Backhousia citriodora

Botanical Name :Backhousia citriodora
Family: Myrtaceae
Genus: Backhousia
Species: B. citriodora
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Myrtales

Common names : Lemon myrtle, Lemon scented myrtle, Lemon scented ironwood,Sweet verbena tree, Sweet verbena myrtle, Lemon scented verbena, and Lemon scented backhousia.

Habitat:Backhousia citriodora is native to  coastal rainforest areas of New South Wales and Queensland.

Description:
Backhousia citriodora is a medium-sized shrub or tree,It can reach 20 m (66 ft) in height, but is often smaller. The leaves are evergreen, opposite, lanceolate, 5–12 cm (2.0–4.7 in) long and 1.5–2.5 cm (0.59–0.98 in) broad, glossy green, with an entire margin. The flowers are creamy-white, 5–7 mm diameter, produced in clusters at the ends of the branches from summer through to autumn, after petal fall the calyx is persistent.

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Cultivation:
Backhousia citriodora is a cultivated ornamental plant. It can be grown from tropical to warm temperate climates, and may handle cooler districts provided it can be protected from frost when young. In cultivation it rarely exceeds about 5 metres (16 ft) and usually has a dense canopy. The principal attraction to gardeners is the lemon smell which perfumes both the leaves and flowers of the tree. Lemon myrtle is a hardy plant which tolerates all but the poorest drained soils. It can be slow growing but responds well to slow release fertilisers.

Seedling Backhousia citriodora go through a shrubby, slow juvenile growth stage, before developing a dominant trunk. Backhousia citriodora can also be propagated from cutting, but is slow to strike. Growing cuttings from mature trees bypasses the shrubby juvenile stage. Cutting propagation is also used to provide a consistent product in commercial production.

In plantation cultivation the tree is typically maintained as a shrub by regular harvesting from the top and sides. Mechanical harvesting is used in commercial plantations. It is important to retain some lower branches when pruning for plant health. The harvested leaves are dried for leaf spice, or distilled for the essential oil.

The majority of commercial lemon myrtle is grown in Queensland and the north coast of New South Wales, Australia.

Edible Uses;
Backhousia citriodora is one of the well known bushfood flavours and is sometimes referred to as the “Queen of the lemon herbs”. The leaf is often used as dried flakes, or in the form of an encapsulated flavour essence for enhanced shelf-life. It has a range of uses, such as lemon myrtle flakes in shortbread; flavouring in pasta; whole leaf with baked fish; infused in macadamia or vegetable oils; and made into tea, including tea blends. It can also be used as a lemon flavour replacement in milk-based foods, such as cheesecake, lemon flavoured ice-cream and sorbet without the curdling problem associated with lemon fruit acidity.

The dried leaf has free radical scavenging ability

Medicinal Uses;
AntimicrobialLemon myrtle essential oil possesses antimicrobial properties; however the undiluted essential oil is toxic to human cells in vitro. When diluted to approximately 1%, absorption through the skin and subsequent damage is thought to be minimal. Lemon myrtle oil has a high Rideal-Walker coefficient, a measure of antimicrobial potency. Use of lemon myrtle oil as a treatment for skin lesions caused by molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV), a disease affecting children and immuno-compromised patients, has been investigated. Nine of sixteen patients who were treated with 10% strength lemon myrtle oil showed a significant improvement, compared to none in the control group. The oil is a popular ingredient in health care and cleaning products, especially soaps, lotions and shampoos.

Made as a tea for coughs, colds and other respiratory ailments, sinus and stress. Lemon myrtle tea is used for free blood flow and to make the blood less sticky.  Singers have also told us lemon myrtle tea is a good tonic for their throats.

Other Uses:
Essential oils
B.citriodora has two essential oil chemotypes:

The citral chemotype is more prevalent and is cultivated in Australia for flavouring and essential oil. Citral as an isolate in steam distilled lemon myrtle oil is typically 90–98%, and oil yield 1–3% from fresh leaf. It is the highest natural source of citral.
The citronellal chemotype is uncommon, and can be used as an insect repellent

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Backhousia_citriodora

http://www.anbg.gov.au/gnp/gnp14/backhousia-citriodora.html

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm

http://www.bullockcreeknursery.com.au/lemon-myrtle.htm

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