisture (e.g., water retention), all Pitta disorders, anal fissure, ulcerative colitis, vaginal infections, tumors, boils, carbuncles, inflammatory skin conditions, externally applied to sores (including mouth sores).

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coptis_teeta
http://www.bicco.com/herb_photo.html
http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Coptis+teeta

http://envis.frlht.org.in/botanical_search.php?gesp=634%7CCoptis+teeta+WALL.

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