Hydrangea arborescens

Botanical NameHydrangea arborescens
Family: Hydrangeaceae
Genus:     Hydrangea
Species: H. arborescens
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:     Cornales

Synonyms: Wild Hydrangea. Seven Barks. Hydrangea vulgaris. Common Hydrangea.

Common Names : Hydrangea, Smooth hydrangea, sevenbark

Habitat: Hydrangea arborescens is widely distributed across the eastern United States—from southern New York to the panhandle of Florida, west to eastern Oklahoma and southeastern Kansas. It is mainly found in moist soils under a hardwood forest canopy and is often common along woodland road banks and streams. It is common in the Delaware River Valley and in the Appalachian Mountains.

Description:
Hydrangea arborescens is a decidious Shrub growing to 3m by 2m.The inflorescence of the plant is a corymb. The showy, sterile flowers are usually absent or if present they are usually less than 1 cm in diameter. Flowering occurs May to July.  The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees. It is noted for attracting wildlife. Fruit is a ribbed brown capsule about 2 mm long; many are produced.
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The leaves of smooth hydrangea are large (8 to 18 cm long), opposite, serrated, ovate, and deciduous. The lower leaf surface is glabrous or with inconspicuous fine hairs, appearing green; trichomes of the lower surface are restricted to the midrib and major veins.

The stem bark has a peculiar tendency to peel off in several successive thin layers with different colors, hence the common name “sevenbark”.

Hydrangea arborescens can spread rapidly by stolons to form colonies.It is hardy to zone 3 and is frost tender.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid soil. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
Tolerates most soils, thriving in a well-drained loamy soil, but resenting dryness at the roots. Requires partial shade. Does well on very acid soils with a pH around 4.5. In frosty areas it is best to site the plant in a position shaded from the early morning sun. A good bee plant. The flowers are sweetly scented. Plants are best left unpruned. Another report says that the previous year’s flowering shoots should be cut back in early spring. This species is notably susceptible to honey fungus.

Propagation:
Seed – surface sow in a greenhouse in spring. Cover the pot with paper until the seed germinates. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 8cm long, July/August in a frame. Overwinter in a greenhouse and plant out in late spring. Thick growths make the best cuttings, but these should be placed in individual pots. Good percentage. Cuttings of mature wood in late autumn in a frame. Mound layering in spring. Takes 12 months. Division of suckers in late winter. They can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. Leaf-bud cuttings of the current seasons growth in a frame.

Edible Uses:

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Edible Parts: Stem.

The peeled branches and twigs have been used to make a tea. The new growth of young twigs has been peeled, boiled thoroughly then fried and eaten.

Medicinal Uses:

Parts Used:  Dried rhizome, roots.

Constituents:The root has been found to contain two resins, gum, sugar, starch, albumen, soda, lime potassa, magnesia, sulphuric and phosphoric acids, a protosalt of iron, and a glucoside, Hydrangin. No tannin has been found, but a fixed oil and a volatile oil have been obtained. From the alcoholic extract of the flowers of H. hortensia, two crystalline substances were isolated, Hydragenol and Hydrangeaic acid.

Anthelmintic; Cathartic; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Sialagogue; Tonic

Hydrangea arborescens was used by the North American Indians as a remedy for kidney and bladder stones and is still used for these purposes in modern herbalism. It is considered to both encourage the expulsion of stones and to help dissolve those that remain. The roots are anthelmintic, cathartic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic and tonic. They are used in the treatment of kidney stones, mucous irritations of the bladder, cystitis, nephritis, enlarged prostate and bronchial afflictions. Excessive doses can cause dizziness and bronchial congestion. The fresh roots are very succulent and can be easily cut, when dry they become very tough and resistant. They are harvested in the autumn and it is best to cut them into short sections before drying them. The scraped bark is used as a poultice on wounds, burns, sore muscles, sprains etc. The bark is chewed in the treatment of stomach and heart ailments. The leaves are cathartic, diuretic, sialagogue and tonic.

It also is excellent for chronic penile discharge in men and mucousal urinary irritation in the aged.  It is also used to decrease pain and inflammation in the urinary tract and when stones are passed.  The dried root is considered strongest, but the leaves are sometimes also used.  According to the Eclectic doctors, it does not actually dissolve the stones but helps them to pass and prevents their reoccurrence.  It’s used in combination with other herbs to treat inflamed and enlarged prostates.  The roots have a laxative effect.  Hydrangea contains a substance called rutin which is valuable in decreasing capillary fragility and reducing the incidence of recurrent hemorrhages

Other Uses:
This attractive native shrub is often cultivated for ornamental use. ‘Annabelle’ is the best known cultivar of this species; it is one of the most cold hardy of the hydrangeas. The cultivar ‘Grandiflora’ has flowers that resemble snowballs, similar to Viburnum plicatum.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Hydrangea+arborescens
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrangea_arborescens
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/h/hydran45.html

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_FGH.htm

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