Agaricus blazei mushroom

 

Botanical Name :Agaricus blazei
Family: Agaricaceae
Genus: Agaricus
Kingdom: Fungi
Subkingdom: Dikarya
Phylum: Basidiomycota
Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Species: A. subrufescens
Common  Names: Agaricus Blazei Murill Mushroom, Almond mushroom, or Himematsutake, (Japan) Cogumelo do Sol (Brazil)

Habitat :Agaricus subrufescens forms fruitbodies singly or in clusters in leaf litter in rich soil, often in domestic habitats. It was originally described from the northeastern United States, but has been found growing in California, Hawaii, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Israel, Taiwan, and Brazil.

Agaricus subrufescens Peck was cultivated first in the late 1800s in eastern North America. The type consists partly of cultivated material and partly of field-collected specimens. Once a popular market mushroom, the species faded from commerce in the early 20th century. More recently, a mushroom species growing wild in Brazil has been introduced into cultivation in Brazil, Japan and elsewhere. This Brazilian mushroom has been referred to by various names, most commonly as A. blazei Murrill (sensu Heinemann) and most recently as A. brasiliensis Wasser et al.

Description:

Mushroom is generally described as having small to large fruit bodies with white, yellow or brown pileus; free lamellae that are pallid or pinkish when young, later becoming chocolate-brown; and also dark-brown, smooth basidiospores.

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The cap is initially hemispherical, later becoming convex, with a diameter of 5 to 18 centimetres (2.0 to 7.1 in). The cap surface is covered with silk-like fibers, although in maturity it develops small scales (squamulose). The color of the cap may range from white to grayish or dull reddish-brown; the cap margin typically splits with age. The flesh of A. subrufescens is white, and has the taste of “green nuts”, with the odor of almonds.The gills are not attached to the stalk (free), narrow, and crowded closely together. They start out whitish in color, then later pinkish and finally black-brown as the spores mature. Spores are ellipsoid, smooth, dark-purplish brown when viewed microscopically, with dimensions of 6–7.5 by 4–5 µm. The stipe is 6 to 15 centimetres (2.4 to 5.9 in) by 1 to 1.5 centimetres (0.39 to 0.59 in) thick, and bulbous at the base. Initially solid, the stipe becomes hollow with age; it is cottony (floccose) to scaly towards the base. The annulus is abundant and double-layered; it is bent downwards towards the stem, smooth and whitish on the upper side, and covered with cottony scales on the lower side.


Cultivation:
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First, the correct compost must be prepared. Then the compost is  pasteurize and sterilize  to make sure that the compost is not contaminated with other fungi, insects and bacteria. Once the compost has been prepared correctly,  then inoculate the compost with agaricus blazei murill mushroom hyphae. Then the compost material with the fully developed agaricus blazei murill mushroom mycelia is placed on open land that has ample sunlight. A layer of sterilized and treated soil is used to cover the mushroom bed. Once in place, the agaricus blazei murill mushroom receives plenty of water to keep the soil and compost layers moist. Without sufficient moisture, ABM (agaricus blazei murill mushroom) will not fruit. Once the agaricus blazei murill mushroom is ready to harvest,  harvest the ABM (agaricus blazei murill mushroom) as quick as possible since agaricus blazei murill mushroom starts to spoil very rapidly. The ABM (agaricus blazei murill mushroom) is rinsed and cut into halves and readied for drying. Drying is done through a slow drying process at temperatures of 40º Celsius to about 43º Celsius. It is very important to dry the agaricus blazei murill mushroom slowly so that the ABM does not cook or become shocked.

Edible uses:
Agaricus subrufescens is a choice edible, with a somewhat sweet taste and fragrance of almonds. The almond smell of the mushroom is mostly due to the presence of benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, benzonitrile, and methyl benzoate.
You may click to see ->Agaricus Blazei Murill Mushroom Recipes

Commercial uses:
Due to the fact Agaricus subrufescens contains a high level of beta glucans, compounds known for stimulating the immune system, the fungus is used in oncological therapy in Japan and Brazil. In addition to beta-glucans, the mushroom’s effect on the immune system is believed to be due to other polysaccharides such as alpha-glucans. In Japan, Agaricus subrufescens is sold under the brand names Sen-Sei-Ro Gold, and ABMK, and is used by an estimated 500,000 people In Japan, Agaricus subrufescens is also the most popular complementary and alternative medicine used by cancer patients. Although Agaricus subrufescens is cultivated in the United States, the largest exporters are China and Brazil. It has been noted in a scientific review of A. subrufescens research, that the range of quality in A. subrufescens cultivation can affect the mushroom’s ability to impact cells of the immune system.

Recently, Watanabe et al. published a report in the Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin on a novel hybrid of A. subrufescens called Basidiomycetes-X (BDM-X) and a US patent  was issued on a novel hybrid of the A. subrufescens edible mushroom which was cross-bred (hybridized) with another medicinal mushroom resulting in a new hybrid claimed to possess 10 to 3000 times the potency of similar but unpatented mushrooms.

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Medicinal Actions & Uses:
This mushroom is also well known as a medicinal mushroom, for its purported medicinal properties, due to research which indicates it may stimulate the immune system. A. blazei has been used in complementary and alternative medicine to treat many immune disorders and is being studied as a treatment for cancer. It was traditionally used to treat many common diseases like cardiovascular disease, hepatitis, high blood cholesterol, diabetes, and skin .

Many researchers have studied Agaricus subrufescens, as well as other medicinal mushrooms for close to 50 years, due to laboratory tests which show they may stimulate immune system cells and the production of immune system cytokines. This research  is often based on animal or cellular models. Research conducted on the mushroom’s ability to impact the human immune system or human diseases is “beneficial”.

Immune system
Cellular and animal research has shown that Agaricus subrufescens may stimulate immune system cells and the production cytokines, like interferons and interleukins (reviewed by G. Hetland).

Direct anti-viral properties

Agaricus subrufescens mushrooms are known to have anti-viral properties in cell culture. The ability of Agaricus subrufescens to inhibit viruses in the human body has not been studied. Other mushrooms are also known to have anti-viral, anti-bacterial, and anti-fungal activity in cell culture.

Other possible effects
:
Besides evidence Agaricus subrufescens may up-regulate the immune system, additional research suggests the mushroom has a beneficial effect on cholesterol, inhibiting pathogenic factors, and inhibiting angiogenesis.

ABM has been shown to have a beneficial effect on various ailments:

Cancer
: Studies on the agaricus blazei murill mushrooms have shown that the mushroom may be helpful in various types of cancer. As with other therapies, this is a natural therapy and you should consult a doctor or seek medical advise.

Diabetes:
Studies have shown that agaricus blazei mushrooms may help to reduce blood glucose levels .
Hepatitis: Studies have shown that ABM may be helpful in certain cases of Hepatitis
Studies have shown that ABM may also help to reduce high blood pressure and cholesterol.

Limited clinical and animal research suggests, Agaricus subrufescens consumption may lower blood glucose levels and improve insulin resistance.

You may click to see:-

Beta-glucan
List of Agaricus species
Medicinal mushrooms

Taxonomy

Agaricus subrufescens was first described by the American botanist Charles Horton Peck in 1893. During the late 19th and early 20th century, it was cultivated for the table in the eastern United States. It was discovered again in Brazil during the 1970s, and misidentified as Agaricus blazei Murrill, a species originally described from Florida. It was soon marketed for its purported medicinal properties under various names, including ABM (for Agaricus blazei Murill), Cogumelo do Sol (mushroom of the sun), Cogumelo de Deus (mushroom of God), Cogumelo de Vida (mushroom of life), Himematsutake, Royal Sun Agaricus, Mandelpilz, and Almond Mushroom.

In 2002, Didukh and Wasser correctly rejected the name A. blazei for this species, but unfortunately called the Brazilian fungus A. brasiliensis,[3] a name that had already been used for a different species, Agaricus brasiliensis Fr. (1830). Richard Kerrigan undertook genetic and interfertility testing on several fungal strains   and showed that samples of the Brazilian strains called A. blazei and A. brasiliensis were genetically similar to, and interfertile with, North American populations of Agaricus subrufescens. These tests also found European samples called A. rufotegulis to be of the same species. Because A. subrufescens is the oldest name, it has taxonomical priority.

Note that Agaricus blazei Murrill is a perfectly valid name, but for a completely different mushroom. Agaricus silvaticus Schaeff. is also a perfectly valid name for a common, north temperate, woodland mushroom. Neither is a synonym of Agaricus subrufescens.

You may click to see:-Agaricus Mushroom extract supplement health benefit and side effects, dosage and review

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider
Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agaricus_subrufescens
http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail443.php
http://www.americannutrition.com/store/Agaricus_Blazei_Murill_Mushroom.html?gclid=CI7dpvWL8aECFV195Qod_l0Lmg

http://www.agaricusfarm.com/our-agaricus-blazei-murill-s/27.htm

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