Salix purpurea

Botanical Name :Salix purpurea
Family: Salicaceae
Genus: Salix
Species: S. purpurea
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malpighiales

Common Names:Purple Willow or Purple Osier, purpleosier willow

Habitat ;Salix purpurea grows in Europe, including Britain, from Belgium south and east to N. Africa, temperate Asia to Japan.It is found in wet places in lowland areas, preferring neutral or alkaline soils.

Description:
Salix purpurea is a deciduous Tree growing to 5 m (16ft) by 5 m (16ft) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Mar to April, and the seeds ripen in May. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is not self-fertile.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. and can grow in saline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade.It requires dry moist or wet soil.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in most soils, including wet, ill-drained or intermittently flooded soils, but prefers a damp, heavy soil in a sunny position[200]. Plants prefer an alkaline or neutral soil, rarely doing well in acid conditions. Said to prefer a sandy soil, plants are tolerant of dryish soils. Plants are tolerant of salt water. A very ornamental plant, it is cultivated for its branches which are used in basket making, there are some named varieties. Plants are coppiced annually for this purpose[186] A very important food plant for the caterpillars of many butterfly species and a good bee plant, providing an early source of nectar and pollen. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus. Plants should be put into their permanent positions as soon as possible. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Propagation :
Seed – must be surface sown as soon as it is ripe in late spring. It has a very short viability, perhaps as little as a few days. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year’s growth, November to February in a sheltered outdoor bed or planted straight into their permanent position and given a good weed-suppressing mulch. Very easy. Plant into their permanent positions in the autumn. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, June to August in a frame. Very easy

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Edible Uses :
Edible Parts: Inner bark;  Leaves.

Inner bark – raw or cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and then added to cereal flour for use in making bread etc. A very bitter flavour, it is a famine food that is only used when all else fails. Young shoots – raw or cooked. They are not very palatable

Medicinal Uses:
Anodyne;  Antiinflammatory;  Antiperiodic;  Antiseptic;  Astringent;  Diaphoretic;  Diuretic;  Febrifuge;  Hypnotic;  Sedative;  Tonic.

The bark is anodyne, anti-inflammatory, antiperiodic, antiseptic, astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge, hypnotic, sedative and tonic. It is a very rich source of salicin, which is used in making aspirin. The bark of this species is used interchangeably with S. alba. It is taken internally in the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis, gout, inflammatory stages of auto-immune diseases, diarrhoea, dysentery, feverish illnesses, neuralgia and headache. The bark is removed during the summer and dried for later use. The leaves are used internally in the treatment of minor feverish illnesses and colic, cancerous sores and chronic dysentery. The leaves can be harvested throughout the growing season and are used fresh or dried. The twigs are used in the treatment of cancer, dysentery and ulcers. The bark of the stem and roots is anodyne and styptic. It is used in the treatment of rheumatism

Other Uses
BasketryHedge;  Hedge;  Repellent;  Soil reclamation;  Soil stabilization;  Tannin.

The stems are very tough and flexible and are used in basket making. The plant is usually coppiced annually when grown for basket making, though it is possible to coppice it every two years if thick poles are required as uprights. The bark is much disliked by rabbits, so a closely woven fence of this plant can be used as a protective barrier. The bark contains about 10% tannin. Plants can be grown as a hedge, the var. ‘Gracilis’ is suitable for a small hedge on damp sites. It can be kept dense by annual clipping. The plant has an extensive root system and is used in soil reclamation and stabilization projects along estuaries.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources;
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Salix+purpurea
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salix_purpurea

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