Phellodendron Amurense

Botanical Name :Phellodendron amurense
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Phellodendron
Kingdom
: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Sapindales
Common Name :Amur cork tree
Chinese Name : Huang bo
Other Names: Phellodendron, Huang Bai, Philodendron bark

Habitat: Native to eastern Asia; northern China, Manchuria, Korea, Ussuri, Amur, and Japan, the Amur cork tree is considered invasive in many parts of North America. The State of Massachusetts lists it as a noxious weed.Forests in valleys and on mountains

Description:
Phellodendron amurense Rupr. is a species of tree in the family Rutaceae, commonly called the Amur cork tree. It is a major source of huáng bò, one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine.

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It is a medium-sized deciduous tree grows to between 30′ and 45′ tall. Generally trees are significantly wider than they are talland the branching is broad spreading
short main trunk and several large main branches. Most trees frequently become almost flat-topped with maturity  and picturesque branching.

Summer Foliage:->…..
Leaves are opposite and p innately compound. 5 to 11 leaflets per leaf and leaves are 10″ to 15″ long, leaflets are 2.5″ to 4.5″ long  . The leaf color is a very nice, lustrous dark green. Crushed foliage gives off a turpentine odor.

Autumn Foliage:->CLICK & SEE
yellow and short-lived ,not especially showy

Flowers:->CLICK & SEE
Dioecious, with male and female plants. Flowers are small and greenish-yellow, not ornamentally significant  and blooms in late May and early June.

Fruit:> CLICK & SEE
Pea-sized fruits that change from green to black , aromatic when crushed. Only on female plants held in clusters

Bark:CLICK & SEE
Conspicuously ridged and furrowed, light gray color.Bark is soft and cork-like to the touch, attractive in a subtle way.

Cultivation:
Prefers a moisture retentive well-drained deep rich loam in full sun. Prefers a neutral to alkaline soil. Succeeds in shallow chalky soils. Grows best in areas with long hot summers. Plants are gross feeders and require a rich soil if they are to perform well. Dormant plants are fully hardy in Britain, but the young growth is liable to damage from late spring frosts. The leaves are aromatic. This species is occasionally cultivated for timber in S.E. Europe. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

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Propagation:
Seed – best sown in the autumn in a cold frame. Stored seed requires 2 months cold stratification, sow in late winter in a cold frame[78, 113]. Germination is usually good. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 – 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Pot up in autumn and over winter in a cold frame. Fair to good percentage. Root cuttings – obtain in December and store in leafmold in a warm place for 3 weeks. Cut into 4cm lengths and plant horizontally in pots. Grow on in a warm greenhouse. Good percentage[

Medicinal Uses:
Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic,Antibacterial;  Bitter;  Cholagogue;  Diuretic;  Expectorant;  Hypoglycaemic;  Ophthalmic;  Skin;  Stomachic;  Vasodilator.lowers blood sugar.

Amur cork tree, called Huang Bai in China, is commonly used in Chinese herbalism, where it is considered to be one of the 50 fundamental herbs, but one that should be used with care. A strongly bitter remedy, the bark acts strongly on the kidneys and is regarded as a detoxicant for hot damp conditions. Recent research has shown that the plant is useful in the treatment of meningitis and conjunctivitis. Huang Bai should only be used under professional supervision and should not be take during pregnancy. The bark is alterative, antibacterial, antirheumatic, aphrodisiac, bitter stomachic, cholagogue, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, hypoglycaemic, ophthalmic, skin, vasodilator and tonic. It is taken internally in the treatment of acute diarrhoea, dysentery, jaundice, vaginal infections including Trichomonas, acute urinary tract infections, enteritis, boils, abscesses, night sweats and skin diseases. It is commonly used in conjunction with Scutellaria baicalensis and Coptis chinensis in a preparation called ‘injection of three yellow herbs’. It is given intramuscularly for upper respiratory tract infections. The bark of 10 year old trees is harvested in the winter or spring and dried for later use. The fruit is expectorant

Purges heat, detoxifies, clears damp heat. Used for infections and inflammation with possible symptoms of discharge from the anus, vagina, or penis. It also is customarily used for night sweats, afternoon fever, and nocturnal emissions. Phellodendron is an effective herb used topically for sores and damp heat conditions of the skin.

You may click to see :->What Are the Medical Uses of Phellodendron Amurense?

Safety: Phellodendron should not be used by those with spleen or stomach deficiency with or without diarrhea.

Other Uses:
Cork;  Dye;  Insecticide;  Oil;  Wood.

A yellow dye is obtained from the inner bark. An oil obtained from the seed has insecticidal properties similar to pyrethrum. Wood – heavy, hard, strong, close grained. Used for furniture. The bark is a cork substitute

The mature gray-brown bark is decorative, with ridges and furrows in a cork-like pattern. A suitable tree for large lots and park landscaping, which is generally free of pests. Very tolerant of soil conditio.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.righthealth.com/Health/Phellodendron%20Amurense-s?lid=goog-ads-sb-8536643334
http://www.hort.uconn.edu/Plants/p/pheamu/pheamu1.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phellodendron_amurense
http://holisticonline.com/herbal-med/_Herbs/h354.htm

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Phellodendron+amurense

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