Silver Maple (Acer saccharinum – L.)

Botanical Name :Acer saccharinum – L.
Family : Aceraceae
Common name: silver maple
Synonyms: A. saccharinum var. laciniatum, A. saccharinum var. wieri, A. dasycarpum, Argentacer saccharinum
Genus :   Acer
Règne : sion Magnoliophyta
Classe : Magnoliopsida
Sous-classe :  Rosidae
Ordre : Sapindales
Habitat : Eastern N. America – New Brunswick to Florida, west to Oklahoma, Kansas and Nebraska. Banks of rivers, usually in sandy soils. Trees are occasionally found in deep often submerged swamps.Woodland Garden; Canopy;

Description:
It is a perennial deciduous tree growing to 20 m (65 ft) tall and 60 cm (2 ft) diameter, usually with a short thick trunk. Bark gray and thin, becoming furrowed into long shaggy scaly ridges on older trunks and branches. Twigs long, light green to brown, glabrous, with small reddish blunt buds. Leaves opposite, long-petioled, blades 7.5-13 cm (3-5 in) long and usually about as wide, deeply 5-lobed with 5 main veins from base, doubly serrate, dull green and glabrous above, silvery white below, turning yellow in fall. Flowers crowded in clusters along twigs in late winter or early spring, usually greenish or yellow from reddish buds, about 6 mm (0.25 in) long. Fruits light brown paired samaras 4-6 cm (1.6-2.4 in) long maturing in late spring.
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It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower from February to March, and the seeds ripen from April to June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind.

Cultivation :-
Of easy cultivation, it prefers a good moist well-drained soil but does well in much wetter soils than most member of the genus. Succeeds in most soils including chalk . Another report says that this species is liable to become chlorotic as a result of iron deficiency when it is grown on alkaline soils. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers a moderately sunny position. Tolerates atmospheric pollution. Fairly wind-tolerant. The wood is brittle and branches are liable to break off the tree in high winds. Trees can tolerate short periods of flooding, but are very susceptible to fire. A very ornamental and fast growing tree , but it is short-lived, seldom surviving longer than 125 – 140 years. The tree has invasive roots and these often interfere with sewer pipes and drainage tiles around houses. The silver maple is a bad companion plant, inhibiting the growth of nearby plants.

 

Propagation:-
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in the spring in a cold frame. It usually germinates immediately and by the end of summer has formed a small tree with several pairs of leaves. Stored seed quickly loses its viability. Pre-soak stored seed for 24 hours and then stratify for 2 – 4 months at 1 – 8°c. It can be slow to germinate. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on until they are 20cm or more tall before planting them out in their permanent positions. Layering, which takes about 12 months, is successful with most species in this genus. Cuttings of young shoots in June or July. The cuttings should have 2 – 3 pairs of leaves, plus one pair of buds at the base. Remove a very thin slice of bark at the base of the cutting, rooting is improved if a rooting hormone is used. The rooted cuttings must show new growth during the summer before being potted up otherwise they are unlikely to survive the winter.

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Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Inner bark; Leaves; Sap; Seed.
Edible Uses: Sweetener.
The sap contains sugar and can be used as a drink or be concentrated into a syrup by boiling off the water. The syrup is used as a sweetener on many foods. The yield is only half that of A. saccharum. It is said to be sweeter and whiter than A. saccharum. The sap can be harvested in the late winter, the flow is best on warm sunny days following a frost. The best sap production comes from cold-winter areas with continental climates. Self-sown seedlings, gathered in early spring, are eaten fresh or dried for later use. Seeds – cooked. The wings are removed and the seeds boiled then eaten hot. Good crops are produced nearly every year in the wild. The seed is about 12mm long and is produced in small clusters. Inner bark – cooked. It is dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickening in soups etc or mixed with cereals when making bread.

Medicinal Uses:-
Antispasmodic; Astringent; Ophthalmic; Skin; VD.
An infusion of the bark is used in the treatment of coughs, cramps and dysentery. The infusion is also applied externally to old, stubborn running sores. A compound infusion is used in the treatment of ‘female complaints’. The inner bark is boiled and used with water as a wash for sore eyes. An infusion is used internally in the treatment of diarrhoea. An infusion of the root bark has been used in the treatment of gonorrhea.

Other Uses
Dye; Preservative; Rust; Shelterbelt; Wood.

The leaves are packed around apples, rootcrops etc to help preserve them. A fairly wind-tolerant tree, it can be used in shelterbelt plantings. The branches are rather brittle, however, and can break off even in minor storms. The stems are used in making baskets. The boiled inner bark yields a brown dye. Mixed with lead sulphate this produces a blue/black dye which can also be used as an ink. A black dye is obtained from the twigs and bark. The bark can be boiled, along with hemlock (Tsuga spp]) and swamp oak bark (Quercus bicolor) to make a wash to remove rust from iron and steel, and to prevent further rusting. Wood – rather brittle, close-grained, hard, strong, easily worked but not durable. It weighs 32lb per cubic metre. It has many uses such as veneer, cooperage, furniture, flooring and pulp.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein ,  is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resource:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Acer+saccharinum
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ACSA2&photoID=acsa2_002_ahp.tif
http://www.biosurvey.ou.edu/shrub/acsa2.htm

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