Category Archives: Ailmemts & Remedies

Odontoma

Definition:
Odontoma is a benign tumor that usually forms at the root of a tooth. It may have genetic origins or may result from some sort of trauma to the tooth.
It  is a hamartoma of odontogenic origin.The average age of people found with an odontoma is 14, and the condition is frequently associated with an unerupted tooth…..CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

There are two types: compound and complex.

A compound odontoma still has the three separate dental tissues (enamel, dentin and cementum), but may present a lobulated appearance where there is no definitive demarcation of separate tissues between the individual “toothlets” (or denticles). It usually appears in the anterior maxilla.

 

The complex Odontoma is unrecognizable as dental tissues, usually presenting as a radioopaque area with varying densities. It usually appears in the posterior maxilla or in the mandible.

In 2011; 66% of odontogenic tumors are odontomas (University of Louisville School of Dentistry). 22% of odontogenic tumors are odontomas.

In July of 2014 in Mumbai, India, surgeons at Mumbai’s JJ Hospital removed 232 tooth-like growths from a complex odontoma growing in the lower jaw of 17 year old Ashik Gavai. This odontoma is proposed as “The World Record” to date.

Symptoms:

The most common symptoms are:Pain,Rash,Diarrea,Headache,Back pain,Constipation,Fever,Caugh,Runing nose,Vision change.

The list of signs and symptoms mentioned in various sources for Odontoma includes the 6 symptoms listed below:

*Dysphagia ( Dysphagia is difficulty in swallowing.There are about 194 causes of Dysphagia, including diseases and drug side effect causes.)
*Lump on gums
*Delayed tooth eruption (It is a condition in which there is a slow or late development of a tooth. There are about  60 causes of Delayed tooth eruption)
*Absent tooth
*Delayed primary tooth loss
*Increased bone size under tooth

Causes:
There are several causes of odontoma, some of them are :

*Dental conditions(Any condition that affects dental organs such as the teeth and gums. Examples of dental conditions include tooth decay, tooth infection, gingivitis, periodontitis, impacted tooth and canker sores)

*Oral conditions(Any condition affecting the mouth. Mouth conditions can affect any structure of the mouth such as teeth, gums, lips, tongue and cheeks. Conditions that can affect the mouth include candidiasis, oral cancer, stuttering, cleft palate, bad breath and gingivitis. )

*Head conditions(Any condition affecting the head. Some head conditions can be serious such as cancers and skull fractures whereas other conditions may be less threatening such as headaches and head lice)

*Benign tumors (A benign tumor is one that does not spread or “metastasize” to other parts of the body; a “malignant tumor” is one that does. A benign tumor is caused by cell overgrowth, and thus is different from a cyst or an abcess,)

Diagnosis:
Odontoma does not usually show external symptoms. These tumors are revealed when the x-rays are examined by the dentist. Although it is true that a delayed tooth or absent tooth may suggest there is a need for further examination.

The presence of an a tumor of dental origin requires further examination to determine what type of tumor it is before further action is taken. In addition, a histological diagnosis of the tissues that were extracted provides valuable information to the dentist.

No one really knows why an odontoma forms. The most likely reasons are trauma and/or infection at the site. Some dentists and researchers believe they are hereditary or they develop because of genetic mutations. One example of an inherited syndrome is known as Gardener Syndrome. It is responsible for a wide range of tumors in the body, including occasional odontoma.  When examined at the cellular level, all of the dental tissues are found, but in an abnormal combination.

Pulp, dentin, enamel and cementum may sometimes resemble a tooth like structure in a compound odontoma. These denticles are found in a surrounding supporting layer of fibrous cells. Since it is decalcified, the enamel looks like spaces around the tiny tooth structures.   Looking closer, you can see the calicified material either as a solid mass or as multiple, small tooth-like bodies visible by x-rays. Because it is easily separated from its bony location it can be distinguished from other possible tumors.

A complex odontoma has no specific sequence for all of the dental tissue. It does not resemble normal tooth structure. At the cellular level it appears as mostly tubular dentin that encloses hollow spaces. These circular spaces are decalcified but they once held enamel. On the edges there may be a thin layer of cementum which forms a capsule like tissue surrounding the mass.

Treatment :
The only real treatment of an these dental tumors is removal by surgery. An early discovery and treatment will be beneficial to the patient. It is a benign tumor made of dental tissue and it is a fairly simple extraction in most cases. A speedy recovery is generally expected.  Some complex tumors can result in complications after extraction. So it is essential to stay in contact with the dental surgeon.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odontoma

http://www.allhealthsite.com/odontoma.html

http://www.rightdiagnosis.com/o/odontoma/intro.

Acanthosis nigricans

Definition:
Acanthosis nigricans is a fairly common skin pigmentation disorder.It is a brown to black, poorly defined, velvety hyperpigmentation of the skin. It is usually found in body folds, such as the posterior and lateral folds of the neck, the armpits, groin, navel, forehead, and other areas.

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Types:
This is conventionally divided into benign and malignant forms., although may be divided into syndromes according to cause.

*Benign This may include obesity-related, hereditary, and endocrine forms of acanthosis nigricans.

*Malignant. This may include forms that are associated with tumour products and insulin-like activity, or tumour necrosis factor.

An alternate classification system still used to describe acanthosis nigricans was proposed in 1994 by dermatologist Schwartz. This classification system delineates acanthosis nigricans syndromes according to their associated syndromes, including benign and malignant forms, forms associated with obesity and drugs, acral acanthosis nigricans, unilateral acanthosis nigricans, and mixed and syndromic forms.

Acanthosis nigricans may be a sign of a more serious health problem such as pre-diabetes. The most effective treatments focus on finding and resolving medical condition at the root of the problem. Fortunately, these skin patches tend to disappear after successfully treating the root condition.

Signs and symptoms:
Acanthosis nigricans may present with thickened, relatively darker areas of skin on the neck, armpit and in skin folds.These patches may also appear on the groin, elbows, knees, knuckles, or skin folds. Lips, palms, and soles of the feet.

Causes:
It typically occurs in individuals younger than age 40, may be genetically inherited, and is associated with obesity or endocrinopathies, such as hypothyroidism, acromegaly, polycystic ovary disease, insulin-resistant diabetes, or Cushing’s disease.

This occurs when epidermal skin cells begin to rapidly reproduce. This abnormal skin cell growth is most commonly triggered by high levels of insulin in the blood. In rare cases, the increase in skin cells may be caused by medications, cancer, or other medical conditions, as describe below.

*Too Much Insulin
The most frequent trigger for acanthosis nigricans is too much insulin in your bloodstream. Here’s why.

When you eat, your body converts carbohydrates into sugar molecules such as glucose. Some of this glucose is used for energy while the rest is stored. In order to use the glucose for energy, insulin must also be used. The insulin enables the glucose to enter the cells.

Overweight people tend to develop resistance to insulin over time. So although the pancreas is making insulin, the body cannot use it properly. This creates a buildup of glucose in the bloodstream, which can result in high levels of both blood glucose and insulin in your bloodstream.

Excess insulin causes normal skin cells to reproduce at a rapid rate. For those with dark skin, these new cells have more melanin. This increase in melanin produces a patch of skin that is darker than the skin surrounding it. Thus, the presence of acanthosis nigricans is a strong predictor of future diabetes. If this is indeed the cause, it is relatively easy to correct with proper diet, exercise, and blood sugar control.

*Medications:
Acanthosis nigricans can also be triggered by certain medications such as birth control pills, human growth hormones, thyroid medications, and even some body-building supplements. All of these medications can cause changes in insulin levels. Medications used to ease the side effects of chemotherapy have also been linked to acanthosis nigricans. In most cases, the condition clears up when the medications are discontinued.

Some Other Causes:(Potential but rare)

#stomach cancer (gastric adenocarcinoma)
#adrenal gland disorders such as Addison’s disease
#disorders of the pituitary gland
#low levels of thyroid hormones
#high doses of niacin

Diagnosis:
Acanthosis nigricans is typically diagnosed clinically.It is easy to recognize by sight. The doctor may want to check for diabetes or insulin resistance as the root cause. These tests may include blood glucose tests or fasting insulin tests. Your doctor may also review all your medications to see if they are a contributing factor.

It is important to inform the doctor of any dietary supplements, vitamins, or muscle-building supplements you may be taking in addition to your prescription medications.

In rare cases, the doctor may perform other tests such as a small skin biopsy to rule out other possible causes.

Treatment :
People with acanthosis nigricans should be screened for diabetes and, although rare, cancer. Controlling blood glucose levels through exercise and diet often improves symptoms. Acanthosis nigricans maligna may resolve if the causative tumor is successfully removed.

Cosmetic treatments exist for cases that are especially unsightly or embarrassing. Dark patches may be covered up with cosmetics or lightened with prescription skin lighteners. Although these treatments are not as effective as treating the root cause of the condition, they can provide some relief. Available skin lighteners include Retin-A, 20 percent urea, alpha hydroxy acids, and salicylic acid.

Prognosis:
Acanthosis nigricans often fades if the underlying cause can be determined and treated  properly.

 

Prevention:
Maintaining a healthy lifestyle & exercisIng regularly can usually prevent Acanthosis nigricans. Losing weight, controlling your diet, and, perhaps adjusting any medications that are contributing to the condition are all crucial steps. Healthier lifestyle choices will also reduce your risks for many other types of illnesses.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:

http://www.healthline.com/health/acanthosis-nigricans#Definition

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acanthosis_nigricans

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Diabetics

Definition:
Diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.[2] This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger).

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There are three main types of diabetes mellitus (DM).

*Type 1 DM results from the body’s failure to produce insulin, and currently requires the person to inject insulin or wear an insulin pump. This form was previously referred to as “insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (IDDM) or “juvenile diabetes”.

*Type 2 DM results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. This form was previously referred to as non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or “adult-onset diabetes”.

*The third main form, gestational diabetes, occurs when pregnant women without a previous diagnosis of diabetes develop a high blood glucose level. It may precede development of type 2 DM.

Other forms of diabetes mellitus include congenital diabetes, which is due to genetic defects of insulin secretion, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, steroid diabetes induced by high doses of glucocorticoids, and several forms of monogenic diabetes.
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Diabetes has no age bar. It can appear in a newborn, children, young adults, during pregnancy or in older people. If there are suspicious symptoms, tests should be done.

Some families have a tendency to develop diabetes, with many members being affected. This is because it is a genetic disease that an be inherited from both parents. Type 1 and 2 diabetes are inherited from multiple genes. In type 2 diabetes particularly, the environment and family’s dietary and exercise habits also influence these genes. Families that eat “well” and are sedentary with snacking and excessive TV viewing are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes. Sometimes type 1 diabetes can develop in persons without a family history or genetic predisposition. It may follow viral infections, especially with the mumps and coxsackie group of viruses. The virus attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas responsible for manufacturing insulin.

There is now a third type of diabetes, where the mutation occurs in a single gene. This gene is dominant, so that if either parent carries it, then half the children (male and female) will be affected. It was called MODY (maturity onset diabetes of youth). The diabetes affecting newborn children is of this type.

Initially, MODY was called type 1.5 diabetes and it was presumed that it was caused by only one type of genetic defect. Recent research has shown that there are 13 defects that lead to MODY.

*It is likely to be present in people who have been diagnosed with diabetes before the age of 30.

*It is present in every generation of the family.

*It can be managed with diet, exercise and tablets. Insulin is usually not required (even in children).

*MODY (depending on the type) can result in the affected woman having small or large babies.

* There may be cysts in the kidney.

* Malabsorption can occur.

* Patients may be infertile.

The incidence of MODY is higher in areas where there is a great deal of consanguinity (marrying a close relative) and when people marry generation after generation from the same community.

It is now possible to test for MODY genes in many centres and identify high-risk individuals and families.

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Symptoms:
The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are loss of weight, polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger). Symptoms may develop rapidly (weeks or months) in type 1 diabetes, while they usually develop much more slowly and may be subtle or absent in type 2 diabetes.

Prolonged high blood glucose can cause glucose absorption in the lens of the eye, which leads to changes in its shape, resulting in vision changes. Blurred vision is a common complaint leading to a diabetes diagnosis. A number of skin rashes that can occur in diabetes are collectively known as diabetic dermadromes.

Causes:
The cause of diabetes depends on the type.

Type 1

Type 1 diabetes is partly inherited, and then triggered by certain infections, with some evidence pointing at Coxsackie B4 virus. A genetic element in individual susceptibility to some of these triggers has been traced to particular HLA genotypes (i.e., the genetic “self” identifiers relied upon by the immune system). However, even in those who have inherited the susceptibility, type 1 DM seems to require an environmental trigger. The onset of type 1 diabetes is unrelated to lifestyle.

Type 2

Type 2 diabetes is due primarily to lifestyle factors and genetics.[16] A number of lifestyle factors are known to be important to the development of type 2 diabetes, including obesity (defined by a body mass index of greater than thirty), lack of physical activity, poor diet, stress, and urbanization.[4] Excess body fat is associated with 30% of cases in those of Chinese and Japanese descent, 60-80% of cases in those of European and African descent, and 100% of Pima Indians and Pacific Islanders. Those who are not obese often have a high waist–hip ratio.

Dietary factors also influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks in excess is associated with an increased risk.  The type of fats in the diet is also important, with saturated fats and trans fatty acids increasing the risk and polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat decreasing the risk.  Eating lots of white rice appears to also play a role in increasing risk.  A lack of exercise is believed to cause 7% of cases.

The following is a comprehensive list of other causes of diabetes:

*Genetic defects of ?-cell function
*Maturity onset diabetes of the young
*Mitochondrial DNA mutations

*Genetic defects in insulin processing or insulin action
*Defects in proinsulin conversion
*Insulin gene mutations
*Insulin receptor mutations

*Exocrine pancreatic defects
*Chronic pancreatitis
*Pancreatectomy
*Pancreatic neoplasia
*Cystic fibrosis
*Hemochromatosis
*Fibrocalculous pancreatopathy

Diabetes has no age bar. It can appear in a newborn, children, young adults, during pregnancy or in older people. If there are suspicious symptoms, tests should be done.

Some families have a tendency to develop diabetes, with many members being affected. This is because it is a genetic disease that an be inherited from both parents. Type 1 and 2 diabetes are inherited from multiple genes. In type 2 diabetes particularly, the environment and family’s dietary and exercise habits also influence these genes. Families that eat “well” and are sedentary with snacking and excessive TV viewing are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes. Sometimes type 1 diabetes can develop in persons without a family history or genetic predisposition. It may follow viral infections, especially with the mumps and coxsackie group of viruses. The virus attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas responsible for manufacturing insulin.

Diagnosis:
Diabetes is diagnosed with blood tests. Blood sugar count after a 12 hour fast should be less than 100mg/dl and two hours after a full meal less than 140 mg/. Glycosolated haemoglobin (HbA1 c) should be 5.6.

A GTT (glucose tolerance test) can be done in suspect cases. In this the fasting blood glucose level is checked and 75gm glucose given. The blood is checked every 30 to 60 minutes after that. One hour later the blood glucose level should be lower than 180 mg/dL, two hours later less than 155 mg/dL, and three hours later lower than 140 mg/dL.

Complications:
Uncontrolled, untreated, neglected diabetes of all types causes complications with the nervous system, heart, kidneys, eyes and muscles affected.

All forms of diabetes increase the risk of long-term complications. These typically develop after many years (10–20), but may be the first symptom in those who have otherwise not received a diagnosis before that time. The major long-term complications relate to damage to blood vessels. Diabetes doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease. The main “macrovascular” diseases (related to atherosclerosis of larger arteries) are ischemic heart disease (angina and myocardial infarction), stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.

Diabetes also damages the capillaries (causes microangiopathy). Diabetic retinopathy, which affects blood vessel formation in the retina of the eye, can lead to visual symptoms including reduced vision and potentially blindness. Diabetic nephropathy, the impact of diabetes on the kidneys, can lead to scarring changes in the kidney tissue, loss of small or progressively larger amounts of protein in the urine, and eventually chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis.

Another risk is diabetic neuropathy, the impact of diabetes on the nervous system — most commonly causing numbness, tingling, and pain in the feet, and also increasing the risk of skin damage due to altered sensation. Together with vascular disease in the legs, neuropathy contributes to the risk of diabetes-related foot problems (such as diabetic foot ulcers) that can be difficult to treat and occasionally require amputation. Additionally, proximal diabetic neuropathy causes painful muscle wasting and weakness.

Several studies suggest a link between cognitive deficit and diabetes. Compared to those without diabetes, the research showed that those with the disease have a 1.2 to 1.5-fold greater rate of decline in cognitive function, and are at greater risk.

Treatment:
The major goal in treating diabetes is to minimize any elevation of blood sugar (glucose) without causing abnormally low levels of blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin, exercise, and a diabetic diet. Type 2 diabetes is treated first with weight reduction, a diabetic diet, and exercise. When these measures fail to control the elevated blood sugars, oral medications are used. If oral medications are still insufficient, treatment with insulin is considered.

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A change in lifestyle goes a long way in preventing the onset of diabetes and controlling it after it sets in. These guidelines are particularly important if you have MODY or feel that you or your family members are in danger of developing it.

Prevention:
To prevent development of the disease as an adult, it is our children who need to be targeted for intervention. Lifestyle changes — a healthy diet and regular exercise — should be implemented at the school level.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diabetes_mellitus

http://www.medicinenet.com/diabetes_treatment/article.htm

http://www.telegraphindia.com/1131118/jsp/knowhow/story_17579340.jsp#.UolfgL4o52Y

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Ankle Sprain

Defination:
A sprained ankle is an injury that occurs when you roll, twist or turn your ankle in an awkward way. This can stretch or tear the tough bands of tissue (ligaments) that help hold your ankle bones together.

Ligaments help stabilize joints, preventing excessive movement. A sprained ankle occurs when the ligaments are forced beyond their normal range of motion. Most sprained ankles involve injuries to the ligaments on the outer side of the ankle.

Most people have twisted an ankle at some point in their life. But if your ankle gets swollen and painful after you twist it, you have most likely sprained it. This means you have stretched and possibly torn the ligaments in your ankle.

Ankle sprains are classified as grade 1, 2, and 3. Depending on the amount of damage or the number of ligaments that are damaged, each sprain is classified from mild to severe. A grade 1 sprain is defined as mild damage to a ligament or ligaments without instability of the affected joint. A grade 2 sprain is considered a partial tear to the ligament, in which it is stretched to the point that it becomes loose. (click to see)A grade 3 (click to see)sprain is a complete tear of a ligament, causing instability in the affected joint. Bruising may occur around the ankle.

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Inversion(lateral) ankle sprain:  click to see
The most common type of ankle sprain occurs when the foot is inverted too much, affecting the lateral side of the foot. When this type of ankle sprain happens, the outer, or lateral, ligaments are stretched too much. The anterior talofibular ligament is one of the most commonly involved ligaments in this type of sprain. Approximately 70-85% of ankle sprains are inversion injuries.

When the ankle becomes inverted, the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments are damaged. This is the most common ankle sprain.

Eversion (medial) ankle sprain:
A less common type of ankle sprain is called an eversion injury, affecting the medial side of the foot. When this occurs, the medial, or deltoid, ligament is stretched too much.

High ankle sprain:
A high ankle sprain is an injury to the large ligaments above the ankle that join together the two long bones of the lower leg, called the tibia and fibula. High ankle sprains commonly occur from a sudden and forceful outward twisting of the foot, which commonly occurs in contact and cutting sports such as football, rugby, ice hockey, roller derby, basketball, volleyball, lacrosse, softball, baseball, track, ultimate frisbee, gridiron, tennis and badminton and horse riding.

Symptoms:
The most common symptoms are :-

!.Pain, especially when you bear weight on the affected foot

2.Swelling and, sometimes, bruising

3.Restricted range of motion

Some people hear or feel a “pop” at the time of injury.

Causes:
Movements – especially twisting, turning, and rolling of the foot – are the primary cause of an ankle sprain.

The risk of a sprain is greatest during activities that involve explosive side-to-side motion, such as badminton, tennis or basketball. Sprained ankles can also occur during normal daily activities such as stepping off a curb or slipping on ice. Returning to activity before the ligaments have fully healed may cause them to heal in a stretched position, resulting in less stability at the ankle joint. This can lead to a condition known as Chronic Ankle Instability (CAI), and an increased risk of ankle sprains.

The following factors can contribute to an increased risk of ankle sprains:
Weak muscles/tendons that cross the ankle joint, especially the muscles of the lower leg that cross the outside, or lateral aspect of the ankle joint (i.e. peroneal or fibular muscles);

1.Weak or lax ligaments that join together the bones of the ankle joint – this can be hereditary or due to overstretching of ligaments as a result of repetitive ankle sprains;

2.Poor ankle flexibility;

3.Lack of warm-up and/or stretching before activity;

4.Inadequate joint proprioception (i.e. sense of joint position);

5.Slow neuron muscular response to an off-balance position;

6.Running on uneven surfaces;

6.Shoes with inadequate heel support; and

7.Wearing high-heeled shoes – due to the weak position of the ankle joint with an elevated heel, and a small base of support.

Ankle sprains occur usually through excessive stress on the ligaments of the ankle. This is can be caused by excessive external rotation, inversion or eversion of the foot caused by an external force. When the foot is moved past its range of motion, the excess stress puts a strain on the ligaments. If the strain is great enough to the ligaments past the yield point, then the ligament becomes damaged, or sprained

Diagnosis:
Your doctor will ask you how the injury occurred and if you have hurt your ankle before. He or she will check your foot and ankle, your lower leg, and even your knee to see if you are hurt anywhere else.

If the sprain is mild, your doctor may not order X-rays. But with more severe sprains, you may need X-rays to rule out a broken bone in the ankle or the foot. It is possible to break a bone in your foot or ankle at the same time as a sprain.

In most cases, doctors order X-rays in children with symptoms of an ankle sprain. This is because it is important to find and treat any damage to the growth plates in bones that support the ankle.

Treatment:
In many cases you can first use the PRINCE approach to treat your ankle:

1.Protection. Use a protective brace, such a brace with a built-in air cushion or another form of ankle support.

2.Rest. You may need to use crutches until you can walk without pain.

3.Ice. For at least the first 24 to 72 hours or until the swelling goes down, apply an ice pack for 10 to 20 minutes every hour or two during the day. Always keep a thin cloth between the ice and your skin, and press the ice pack firmly against all the curves of the affected area.

4.NSAIDs or acetaminophen. NSAIDs (such as Advil and Motrin) are medicines that reduce swelling and pain. Acetaminophen (such as Tylenol) reduces pain.

5.Compression. An elastic compression wrap, such as an ACE bandage, will help reduce swelling. You wear it for the first 24 to 36 hours. Compression wraps do not offer protection. So you also need a brace to protect your ankle if you try to put weight on it.

6.Elevation. Raise your ankle above the level of your heart for 2 to 3 hours a day if possible. This helps to reduce swelling and bruising.

Proper treatment and rehabilitation (rehab) exercises are very important for ankle sprains. If an ankle sprain does not heal right, the joint may become unstable and may develop chronic pain. This can make your ankle weak and more likely to be reinjured. Before you return to sports and other activities that put stress on your ankle, it’s a good idea to wait until you can hop on your ankle with no pain. Taping your ankle or wearing a brace during exercise can help protect your ankle. Wearing hiking boots or other high-top, lace-up shoes for support may also help. But use caution. Don’t force your foot into a boot if you feel a lot of pain or discomfort.

If your ankle is still unstable after rehab, or if the ligament damage is severe, your doctor may recommend surgery to repair the torn ligaments.

Rehabilitation:
Rehab exercises can begin soon after the injury. You can try to walk or put weight on your foot while using crutches if it doesn’t hurt too much. Depending on your pain, you can also begin range-of-motion exercises pop out while you have ice on your ankle. These exercises are easy to do-you just trace the alphabet with your toe. This helps the ankle move in all directions.

Ask your doctor about other rehab. Stretching, strength training, and balance exercises may help the ankle heal totally and may prevent further injury.

Prevention:
Take the following steps to help prevent a sprained ankle:

1.Warm up before you exercise or play sports.

2.Be careful when walking, running or working on an uneven surface.

3.Wear shoes that fit well and are made for your activity.

4.Don’t wear high-heeled shoes.

5.Don’t play sports or participate in activities for which you are not conditioned.

6.Maintain good muscle strength and flexibility.

7.Practice stability training, including balance exercises.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sprained_ankle

http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/sprained-ankle/DS01014/DSECTION=symptoms

http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/ankle-sprain-overview

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Strep throat

Other Names:
Streptococcal pharyngitis, streptococcal tonsillitis, or streptococcal sore throat

Definition:
Strep throat is a disease that causes a sore throat (pharyngitis). It is an infection with a germ called Group A Streptococcus bacteria.  Only a small portion of sore throats are the result of strep throat.

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It  is a contagious infection, spread through close contact with an infected individual.  this is not always needed as treatment may be decided based on symptoms. In highly likely or confirmed cases, antibiotics are useful to both prevent complications and speed recovery.

It’s important to identify strep throat for a number of reasons. If untreated, strep throat can sometimes cause complications such as kidney inflammation and rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever can lead to painful and inflamed joints, a rash and even damage to heart valves.

Strep throat is most common between the ages of 5 and 15, but it affects people of all ages. If you or your child has signs or symptoms of strep throat, see your doctor for prompt treatment.

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Symptoms:
Symptoms may be mild or severe.One will often start to feel sick about 2 to 5 days after he or she  come in contact with the strep germ.

Fever may begin suddenly and is often highest on the second day. You may have chills.

You can have a red sore throat, sometimes with white patches. It may hurt to swallow. You may feel swollen, tender glands in your neck.

Other symptoms may include:
*General ill feeling, a loss of appetite and abnormal taste & Fever
*Headache
*Nausea
*Throat pain
*Difficulty swallowing
*Red and swollen tonsils, sometimes with white patches or streaks of pus
*Tiny red spots on the soft or hard palate — the area at the back of the roof of the mouth
*Swollen, tender lymph glands (nodes) in your neck
*Headache
*Rash
*Stomachache and sometimes vomiting, especially in younger children
*Fatigue

It’s possible for you or your child to have many of these signs and symptoms, but not have strep throat. The cause of these signs and symptoms could be a viral infection or some other kind of illness. That’s why your doctor generally tests specifically for strep throat.

It’s also possible to have the bacteria that can cause strep in your throat without having a sore throat. Some people are carriers of strep, which means they can pass the bacteria on to others, but the bacteria are not currently making them sick.

Some strains of strep throat can lead to a scarlet fever-like rash. The rash first appears on the neck and chest. Then it spreads over the body. It may feel like sandpaper.

Causes:
Strep throat is caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GAS). Other bacteria such as non–group A beta-hemolytic streptococci and fusobacterium may also cause pharyngitis. It is spread by direct, close contact with an infected person and thus crowding as may be found in the military and schools increases the rate of transmission. It has been found that dried bacteria in dust are not infectious, although moist bacteria on toothbrushes or similar items can persist for up to fifteen days. Rarely, contaminated food can result in outbreaks. Of children with no signs or symptoms 12% carry GAS in their pharynx and after treatment approximately 15% remain carriers.

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Diagnosis:
The modified Centor criteria maybe used to determine the management of people with pharyngitis. Based on 5 clinical criteria, it indicates the probability of a streptococcal infection.

One point is given for each of the criteria:

*Absence of a cough
*Swollen and tender cervical lymph nodes
*Temperature >38.0 °C (100.4 °F)
*Tonsillar exudate or swelling
*Age less than 15 (a point is subtracted if age >44)

The Infectious Disease Society of America however recommends against empirical treatment and considers antibiotics only appropriate following positive testing. Testing is not needed in children under three as both group A strep and rheumatic fever are rare, except if they have a sibling with the disease.

Laboratory testing:
A throat culture is the gold standard for the diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis with a sensitivity of 90–95%. A rapid strep test (also called rapid antigen detection testing or RADT) may also be used. While the rapid strep test is quicker, it has a lower sensitivity (70%) and statistically equal specificity (98%) as throat culture.

A positive throat culture or RADT in association with symptoms establishes a positive diagnosis in those in which the diagnosis is in doubt. In adults a negative RADT is sufficient to rule out the diagnosis however in children a throat culture is recommended to confirm the result. Asymptomatic individuals should not be routinely tested with a throat culture or RADT because a certain percentage of the population persistently “carries” the streptococcal bacteria in their throat without any harmful results.

Differential diagnosis:
As the symptoms of streptococcal pharyngitis overlap with other conditions it can be difficult to make the diagnosis clinically. Coughing, nasal discharge, diarrhea, and red, irritated eyes in addition to fever and sore throat are more indicative of a viral sore throat than of strep throat. The presence of marked lymph node enlargement along with sore throat, fever and tonsillar enlargement may also occur in infectious mononucleosis.

Possible Complications & Risk Factors:

*Acute rheumatic fever….click to see
*Scarlet fever
*Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome
*Glomerulonephritis
*Ear infection
*Glomerulonephritis
*Guttate psoriasis
*Mastoiditis
*Peritonsillar abscess
*Sinusitis

Treatment:
A number of medications are available to cure strep throat, relieve its symptoms and prevent its spread.

Antibiotics:
If you or your child has strep throat, your doctor will likely prescribe an oral antibiotic such as:
Penicillin. This drug may be given by injection in some cases — such as if you have a young child who is having a hard time swallowing or is vomiting.
Amoxicillin. This drug is in the same family as penicillin, but is often a preferred option for children because it tastes better and is available as a chewable tablet.

If you or your child is allergic to penicillin, your doctor likely may prescribe:
A cephalosporin such as cephalexin (Keflex)
Clarithromycin (Biaxin)
Azithromycin (Zithromax, Zmax)
Clindamycin

These antibiotics reduce the duration and severity of symptoms, as well as the risk of complications and the likelihood that infection will spread to classmates or family members.

Once treatment begins, you or your child should start feeling better in just a day or two. Call your doctor if you or your child doesn’t feel better after taking antibiotics for 48 hours.

If children taking antibiotic therapy feel well and don’t have a fever, they often can return to school or child care when they’re no longer contagious — usually 24 hours after beginning treatment. But be sure to finish the entire course of medicine. Stopping medication early may lead to recurrences and serious complications, such as rheumatic fever or kidney inflammation.

Untreated streptococcal pharyngitis usually resolves within a few days. Treatment with antibiotics shortens the duration of the acute illness by about 16 hours. The primary reason for treatment with antibiotics is to reduce the risk of complications such as rheumatic fever and retropharyngeal abscesses and they are effective if given within 9 days of the onset of symptoms

Analgesics such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and paracetamol (acetaminophen) help significantly in the management of pain associated with strep throat. Viscous lidocaine may also be useful. While steroids may help with the pain they are not routinely recommended. Aspirin may be used in adults but is not recommended in children due to the risk of Reye’s syndrome.

Prognosis:
The symptoms of strep throat usually improve irrespective of treatment within three to five days. Treatment with antibiotics reduces the risk of complications and transmission; children may return to school 24 hours after antibiotics are administered. The risk of complications in adults is low. In children acute rheumatic fever is rare in most of the developed world. It is however the leading cause of acquired heart disease in India, sub-Saharan Africa and some parts of Australia.

Prevention:
Tonsillectomy may be a reasonable preventive measure in those with frequent throat infections (more than three a year). The benefits are however small and episodes typically lessen in time regardless of measures taken. Recurrent episodes of pharyngitis which test positive for GAS may also represent a person who is a chronic carrier of GAS who is getting recurrent viral infections. Treating people who have been exposed but who are without symptoms is not recommended. Treating people who are carriers of GAS is not recommended as the risk of spread and complications is low.

click to see

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streptococcal_pharyngitis

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000639.htm

http://ww.mayoclinic.com/health/strep-throat/DS00260

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SARS (Severe acute respiratory syndrome)

Description:
SARS, or Severe acute respiratory syndrome, is the disease caused by SARS coronavirus. It causes an often severe illness marked initially by systemic symptoms of muscle pain, headache, and fever, followed in 2–10 days by the onset of respiratory symptoms,[3] mainly cough, dyspnea, and pneumonia. Another common finding in SARS patients is a decrease in the number of lymphocytes circulating in the blood.

You may click to see the picture:     (1)…….(2)

Virus classification:-

Group: Group IV ((+)ssRNA)

Order: Nidovirales

Family: Coronaviridae

Genus: Coronavirus

Species: SARS coronavirus

SARS coronavirus is a positive and single stranded RNA virus belonging to a family of enveloped coronaviruses. Its genome is about 29.7kb, which is one of the largest among RNA viruses. The SARS virus has 13 known genes and 14 known proteins. There are 265bp in the 5’UTR and 342bp in the 3’UTR. SARS is similar to other coronaviruses in that its genome expression starts with translation of two large ORFs 1a and 1b, which are two polyproteins.

The functions of several of these proteins are known:  ORFs 1a and 1b encode the replicase and there are four major structural proteins: nucleocapsid, spike, membrane and envelope. It also encodes for eight unique proteins, known as the accessory proteins, with no known homologues. The function of these accessory proteins remains unknown.
In the SARS outbreak of 2003, about 9% of patients with confirmed SARS infection died. The mortality rate was much higher for those over 50 years old, with mortality rates approaching 50% for this subset of patients.

Coronaviruses usually express pp1a (the ORF1a polyprotein) and the PP1ab polyprotein with joins ORF1a and ORF1b. The polyproteins are then processed by enzymes that are encoded by ORF1a. Product proteins from the processing includes various replicative enzymes such as RNA dependent polymerase, RNA helicase, and proteinase. The replication complex in coronavirus is also responsible for the synthesis of various mRNAs downstream of ORF 1b, which are structural and accessory proteins. Two different proteins, 3CLpro and PL2pro, cleave the large polyproteins into 16 smaller subunits.

SARS-Coronavirus follows the replication strategy typical of the Coronavirus genus.

In the SARS outbreak of 2003, about 9% of patients with confirmed SARS infection died. The mortality rate was much higher for those over 50 years old, with mortality rates approaching 50% for this subset of patients.

Causes:
SARS is caused by a strain of coronavirus, the same family of viruses that causes the common cold. Until now, these viruses have never been particularly dangerous in humans, although they can cause severe disease in animals. For that reason, scientists originally thought that the SARS virus might have crossed from animals to humans. It now seems likely that it evolved from one or more animal viruses into a completely new strain.
 
How do SARS spread:
Most respiratory illnesses, including SARS, spread through droplets that enter the air when someone with the disease coughs, sneezes or talks. Most experts think SARS spreads mainly through face-to-face contact, but the virus also may be spread on contaminated objects — such as doorknobs, telephones and elevator buttons.

Symptoms:
Once a person has contracted SARS, the first symptom that they present with is a fever of at least 38°C (100.4°F) or higher. The early symptoms last about 2–7 days and include non-specific flu-like symptoms, including chills/rigor, muscle aches, headaches, diarrhea, sore throat, runny nose, malaise, and myalgia (muscle pain). Next, they develop a dry cough, shortness of breath, and an upper respiratory tract infection.

SARS typically begins with flu-like signs and symptoms — signs and symptoms include:

*Fever of 100.4 F (38 C) or higher
* Dry cough
*Shortness of breath

Complications:
The main complication of SERS  is that most people develop pneumonia. Breathing problems can become so severe that a mechanical respirator is required. SARS is fatal in some cases, often due to respiratory failure. Other possible complications include heart and liver failure.

People older than the age of 60 — especially those with underlying conditions such as diabetes or hepatitis — are at highest risk of serious complications.

Risk Factors:
In general, people at greatest risk of SARS have had direct, close contact with someone who’s infected, such as family members and health care workers.

Diagnosis:
At that time, a chest x-ray is ordered to confirm pneumonia. If the chest appears clear and SARS is still suspected, a HRCT scan will be ordered, because it is visible earlier on this scan. In severe cases, it develops into respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and in 70-90% of the cases, they develop lymphopenia (low count of lymphocyte white blood cells).

The incubation period for SARS-CoV is from 2–10 days, sometimes lasting up to 13 days, with a mean of 5 days.  So symptoms usually develop between 2–10 days following infection by the virus. As part of the immune response, IgM antibody to the SARS-CoV is produced. This peaks during the acute or early convalescent phase (week 3) and declines by week 12. IgG antibody is produced later and peaks at week 12.

Tests:
When SARS first surfaced, no specific tests were available to help doctors diagnose the disease. Now several laboratory tests can help detect the virus. But no known transmission of SARS has occurred anywhere in the world since 2004.

Treatment:
Although global efforts are still on, scientists have not yet found out any effective treatment for SARS. Antibiotic drugs don’t work against viruses and antiviral drugs haven’t shown much benefit.

Prevention:
Researchers are working on several types of vaccines for SARS, but none has been tested in humans.Engineering of SARS virus has been done. In a paper published in 2006, a new transcription circuit was engineered to make recombinant SARS viruses. The recombination allowed for efficient expression of viral transcripts and proteins. The engineering of this transcription circuit reduces the RNA recombinant progeny viruses. The TRS (transcription regulatory sequences) circuit regulates efficient expression of SARS-CoV subgenomic mRNAs. The wild type TRS is ACGAAC.

A double mutation results in TRS-1 (ACGGAT) and a triple mutation results in TRS-2 (CCGGAT). When the remodeled TRS circuit containing viruses are genetically recombined with wild type TRS circuits, the result is a circuit reduced in production of subgenomic mRNA. The goal of modifying the SARS virus with this approach is to produce chimeric progeny that have reduced viability due to the incompatibility of the WT and engineered TRS circuits.

Novel subunit vaccine constructs for an S protein SARS vaccine based on the receptor binding domain (RBD) are being developed by the New York Blood Center. The re-emergence of SARS is possible, and the need remains for commercial vaccine and therapeutic development. However, the cost and length of time for product development, and the uncertain future demand, result in unfavorable economic conditions to accomplish this task. In the development of therapeutics and next-generation vaccines, more work is required to determine the structure/ function relationships of critical enzymes and structural proteins.

If SARS infections resume, follow these safety guidelines if you’re caring for an infected person:-

 *Wash your hands. Clean your hands frequently with soap and hot water or use an alcohol-based hand rub containing at least 60 percent alcohol.

* Wear disposable gloves. If you have contact with the person’s body fluids or feces, wear disposable gloves. Throw the gloves away immediately after use and wash your hands thoroughly.

* Wear a surgical mask. When you’re in the same room as a person with SARS, cover your mouth and nose with a surgical mask. Wearing eye glasses also may offer some protection.

* Wash personal items. Use soap and hot water to wash the utensils, towels, bedding and clothing of someone with SARS.

* Disinfect surfaces. Use a household disinfectant to clean any surfaces that may have been contaminated with sweat, saliva, mucus, vomit, stool or urine. Wear disposable gloves while you clean and throw the gloves away when you’re done.

Follow all precautions for at least 10 days after the person’s signs and symptoms have disappeared. Keep children home from school if they develop a fever or respiratory symptoms within 10 days of being exposed to someone with SARS. Children can return to school if signs and symptoms go away after three days.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SARS_coronavirus

http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/sars/DS00501/DSECTION=prevention

 

 

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Foot order or Smelly foot

English: Grown male right foot (angle 1)

English: Grown male right foot (angle 1) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Description:
Our foot sometimes gives out an unpleasant smell which is very much embarrassing.         ( medical term bromohidrosis)

It is a type of body odor that affects the feet of humans.The quality of foot odor is often reported as a thick smell. Some describe the smell like that of malt vinegar. However, it can also be ammonia-like. Brevibacteria are considered a major cause of foot odor because they ingest dead skin on the feet and, in the process, convert amino acid methionine into methanethiol, which has a sulfuric aroma. The dead skin that fuels this process is especially common on the soles and between the toes. The brevibacteria is also what gives cheeses such as Limburger, Bel Paese, Port du Salut, Pálpusztai and Munster their characteristic pungency.

Propionic acid (propanoic acid) is also present in many foot sweat samples. This acid is a breakdown product of amino acids by Propionibacteria, which thrive in the ducts of adolescent and adult sebaceous glands. The similarity in chemical structures between propionic acid and acetic acid, which share many physical characteristics such as odor, may account for foot odors identified as being vinegar-like. Isovaleric acid (3-methyl butanoic acid) is the other source of foot odor and is a result of actions of the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis which is also present in several strong cheese types.

Other implicated micro-organisms include Micrococcaceae, Corynebacterium and Pityrosporum.

Bart Knols, of Wageningen Agricultural University, the Netherlands, received an “IG Nobel” prize in 2006 for showing that the female malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae “is attracted equally to the smell of limburger cheese and to the smell of human feet”. Fredros Okumu, of Ifakara Health Institute in Tanzania, received grants in 2009 and 2011 to develop mosquito attractants and traps to combat malaria. He uses a blend of eight chemicals, which is four times more effective than an actual human.

Causes;
The feet and hands contain more sweat glands than any other part of the body, with roughly 3,000 glands per square inch. Smelly feet are not only embarrassing, but can be physically uncomfortable as well.

Feet smell for two reasons: 1) shoe wear, and 2) sweating of the feet. The interaction between the perspiration and the bacteria that thrive in shoes and socks generates the odor.

Smelly feet or excessive sweating can also be caused by an inherited condition, called hyperhidrosis, which primarily affects men. Stress, some medications, fluid intake, and hormonal changes also can increase the amount of perspiration our bodies produce.

The main cause is foot sweat. Sweat itself is odorless, but it creates a beneficial environment for certain bacteria to grow and produce bad-smelling substances. These bacteria are naturally present on our skin as part of the human flora. Therefore, more smell is created with factors causing more sweating, such as wearing shoes and/or socks with inadequate air ventilation for many hours. Hair on the feet, especially on the toes, may contribute to the odor’s intensity by adding increased surface area in which the bacteria can thrive.

Given that socks directly contact the feet, their composition can have an impact on foot odor. Polyester and nylon are common materials used to make socks, but provide less ventilation than cotton or wool do when used for the same purpose. Wearing polyester or nylon socks may increase perspiration and therefore may intensify foot odor.[1] Because socks absorb varying amounts of perspiration from feet, wearing shoes without socks may increase the amount of perspiration contacting feet and thereby increase bacterial activities that cause odor

Treatments:
The best home remedy for foot odor is to soak feet in strong black tea for 30 minutes a day for a week. The acid in the tea kills the bacteria and closes the pores, keeping your feet dry longer. Use two tea bags per pint of water. Boil for 15 minutes, then add two quarts of cool water. Soak your feet in the cool solution. Alternately, you can soak your feet in a solution of one part vinegar and two parts water.

Persistent foot odor can indicate a low-grade infection or a severe case of hereditary sweating. In these cases, a prescription ointment may be required to treat the problem.

Treating Excessive Sweating:
A form of electrolysis, called iontophoresis, has been shown to reduce excessive sweating of the feet. However, it is more difficult to administer. In the worst cases of hyperhidrosis, a surgeon can cut the nerve that controls sweating. Recent advances in technology have made this surgery much safer, but may increase sweating in other areas of the body.

Prevention:
Methods of extinguishment may be used even before onset of the odor as prevention. However, a very effective and cheap way to prevent foot odor is with sodium bicarbonate (a mildly basic white salt also known as baking soda, bread soda, cooking soda, bicarbonate of soda, sodium bicarb, bicarb soda, or simply bicarb). Sodium bicarbonate

will create a hostile environment unsuitable for the bacteria responsible for the bad smell. Four pinches of it on each foot everyday are usually enough (two inside the sock and two on the insole of the shoe). Sometimes it might take one or two days before the shoes completely lose their old smell. Washing your feet and applying the sodium bicarbonate daily are also potentially useful solutions.

While there are a number of other remedies, sodium bicarbonate, if bought in a supermarket, costs approximately 20 times less than common odor-eaters or odor-killer powders.

Swabbing feet twice daily with isopropyl alcohol, found at your local drug store, for two weeks is a cheap and highly effective cure. One can also periodically remove their footwear, to reduce foot moisture and thereby reduce bacterial spawn.

Some types of powders and activated charcoal insoles, such as odor eaters, have been developed to prevent foot odor by keeping the feet dry. Special cedarsoles can be recommended for this purpose because of their antibacterial characteristics. Hygiene is considered important in avoiding odor, as is avoidance of synthetic shoes/socks, and rotation of the pairs of shoes worn

In general, smelly feet can be controlled with a few preventive measures:

•Always wear socks with closed shoes.
•Avoid wearing nylon socks or plastic shoes. Instead, wear shoes made of leather, canvas, mesh, or other materials that let your feet breathe.
•Bathe feet daily in lukewarm water, using a mild soap. Dry thoroughly.
•Change socks and shoes at least once a day.
•Check for fungal infections between toes and on the bottoms of your feet. If any redness or dry, patchy skin is observed, get treatment right away.
•Don’t wear the same pair of shoes two days in a row. If you frequently wear athletic shoes, alternate pairs so that the shoes can dry out. Give your shoes at least 24 hours to air out between wearings; if the odor doesn’t go away, discard the shoes.
•Dust your feet frequently with a nonmedicated baby powder or foot powder. Applying antibacterial ointment also may help.
•Practice good foot hygiene to keep bacteria levels at a minimum.
•Wear thick, soft socks to help draw moisture away from the feet. Cotton and other absorbent materials are best.

Extinguishment:

Once foot odor has begun, it can be extinguished, or at least alleviated, by either aromatic deodorants that neutralise the odor by their own smell, or by absorbers of the odor itself.

Among the earliest foot deodorants were aromatic herbs such as allspice, which nineteenth-century Russian soldiers would put in their boots.

Odor absorbers include activated charcoal foot insert wafers, such as Innofresh footwear odor absorbers.

General Tips: To tackle this problem, wash your feet with an antibacterial soap such as Neko and use a fresh pair of cotton socks daily. You can also apply deodorant to the soles of your feet. The best thing would be to buy another pair of work shoes and alternate wearing the two pairs so that the shoes have time to dry out.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foot_odor

http://www.wolfpodiatry.com/library/1932/SmellyFeetandFootOdor.html

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Neuropathy

Definition:
Neuropathy is a general term that refers to diseases or malfunctions of the nerves. Any nerves at any location in the body can be damaged from injury or disease. Neuropathy is often classified according to the types or location of nerves that are affected. It is a disease caused by changes in the nerve cells. These changes may be age related. The degeneration is accelerated and aggravated if the patient suffers from diabetes, hypertension or has an abnormal lipid profile. Neuropathy can affect all three nervous systems — central, peripheral and autonomous.

If the central nervous system is affected, memory and cognitive skills decline. Forgetfulness becomes an accepted way of life. Peripheral neuropathy produces the most obvious, incapacitating, and distressing symptoms.

In some, the affected nerves may produce symptoms that are symmetrical (occurring in both limbs) and appear first in the furthest extremity. There may be paraesthesia (tingling, burning or numb sensation), hyperalgesia (abnormally acute pain sensation to innocuous stimuli) or deep aching. The symptoms tend to get worse at night and interfere with sleep.

Neuropathy can also be classified according to the disease causing it. (For example, neuropathy from the effects of diabetes is called diabetic neuropathy.)

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1.Slide show: How your brain works   :
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Types of Neuropathy::

Peripheral neuropathy: Peripheral neuropathy is when the nerve problem affects the nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord. These nerves are part of the peripheral nervous system. Accordingly, peripheral neuropathy is neuropathy that affects the nerves of the extremities- the toes, feet, legs, fingers, hands, and arms. The term proximal neuropathy has been used to refer to nerve damage that specifically causes pain in the thighs, hips, or buttocks.

Cranial neuropathy: Cranial neuropathy occurs when any of the twelve cranial nerves (nerves that exit from the brain directly) are damaged. Two specific types of cranial neuropathy are optic neuropathy and auditory neuropathy. Optic neuropathy refers to damage or disease of the optic nerve that transmits visual signals from the retina of the eye to the brain. Auditory neuropathy involves the nerve that carries signals from the inner ear to the brain and is responsible for hearing.

Autonomic neuropathy: Autonomic neuropathy is damage to the nerves of the involuntary nervous system, the nerves that control the heart and circulation (including blood pressure), digestion, bowel and bladder function, the sexual response, and perspiration. Nerves in other organs may also be affected.

Focal neuropathy: Focal neuropathy is neuropathy that is restricted to one nerve or group of nerves, or one area of the body. Symptoms of focal neuropathy usually appear suddenly.

Symptoms:
Neuropathy is associated with varied characteristic symptoms. Although some people with neuropathy may not have symptoms, certain symptoms are common. The degree to which an individual is affected by a particular neuropathy varies.

Damage to the sensory nerves is common in peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms often begin in the feet with a gradual onset of loss of feeling, numbness, tingling, or pain and progress toward the center of the body with time. The arms or legs may be involved. The inability to determine joint position may also occur, which can result in clumsiness or falls. Extreme sensitivity to touch can be another symptom of peripheral neuropathy. The sensation of numbness and tingling of the skin is medically known as paresthesia.

The loss of sensory input from the foot means that blisters and sores on the feet may develop rapidly and not be noticed. Because there is a reduced sensation of pain, these sores may become infected and the infection may spread to deeper tissues, including bone. In severe cases, amputation may be necessary.

When damage to the motor nerves (those that control movement) occurs, symptoms include weakness, loss of reflexes, loss of muscle mass, cramping, and/or loss of dexterity.

Autonomic neuropathy, or damage to the nerves that control the function of organs and glands, may manifest with a wide variety of symptoms, including:

•Nausea, vomiting, or abdominal bloating after meals

•Urinary symptoms, such as incontinence, difficulty beginning to urinate, or feeling that the bladder was not completely emptied

•Impotence (erectile dysfunction) in men

•Dizziness or fainting

•Constipation or diarrhea

•Blurred vision

•Heat intolerance or decreased ability to sweat

•Hypoglycemia unawareness: Low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia) are associated with trembling, sweating, and palpitations. In people with autonomic neuropathy, these characteristic symptoms may not occur, making dangerously low blood sugar levels difficult to recognize.

Causes:
Neuropathy or nerve damage may be caused by a number of different diseases, injuries, infections, and even vitamin deficiency states.
Some of them are :-

•Diabetes: Diabetes is the condition most commonly associated with neuropathy. The characteristic symptoms of peripheral neuropathy often seen in people with diabetes are sometimes referred to as diabetic neuropathy. The risk of having diabetic neuropathy rises with age and duration of diabetes. Neuropathy is most common in people who have had diabetes for decades and is generally more severe in those who have had difficulty controlling their diabetes, or those who are overweight or have elevated blood lipids and high blood pressure.

•Vitamin deficiencies: Deficiencies of the vitamins B12 and folate as well as other B vitamins can cause damage to the nerves.

•Autoimmune neuropathy: Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, and Guillain-Barre syndrome can cause neuropathies.

•Infection: Some infections, including HIV/AIDS, Lyme disease, leprosy, and syphilis, can damage nerves.

•Post-herpetic neuralgia: Post-herpetic neuralgia, a complication of shingles (varicella-zoster virus infection) is a form of neuropathy.

•Alcoholic neuropathy: Alcoholism is often associated with peripheral neuropathy. Although the exact reasons for the nerve damage are unclear, it probably arises from a combination of damage to the nerves by alcohol itself along with the poor nutrition and associated vitamin deficiencies that are common in alcoholics.

•Genetic or inherited disorders: Genetic or inherited disorders can affect the nerves and are responsible for some cases of neuropathy. Examples include Friedreich’s ataxia and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

•Amyloidosis: Amyloidosis is a condition in which abnormal protein fibers are deposited in tissues and organs. These protein deposits can lead to varying degrees of organ damage and may be a cause of neuropathy.

•Uremia: Uremia (a high concentration of waste products in the blood due to kidney failure) can lead to neuropathy.

•Toxins and poisons can damage nerves. Examples include, gold compounds, lead, arsenic, mercury, some industrial solvents, nitrous oxide, and organophosphate pesticides.

•Drugs or medication: Certain drugs and medications can cause nerve damage. Examples include cancer therapy drugs such as vincristine (Oncovin, Vincasar), and antibiotics such as metronidazole (Flagyl), and isoniazid (Nydrazid, Laniazid).

•Trauma/Injury: Trauma or injury to nerves, including prolonged pressure on a nerve or group of nerves, is a common cause of neuropathy. Decreased blood flow (ischemia) to the nerves can also lead to long-term damage.

•Tumors: Benign or malignant tumors of the nerves or nearby structures may damage the nerves directly, by invading the nerves, or cause neuropathy due to pressure on the nerves.

•Idiopathic: Idiopathic neuropathy is neuropathy for which no cause has been established. The term idiopathic is used in medicine to denote the fact that no cause is known.

Diagnosis:
The diagnosis of neuropathy and its cause involve a thorough medical history and physical examination to help your health care professional determine the cause and severity of neuropathy. A neurological examination, testing the reflexes and function of sensory and motor nerves, is an important component of the initial examination.

Although there are no blood tests that are specific for determining whether of not neuropathy is present, when neuropathy is suspected, blood tests are often used to check for the presence of diseases and conditions (for example, diabetes or vitamin deficiencies) that may be responsible for nerve damage.

Imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans may be performed to look for sources of pressure on or damage to nerves.

Exams and Tests:

Specific tests of nerve function include:

•Electromyography (EMG) is a test that measures the function of the nerves. For this test a very thin needle is inserted through the skin into the muscle. The needle contains an electrode that measures the electrical activity of the muscle.

•A nerve conduction velocity test (NCV) measures the speed at which signals travel through the nerves. This test is often done with the EMG. In the NCV test, patches containing surface electrodes are placed on the skin over nerves at various locations. Each patch gives off a very mild electrical impulse, which stimulates the nerve. The electrical activity of the nerves is measured and the speed of the electrical impulses between electrodes (reflecting the speed of the nerve signals) is calculated.

•In some cases, a nerve biopsy may be recommended. A biopsy is the surgical removal of a small piece of tissue for examination under a microscope. A pathologist, a physician specially trained in tissue diagnosis, examines the specimen and can help establish the cause of the neuropathy. The procedure is performed using a local anesthetic. The sural nerve (in the ankle), or the superficial radial nerve (wrist) are the sites most often used for biopsy.

Treatment:
The treatment of neuropathy involves measures to control the symptoms as well as treatment measures that address the underlying cause of neuropathy, if appropriate. Medical treatments for diabetes, autoimmune diseases, infections, kidney disease, and vitamin deficiencies are varied and are directed at the specific underlying condition. In many cases, treatment of the underlying disease can reduce or eliminate the symptoms of neuropathy. Some cases, especially those involving compression or entrapment of nerves by tumors or other conditions, can be relieved by surgery.

Many adjuvant medications have been tried, such as mega doses of vitamins, iron, zinc, calcium, alpha lipoic acid, acetyl-L carnitine. Increasing doses of painkillers like tramadol are also used. Sometimes they are combined with anti histamines like diphendydramnine (Benadryl) and pain modifying drugs. Combinations with anti epileptics such as gabapentin and anti depressants like amitriptyline reduce the intensity of symptoms. None of these treatments has been 100 per cent successful. The pain is still present in 80 per cent of the patients 5-10 years later.

Control of blood glucose (sugar) levels is important in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy to help prevent further damage to nerves.

Clinical trials are underway to help find new and more effective treatments for neuropathy. For example, treatments that involve electrical nerve stimulation or magnetic nerve stimulation are being studied.

Self care at home:
Special and careful care of the feet is important in people with neuropathy to reduce the chance of developing sores and infections. The nerves to the feet are the nerves most commonly affected by neuropathy. Proper foot care includes:

•wash the feet with warm water each day and thoroughly dry feet after washing (especially between the toes);

•never go barefoot or wear improperly-fitting, damaged, or too-tight footwear;

•inspect the feet daily, looking for cuts, blisters, or other problems;

•cut and file toenails when needed;

•thick, seamless socks can help prevent irritation of the feet;

•call your health care practitioner if you have any problems with your feet;

•massaging the feet can improve circulation; and

•smoking cessation can further improve blood circulation, since smoking damages circulation to the extremities and may worsen foot problems.

.The intensity of the pain can be reduced by soaking the legs up to the knees in warm salted water for 10 minutes, half-an-hour before bed. Application of pain relieving ointments that contain capsaicin also provides relief. The ointment should be applied every 3-4 hours. Do not rub the ointment in too vigorously as it will damage the skin.

Prevention:

Neuropathy is preventable only to the extent that the underlying condition or cause is preventable. For those with diabetes, studies have conclusively shown that long-term control of blood glucose levels is critically important in preventing the development of neuropathy and other complications of diabetes. Neuropathy that arises due to poor nutrition or alcohol abuse may be preventable if these causes can be eliminated. Genetic or inherited causes of neuropathy are not preventable.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:

http://www.emedicinehealth.com/neuropathy/article_em.htm

http://www.telegraphindia.com/1130211/jsp/knowhow/story_16546702.jsp

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Trigger finger

Alternative Name : Stenosing tenosynovitis, trigger thumb, or trigger digit,

Definition:
Trigger finger is a common disorder of later adulthood characterized by catching, snapping or locking of the involved finger flexor tendon, associated with dysfunction and pain. A disparity in size between the flexor tendon and the surrounding retinacular pulley system, most commonly at the level of the first annular (A1) pulley, results in difficulty flexing or extending the finger and the “triggering” phenomenon. The label of trigger finger is used because when the finger unlocks, it pops back suddenly, as if releasing a trigger on a gun.
.Click to see the picture..>..(0)...(1)…...(2).

One of your fingers or your thumb gets stuck in a bent position and then straightens with a snap — like a trigger being pulled and released. If trigger finger is severe, the finger may become locked in a bent position.

Often painful, trigger finger is caused by a narrowing of the sheath that surrounds the tendon in the affected finger. People whose work or hobbies require repetitive gripping actions are more susceptible. Trigger finger is also more common in women and in anyone with diabetes.

Symptoms:
Signs and symptoms of trigger finger may get progressed from mild to severe and include:

*Finger stiffness, particularly in the morning

*A popping or clicking sensation as you move your finger

*Tenderness or a bump (nodule) at the base of the affected finger

*Finger catching or locking in a bent position, which suddenly pops straight

*Finger locked in a bent position, which you are unable to straighten

Trigger finger more commonly occurs in your dominant hand, and most often affects your thumb or your middle or ring finger. More than one finger may be affected at a time, and both hands might be involved. Triggering is usually more pronounced in the morning, while firmly grasping an object or when straightening your finger.

Trigger finger is not the same as Dupuytren’s contracture — a condition that causes thickening and shortening of the connective tissue in the palm of the hand — though it may occur in conjunction with this disorder.

Causes:
The cause of trigger finger is a narrowing of the sheath that surrounds the tendon in the affected finger. Tendons are fibrous cords that attach muscle to bone. Each tendon is surrounded by a protective sheath — which, in turn, is lined with a substance called tenosynovium. The tenosynovium releases lubricating fluid that allows the tendon to glide smoothly within its protective sheath as you bend and straighten your finger — like a cord through a lubricated pipe.

But if the tenosynovium becomes inflamed frequently or for long periods, the space within the tendon sheath can become narrow and constricting. The tendon can’t glide through the sheath easily, at times catching the finger in a bent position before popping straight. With each catch, the tendon itself becomes more irritated and inflamed, worsening the problem. With prolonged inflammation, scarring and thickening (fibrosis) can occur and bumps (nodules) can form.

More than one potential causes have been described but the etiology remains idiopathic. It has also been called stenosing tenosynovitis (specifically digital tenovaginitis stenosans), but this may be a misnomer, as inflammation is not a predominant feature.

It has been speculated that repetitive forceful use of a digit leads to narrowing of the fibrous digital sheath in which it runs, but there is little scientific data to support this theory. The relationship of trigger finger to work activities is debatable and scientific evidence for and against hand use as a cause exist.

Risk Factors:
Risk Factors  developing trigger finger include:

Repeated gripping. If one routinely grips an item — such as a power tool or musical instrument — for extended periods of time, one may be more prone to developing a trigger finger.

Certain health problems. One is also at greater risk if he or she has certain medical conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, hypothyroidism, amyloidosis and certain infections, such as tuberculosis.Your sex. Trigger finger is more common in women.

Diagnosis:
Diagnosis is made almost exclusively by history and physical examination alone. More than one finger may be affected at a time, though it usually affects the thumb, middle, or ring finger. The triggering is usually more pronounced in the morning, or while gripping an object firmly.

Treatment:
Injection of the tendon sheath with a corticosteroid is effective over weeks to months in more than half of patients.

 

When corticosteroid injection fails, the problem is predictably resolved by a relatively simple surgical procedure (usually outpatient, under local anesthesia). The surgeon will cut the sheath that is restricting the tendon.

One recent study in the Journal of Hand Surgery suggests that the most cost-effective treatment is two trials of corticosteroid injection, followed by open release of the first annular pulley.  Choosing surgery immediately is the most expensive option and is often not necessary for resolution of symptoms.  More recently, a randomized controlled trial comparing corticosteroid injection with needle release and open release of the A1 pulley reported that only 57% of patients responded to corticosteroid injection (defined as being free of triggering symptoms for greater than 6 months). This is compared to a percutaneous needle release (100% success rate) and open release (100% success rate).  This is somewhat consistent with the most recent Cochrane Systematic Review of corticosteroid injection for trigger finger which found only 2 pseudo-randomized controlled trials for a total pooled success rate of only 37%. [5] However, this systematic review has not been updated since 2009.

There is a theoretical greater risk of nerve damage associated with the percutaneous needle release as the technique is performed without seeing the A1 pulley.

Investigative treatment options with limited scientific support include: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; occupational or physical therapy; steroid iontophoresis treatment; splinting; therapeutic ultrasound, phonophoresis (ultrasound with an anti-inflammatory dexamethasone cream); and Acupuncture.

Prognosis:
The natural history of disease for trigger finger remains uncertain.

There is some evidence that idiopathic trigger finger behaves differently in people with diabetes.

Recurrent triggering is unusual after successful injection and rare after successful surgery.

While difficulty extending the proximal interphalangeal joint may persist for months, it benefits from exercises to stretch the finger straighter.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trigger_finger

http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/trigger-finger/DS00155

http://assets.sbnation.com/imported_assets/71765/trigger_finger_2.jpg

http://www.trigger-finger.com/

http://www.drmomeni.com/hand/trigger.html

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Repetitive strain injury(RSI)

Alternative Names:Repetitive stress injury, Repetitive motion injuries, Repetitive motion disorder (RMD), Cumulative trauma disorder (CT), Occupational overuse syndrome, Overuse syndrome, Regional musculoskeletal disorder

Definition:

Repetitive strain injury (RSI)  is an injury of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems that may be caused by repetitive tasks, forceful exertions, vibrations, mechanical compression (pressing against hard surfaces), or sustained or awkward positions.

The term “repetitive strain injury” is most commonly used to refer to patients in whom there is no discrete, objective, pathophysiology that corresponds with the pain complaints. It may also be used as an umbrella term incorporating other discrete diagnoses that have (intuitively but often without proof) been associated with activity-related arm pain such as carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, thoracic outlet syndrome, DeQuervain’s syndrome, stenosing tenosynovitis/trigger finger/thumb, intersection syndrome, golfer’s elbow (medial epicondylosis), tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis), and focal dystonia.

….click to see pictures...(1).…...(2)….….(3)

Finally RSI is also used as an alternative or an umbrella term for other non-specific illnesses or general terms defined in part by unverifiable pathology such as reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome (RSDS), Blackberry thumb, disputed thoracic outlet syndrome, radial tunnel syndrome, “gamer’s thumb” (a slight swelling of the thumb caused by excessive use of a gamepad), “Rubik’s wrist” or “cuber’s thumb” (tendinitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, or other ailments associated with repetitive use of a Rubik’s Cube for speedcubing), “stylus finger” (swelling of the hand caused by repetitive use of mobile devices and mobile device testing.), “raver’s wrist”, caused by repeated rotation of the hands for many hours (for example while holding glow sticks during a rave).

Although tendinitis and tenosynovitis are discrete pathophysiological processes, one must be careful because they are also terms that doctors often use to refer to non-specific or medically unexplained pain, which they theorize may be caused by the aforementioned processes.

Doctors have also begun making a distinction between tendinitis and tendinosis in RSI injuries. There are significant differences in treatment between the two, for instance in the use of anti-inflammatory medicines, but they often present similar symptoms at first glance and so can easily be confused.

Types of RSIs that affect computer users may include non-specific arm pain or work related upper limb disorder (WRULD). Conditions such as RSI tend to be associated with both physical and psychosocial stressors.

Symptoms:

The following complaints are typical in patients who might receive a diagnosis of RSI:

*Short bursts of excruciating pain in the arm, back, shoulders, wrists, hands, or thumbs (typically diffuse – i.e. spread over many areas).

*The pain is worse with activity.

*Weakness, lack of endurance.

In contrast to carpal tunnel syndrome, the symptoms tend to be diffuse and non-anatomical, crossing the distribution of nerves, tendons, etc. They tend not to be characteristic of any discrete pathological condition.

1.The users experience constant pain in the hands, elbows, shoulders, neck, and the back. Other symptoms of Repetitive Stain Injury are cramps, tingling, and numbness in the hands. The hand movements of the user may become clumsy and the person may find it difficult even to fasten buttons.

2.Another variant of Repetitive Strain Injury is that, it may produce painful symptoms in the upper limbs, but the site may be difficult to locate.

3.The common diagnoses seen in Repetitive Strain Injury are Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, Tenosynovitis, Bursitis, White Limb, and Shoulder pain. A major cause is due to long unbroken periods of work. Ergonomics or the lack of it plays a very important role. Lack of information about the condition leads to neglect by the concerned individuals.

Frequency :A 2008 study showed that 68% of UK workers suffered from some sort of RSI, with the most common problem areas being the back, shoulders, wrists, and hands.

Physical examination and diagnostic testing; The physical examination discloses only tenderness and diminished performance on effort-based tests such as grip and pinch strength—no other objective abnormalities are present. Diagnostic tests (radiological, electrophysiological, etc.) are normal. In short, RSI is best understood as an apparently healthy arm that hurts. Whether there is currently undetectable damage remains to be established.

Causes:

RSI is believed by many to be caused due to lifestyle without ergonomic care,  E.g. While working in front of computers, driving, traveling etc. Simple reasons like ‘Using a blunt knife for everyday chopping of vegetables’, may cause RSI.

Repetitive Strain Injury occurs when the movable parts of the limbs are injured. Repetitive Strain Injury usually caused due to repetitive tasks, incorrect posture, stress and bad ergonomics. Repetitive Strain Injury generally causes numbness, tingling, weakness, stiffing, and swelling and even nerve damage. The chief complaint is the constant pain in the upper limbs, neck, shoulder and back.

The main cause of this main are the repetitive activities, forceful activities of arms and hand and awkward postures. The other causes of Repetitive Strain Injuries are sitting in a fixed posture and poor workplace ergonomics.

Other typical habits that some sources believe lead to RSI

*Reading or doing tasks for extended periods of time while looking down.

*Sleeping on an inadequate bed/mattress or sitting in a bad armchair and/or in an uncomfortable position.

*Carrying heavy items.

*Holding one’s phone between neck and shoulder.

*Watching TV in incorrect position e.g. Too much to the left/right.

*Sleeping with head forward, while traveling.

*Prolonged use of the hands, wrists, back, neck, etc.

*Sitting in the same position for a long period of time.

Diagnosis:

Repetitive task and stress affects the body parts causes RSI. An instance of this is using a screwdriver, if you keep using the screwdriver without a break, you feel your wrist become restricted and you feel pain and you may also experience the loss of movement. This is the initial stage of RSI.

RSI, or should we say the group of syndromes that make up repetitive strain injury only affects the back, neck and arms. A lot of people without even realizing may suffer with RSI.

You may have had pains in your wrists or arms that you explained as being tired if you are working on an assembly line or you’re an avid musician who can’t put their guitar down. These pains are more than likely the initial RSI symptoms.

Judging the Symptom:

The problem in diagnosing repetitive strain injury is the fact that is can be hard to judge the symptoms, after all RSI is just a name given to a group of different conditions that are all related in some way to the affects we attribute to RSI.

Not only do we have this issue, we also have the problem that some of the symptoms related with repetitive strain injury are found in other, more dangerous conditions such as angina.

Even though RSI only affects the upper torso and limbs, the symptoms can in fact appear in the lower half of the body; this is due to the vertebral nerves that can be affected in some cases so the pains appear in the legs.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome:

Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common out of all the syndromes that make up the condition called RSI.

Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition that affects the median nerve situated in the carpal canal in the wrist, when the same movement is carried out frequently it can cause the tendons also situated in the carpal canal to become inflamed and compress the nerve causing pain and tightness causing loss of movement.

The most famous out of all the syndromes that make up repetitive stress injury is carpal tunnel syndrome because it affects a lot of people who spend long periods on the computer without supporting their wrists appropriately.

Other Conditions:

There are some conditions that the every day layman may be aware of golfers elbow, which is called medial epicondylitis, or like tennis elbow, which is officially called lateral epicondylitis.

You should visit your doctor if you suffer with pains, aches, stiffness, numbness or tingling sensations in your back, arms, wrists or hands. While RSI is not life threatening it can affect you more than you think.

Eventually without visiting a medical professional the symptoms can become ever worse, or you may even find the RSI could be something more risky. Learn more about ergonomics at safecomputingtips.com.

Treatment :Most common and simple measure of treatment, which is more common sense than anything is painkillers and anti inflammatory pills, these are available over the counter at any good pharmacy.When taking painkillers and anti inflammatory pills it is important that you rest the affected area, just because the pain is not there it doesn’t mean the condition has instantly been resolved.Another simple measure is speaking to your employer, you may find they have guidelines to work towards that may mean you can get some support in alleviating your condition. This means your work place may be assessed and improvements implemented.You can get a simple support bandage from your local pharmacy to help add strength to the affected area, if it is your wrist or arm. You may need to purchase a special keyboard and/or mouse or get speech recognition software in order to prevent further irritation to your injury.Speech recognition software is a great alternative for those who suffer due to computer work, speech recognition software works by the software writing what you say for you.Your medical professional might possibly prescribe that you wear an orthopedic hand brace. You don’t want to wear one of these if your doctor doesn’t prescribe it because it could lead to further injury.

Therapy:

Your doctor may prescribe physical therapy, a physical therapists role is to develop and maximize the movement of the body, and this can also include the provision of aids to alleviate symptoms.

Another prescribed therapy your doctor may request is occupational therapy, it may sound like occupational therapy and physical therapy are very similar but there are differences.

Occupational therapy helps develop and maintain the skills required to carry out all the general functions needed to live a comfortable life.

Occupational therapy includes assessing what a persons requirements are and supporting them with offering recommendations on adapting to their living or working space and offering simple exercises to regain movement.

Alternative Treatment:

Deep body massages have been reported to work wonders for those suffering with repetitive strain injury as it works deep into the body’s soft tissues like the muscles and tendons where the pain comes from.

Soft tissue therapy is a type of therapy that works by decompressing the area surrounding the RSI. This will increase your circulation and aid in healing. They may also try biofeedback. This is generally used to reduce tension in the muscles in your shoulders and neck.

Some people have reported that slow martial arts like Tai Chi can have a dramatic affect on their condition because they work on specific movements and improve strength and flexibility.

Surjury:

As a last resort, the medical professional might recommend to have surgery. one should keep in mind that it doesn’t always work and he or she  will be left without the use of one’s hand and arm for a long time. The above treatment methods have been proven to help heal even the worst types of RSI disorders when they are done correctly.

You may click to see the using of modern ergonomics in home office

Exercise:

Exercise decreases the risk of developing RSI.

*Doctors sometimes recommend that RSI sufferers engage in specific strengthening exercises, for example to improve posture.

*In light of the fact that a lifestyle that involves sitting at a computer for extended periods of time increases the probability that an individual will develop excessive kyphosis, theoretically the same exercises that are prescribed for thoracic outlet syndrome or kyphotic postural correction would benefit an RSI sufferer.

*Some sources[who?] recommend motoric exercises and ergo-aerobics to decrease chances of strain injury. Ergo-aerobics target touch typists and people who often use computer keyboard.

Resuming normal activities despite the pain:

Psychologists Tobias Lundgren and Joanne Dahl have asserted that, for the most difficult chronic RSI cases, the pain itself becomes less of a problem than the disruption to the patient’s life caused by

*avoidance of pain-causing activities

*the amount of time spent on treatment

They claim greater success from teaching patients psychological strategies for accepting the pain as an ongoing fact of life, enabling them to cautiously resume many day-to-day activities and focus on aspects of life other than RSI

Psychosocial factors:

Studies have related RSI and other upper extremity complaints with psychological and social factors. A large amount of psychological distress showed doubled risk of the reported pain, while job demands, poor support from colleagues, and work dissatisfaction also showed an increase in pain, even after short term exposure.

For example, the association of Carpal tunnel syndrome with arm use is commonly assumed but not well-established. Typing has long been thought to be the cause of carpal tunnel syndrome, but recent evidence suggests that, if anything, typing may be protective. Another study claimed that the primary risk factors for Carpal tunnel syndrome were “being a woman of menopausal age, obesity or lack of fitness, diabetes or having a family history of diabetes, osteoarthritis of the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb, smoking, and lifetime alcohol intake.


Prevention:
Risk of RSI can be reduced a lot by warming up and cooling down the muscles used, taking regular breaks throughout the day, having an appropriate workstation and seating position, and practising relaxation. If the job puts one  at risk of RSI he or she should seek out expert advice on prevention from your employer or professional body.

Repetitive Stress Injury symptoms when found, people should seek medical attention as early as possible. Measures that can be adopted to avoid Repetitive Stress Injury at an individual level include:
Position: The recommended position to sit in front of a computer is semi-reclined with the forearms resting in a cradle or on an extension of the keyboard support to prevent Repetitive Stress Injury.

There should be ample support for the back. The hands should be free and point in the direction of the forearms. The feet should rest on the ground or feet support. The distance of the monitor should be 18 inches or more and at a slightly lower level than the eye level. Using these measures Repetitive Stress Injury caused out of position can be avoided.

Hydration: The Repetitive Stress Injury can be prevented by drinking adequate fluids to keep the tendons and soft- tissues soft.

Shortcuts: Using keyboard shortcuts and less of mouse is the most effective preventive method to avoid Repetitive Stress Injury. Touch the ergonomic keyboard softly and do not pound at it. The wrist should rest on the table or wrist rest.

Telephone use: Don’t cradle the telephone between the face and shoulder while working, as this can lead to neck strain.

Messages: Don’t use the computer while conveying messages in person or through the intercom.

No games:One of the main Causes of Repetitive Stress Injury is Games. Games or surfing at work may increase stress on your hands. So games should be avoided.

Preventive Measures at the Organizational Level for Repetitive Stress injury : -
Organizations that use computers in a big way can also adopt certain preventive measures for avoiding Repetitive Strain Injury to their employees. These include:

…..

1.You need to educate your employees on the importance of adopting a proper posture which is one of the main cause of Repetitive Stress Injury.
2.Ensure that all your employees are using quality ergonomic furniture that will save loss of working hours by guaranteeing full comfort of the employees.
3.Give periodic reminders through lectures and audio-visual presentations by medical professionals on the importance of taking good care of health while using computers and Repetitive Stress Injury.
4.Try to avoid computer as much as possible: use voicemail instead of sending e-mail. Go for a walk or watch a movie instead of playing video games. Its better go for a book instead of searching the Web. You are in the danger zone for Repetitve Stress Injury if you are using a computer for as little as two hours a day.
5.Adjust your workstation properly. Make sure your monitor is directly in front of you, with the top of the screen at eye level. Be sure your keyboard (Ergonomic Keyboard) and mouse (Ergonomic Mouse) are low enough to allow you to relax your shoulders.
6.Sit up straight. Make sure your chair supports your spine in an erect position as it is the one of the main causes of Repetitive Stress Injury.
7.Practice proper technique: never rest your wrists on the desk, wrist pad or armrests while you are typing or using a mouse or trackball.
8.Pace yourself. Take a 5-to-10 minute break every 20 minutes and limit your overall time at the computer.
9.Get regular cardiovascular exercise.
10.Do appropriate upper-body strengthening and stretching exercises.
11.Stretch frequently while at the computer.
12.Do not work at the computer or other hand-intensive activities if you are experiencing pain, fatigue or soreness.
13.Avoid using the mouse and trackball whenever possible. Use keystrokes instead for preventing Repetitive Stress Injury.
14.When symptoms of Repetitive Stress Injury are set in, consult an orthopedic surgeon. If you find of the symptoms of Repetitive Stress Injury mentioned above, do not make the diagnosis yourself. The diagnosis will be made from the history and clinical findings as there will be no changes in X-rays, since the soft tissues are involved.

Nerve conduction studies can confirm the diagnosis. In cases detected earlier, attention to ergonomics will restore normalcy.
In cases of Repetitive Stress Injury when diagnosed late, orthopedic treatment like injections and even minor surgery may be necessary.

You may click to see this page for more knowledge

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Related articles

Resources:

English: Untreated Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Image via Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Repetitive_strain_injury

http://www.safecomputingtips.com/rsi-diagnosis.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/repetitivestrain1.shtml

http://www.rsiwarrior.com/ergonomics.html

http://www.hoverstop.com/eng/rsi.php

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