Category Archives: Ailmemts & Remedies

Heel pain

Alternative Names: Pain – heel

Defination:
Heel pain is a very common foot problem. The sufferer usually feels pain either under the heel (planter fasciitis) or just behind it (Achilles tendinitis), where the Achilles tendon connects to the heel bone.

click & see the pictures

Even though heel pain can be severe and sometimes disabling, it is rarely a health threat. Heel pain is typically mild and usually disappears on its own; however, in some cases the pain may persist and become chronic (long-term).

There are 26 bones in the human foot, of which the heel (calcaneus) is the largest. The human heel is designed to provide a rigid support for the weight of the body. When we are walking or running it absorbs the impact of the foot when it hits the ground, and springs us forward into our next stride. Experts say that the stress placed on a foot when walking may be 1.25 times our body weight, and 2.75 times when running. Consequently, the heel is vulnerable to damage, and ultimately pain.

Heel pain is usually felt either under the heel or just behind it.
There are 26 bones in the human foot, of which the heel is the largest.
Pain typically comes on gradually, with no injury to the affected area. It is often triggered by wearing a flat shoe.
In most cases the pain is under the foot, towards the front of the heel.
The majority of patients recover with conservative treatments within months.
Home care such as rest, ice, proper-fitting footwear and foot supports are often enough to ease heel pain.
To prevent heel pain, it’s recommended to reduce the stress on that part of the body

Symptoms:
Pain typically comes on gradually, with no injury to the affected area. It is frequently triggered by wearing a flat shoe, such as flip-flop sandals. Flat footwear may stretch the plantar fascia to such an extent that the area becomes swollen (inflamed).

In most cases, the pain is under the foot, toward the front of the heel.

Post-static dyskinesia (pain after rest) – symptoms tend to be worse just after getting out of bed in the morning, and after a period of rest during the day.

After a bit of activity symptoms often improve a bit. However, they may worsen again toward the end of the day.

Causes:
In the majority of cases, heel pain has a mechanical cause. Heel pain tends to occur if a person has flat feet or high arches, is overweight, diabetic, wears poorly fitting or worn out shoes, runs or jogs on hard surfaces or has an abnormal gait.  Quite often the pain is due to a “spur” or extra bone growth.It may also be caused by arthritis, infection, an autoimmune problem trauma, a neurological problem, or some other systemic condition (condition that affects the whole body).

Heel pain is not usually caused by a single injury, such as a twist or fall, but rather the result of repetitive stress and pounding of the heel.

The most common causes of heel pain are:

*Plantar fasciitis (plantar fasciosis) – inflammation of the plantar fascia. The plantar fascia is a strong bowstring-like ligament that runs from the calcaneum (heel bone) to the tip of the foot. When the plantar fasciitis is stretched too far its soft tissue fibers become inflamed, usually where it attaches to the heel bone. Sometimes the problem may occur in the middle of the foot. The patient experiences pain under the foot, especially after long periods of rest. Some patients have calf-muscle cramps if the Achilles tendon tightens too

*Heel bursitis  - inflammation of the back of the heel, the bursa (a fibrous sac full of fluid). Can be caused by landing awkwardly or hard on the heels. Can also be caused by pressure from footwear. Pain is typically felt either deep inside the heel or at the back of the heel. Sometimes the Achilles tendon may swell. As the day progresses the pain usually gets worse

*Heel bumps (pump bumps) - common in teenagers. The heel bone is not yet fully mature and rubs excessively, resulting in the formation of too much bone. Often caused by having a flat foot. Among females can be caused by starting to wear high heels before the bone is fully mature

*Tarsal tunnel syndrome - a large nerve in the back of the foot becomes pinched, or entrapped (compressed). This is a type of compression neuropathy that can occur either in the ankle or foot..

*Chronic inflammation of the heel pad—caused either by the heel pad becoming too thin, or heavy footsteps
Stress fracture – this is a fracture caused by repetitive stress, commonly caused by strenuous exercise, sports or heavy manual work. Runners are particularly prone to stress fracture in the metatarsal bones of the foot. Can also be caused by osteoporosis

*Severs disease (calcaneal apophysitis) - the most common cause of heel pain in child/teenage athletes, caused by overuse and repetitive microtrauma of the growth plates of the calcaneus (heel bone). Children aged from 7-15 are most commonly affected

*Achilles tendonosis (degenerative tendinopathy) - also referred to as tendonitis, tendinosis and tendinopathy. A chronic (long-term) condition associated with the progressive degeneration of the Achilles tendon. Sometimes the Achilles tendon does not function properly because of multiple, minor microscopic tears of the tendon, which cannot heal and repair itself correctly – the Achilles tendon receives more tension than it can cope with and microscopic tears develop. Eventually, the tendon thickens, weakens and becomes painful.

Treatment:
Treatment for heel pain usually involves using a combination of techniques, such as stretches and painkillers, to relieve pain and speed up recovery.
Most cases of heel pain get better within 12 months. Surgery may be recommended as a last resort if your symptoms don’t improve after this time. Only 1 in 20 people with heel pain will need surgery.

Rest:
Whenever possible, rest the affected foot by not walking long distances and standing for long periods. However, you should regularly stretch your feet and calves using exercises such as those described  in the pictures...>…..click & see

To learn more click to see :

Prevention:
Maintaining flexible and strong muscles in your calves, ankles, and feet can help prevent some types of heel pain. Always stretch and warm-up before exercising.

Wear comfortable, properly fitting shoes with good arch support and cushioning. Make sure there is enough room for your toes.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/181453.php

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003181.htm

Syphillis

Other names:
Other names that people use for syphilis include:
*Pox
*Bad blood
*The great imitator
*Siff.

Description:
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infective diseas caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. The primary route of transmission is through sexual contact; it may also be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy or at birth, resulting in congenital syphilis. Other human diseases caused by related Treponema pallidum include yaws (subspecies pertenue), pinta (subspecies carateum), and bejel (subspecies endemicum)……….click & see the pictures

Symptoms:
The signs and symptoms of syphilis vary depending in which of the four stages :primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary.

Primary stage of Syphilis:
The primary stage of syphilis typically begins with a sore (called a “chancre”) on the skin that’s initially exposed to the infection — usually the genitals, rectum or mouth. The sore has been described as feeling like a button: firm, round, usually measuring half an inch across, and not tender to the touch. Swelling of the lymph nodes in the groin may occur, but the nodes are not usually tender.

Infected individuals do not usually feel ill in the primary stage of syphilis, and the chancre heals spontaneously after 4 to 6 weeks. This is a problem because the syphilis has not gone away: syphilis continues to spread throughout the body.

Secondary stage of syphilis:
From the primary stage, the disease moves into the secondary stage of syphilis. Secondary syphilis can often occur several weeks after the chancre heals, once the bacteria have spread through the body. An individual may feel sick; common symptoms include headache, achiness, loss of appetite and maybe rash.

The rash in secondary syphilis is usually reddish-brown in color, not itchy and widespread. But the appearance of the rash’s individual lesions can vary dramatically: they may be flat or raised, they may or may not be scaly, and pustules may or may not be present. It’s partially due to the variability of this rash that led to syphilis being called “the great imitator,” because it can resemble many other conditions. The rash can last for a few weeks or months.

Other symptoms of secondary syphilis include sores in the mouth, nose, throat, and on the genitals or folds of the skin. Lymph node swelling is common, and patchy hair loss can occur. All signs and symptoms of the second stage of syphilis will disappear without treatment in 3 weeks to 9 months, but the infection will still be present in the body.

Latent stage of Syphilis:
The latent stage of syphilis, which occurs after the symptoms of secondary syphilis have disappeared, can last from a few years to up to 50 years! There are no symptoms in this stage, and after about two years, an infected man may cease to be contagious. However, a man in the latent stage of syphilis is still infected, and the disease can be diagnosed by a blood test. During the latent stage, a pregnant woman can transmit syphilis to her fetus.

Tertiary stage of Syphillis:
The final stage of syphilis, which occurs in about one third of those who are not treated, is known as the tertiary stage. Many organs may be affected. Common symptoms include fever; painful, non-healing skin ulcers; bone pain; liver disease; and anemia. Tertiary syphilis can also affect the nervous system (resulting in the loss of mental functioning) and the aorta (resulting in heart disease)…….click & see : http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/73/Tertiary_syphilis_head.JPG

Congenital:
Congenital syphilis is that which is transmitted during pregnancy or during birth. Two-thirds of syphilitic infants are born without symptoms. Common symptoms that develop over the first couple years of life include: hepatosplenomegaly (70%), rash (70%), fever (40%), neurosyphilis (20%), and pneumonitis (20%). If untreated, late congenital syphilis may occur in 40%, including: saddle nose deformation, Higoumenakis sign, saber shin, or Clutton’s joints among others.

Causes:
The cause of syphilis is a bacterium called Treponema pallidum. The most common route of transmission is through contact with an infected person’s sore during sexual activity. The bacteria enter your body through minor cuts or abrasions in your skin or mucous membranes. Syphilis is contagious during its primary and secondary stages, and sometimes in the early latent period.

Syphilis is transmitted primarily by sexual contact or during pregnancy from a mother to her fetus; the spirochaete is able to pass through intact mucous membranes or compromised skin. It is thus transmissible by kissing near a lesion, as well as oral, vaginal, and anal sex. Approximately 30 to 60% of those exposed to primary or secondary syphilis will get the disease. Its infectivity is exemplified by the fact that an individual inoculated with only 57 organisms has a 50% chance of being infected. Most (60%) of new cases in the United States occur in men who have sex with men. It can be transmitted via blood products. However, it is tested for in many countries and thus the risk is low. The risk of transmission from sharing needles appears limited. Syphilis cannot be contracted through toilet seats, daily activities, hot tubs, or sharing eating utensils or clothing.Once cured, syphilis doesn’t recur. However, you can become reinfected if you have contact with someone’s syphilis sore.

Risk Factors:
One may face an increased risk of acquiring syphilis if he or she:

*Engage in unprotected sex
*Have sex with multiple partners
*Are a man who has sex with men
*Are infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS

Complications:
Without treatment, syphilis can lead to damage throughout your body. Syphilis also increases the risk of HIV infection and, for women, can cause problems during pregnancy. Treatment can help prevent future damage but can’t repair or reverse damage that’s already occurred.

Small bumps or tumors:
Called gummas, these bumps can develop on your skin, bones, liver or any other organ in the late stage of syphilis. Gummas usually disappear after treatment with antibiotics.

Neurological problems:
Syphilis can cause a number of problems with your nervous system, including:

*Stroke
*Meningitis
*Deafness
*Visual problems
*Dementia
*Cardiovascular problems

These may include bulging (aneurysm) and inflammation of the aorta —  body’s major artery — and of other blood vessels. Syphilis may also damage heart valves.

HIV infection:
Adults with sexually transmitted syphilis or other genital ulcers have an estimated two- to fivefold increased risk of contracting HIV. A syphilis sore can bleed easily, providing an easy way for HIV to enter your bloodstream during sexual activity.

Pregnancy and childbirth complications:
Pregnent woman  may pass syphilis to her unborn baby. Congenital syphilis greatly increases the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth or her newborn’s death within a few days after birth.

Diagnosis:
Syphilis can be diagnosed by testing samples of:

*Blood. Blood tests can confirm the presence of antibodies that the body produces to fight infection. The antibodies to the bacteria that cause syphilis remain in your body for years, so the test can be used to determine a current or past infection.

*Fluid from sores. Your doctor may scrape a small sample of cells from a sore to be analyzed by microscope in a lab. This test can be done only during primary or secondary syphilis, when sores are present. The scraping can reveal the presence of bacteria that cause syphilis.

*Cerebral spinal fluid. If it’s suspected that you have nervous system complications of syphilis, your doctor may also suggest collecting a sample of cerebrospinal fluid through a procedure called a lumbar puncture (spinal tap).

Treatment:
Early infections:
The first-choice treatment for uncomplicated syphilis remains a single dose of intramuscular benzathine penicillin G or a single dose of oral azithromycin. Doxycycline and tetracycline are alternative choices; however, due to the risk of birth defects these are not recommended for pregnant women. Antibiotic resistance has developed to a number of agents, including macrolides, clindamycin, and rifampin. Ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, may be as effective as penicillin-based treatment.
Late infections

For neurosyphilis, due to the poor penetration of penicillin G into the central nervous system, those affected are recommended to be given large doses of intravenous penicillin for a minimum of 10 days. If a person is allergic, ceftriaxone may be used or penicillin desensitization attempted. Other late presentations may be treated with once-weekly intramuscular penicillin G for three weeks. If allergic, as in the case of early disease, doxycycline or tetracycline may be used, albeit for a longer duration. Treatment at this stage limits further progression, but has only slight effect on damage which has already occurred.

Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction:
One of the potential side effects of treatment is the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. It frequently starts within one hour and lasts for 24 hours, with symptoms of fever, muscles pains, headache, and tachycardia. It is caused by cytokines released by the immune system in response to lipoproteins released from rupturing syphilis bacteria

Prevention:
As of 2010, there is no vaccine effective for prevention.Abstinence from intimate physical contact with an infected person is effective at reducing the transmission of syphilis, as is the proper use of a latex condom. Condom use, however, does not completely eliminate the risk. Thus, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship with an uninfected partner and the avoidance of substances such as alcohol and other drugs that increase risky sexual behavior.

Congenital syphilis in the newborn can be prevented by screening mothers during early pregnancy and treating those who are infected. The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) strongly recommends universal screening of all pregnant women,[18] while the World Health Organization recommends all women be tested at their first antenatal visit and again in the third trimester. If they are positive, they recommend their partners also be treated. Congenital syphilis is, however, still common in the developing world, as many women do not receive antenatal care at all, and the antenatal care others do receive does not include screening, and it still occasionally occurs in the developed world, as those most likely to acquire syphilis (through drug use, etc.) are least likely to receive care during pregnancy. A number of measures to increase access to testing appear effective at reducing rates of congenital syphilis in low- to middle-income countries.

Syphilis is a notifiable disease in many countries, including Canada the European Union, and the United States. This means health care providers are required to notify public health authorities, which will then ideally provide partner notification to the person’s partners. Physicians may also encourage patients to send their partners to seek care. The CDC recommends sexually active men who have sex with men are tested at least yearly.

Research:
There is no vaccine available for people; however, a vaccine has been developed that is effective in an animal model and research is ongoing.

Click & see:—>
Ayurvedic treatment ofSyphillis….(1).…..(2)..(3)

Homeopathic treatment of Syphillis:....(1)….(2)....(3)

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syphilis

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/syphilis/basics/causes/con-20021862

http://menshealth.about.com/od/sexualdiseasesstds/a/syphilis_signs.htm

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/syphilis/basics/tests-diagnosis/con-20021862

Milia

Alternative Names: milk spots or an oil seeds

Definition:
Milia are small, white (or sometimes pale yellow) spots that usually appear around the eyes, on the cheeks and on the eyelids. They’re a type of cyst filled with a substance called keratin, a protein that provides strength to the skin…..click & see

Milia are keratin-filled cyst that can appear just under the epidermis or on the roof of the mouth. Milia are commonly associated with newborn babies but can appear on people of all ages. They are usually found around the nose and eyes, and sometimes on the genitalia, often mistaken by those affected as warts or other STDs. Milia can also be confused with stubborn whiteheads.

In children milia often disappear within two to four weeks. In adults they may require removal by a physician or an esthetician.

Symptoms:
Milia are most commonly seen on a baby’s nose, chin or cheeks, though they may also occur in other areas, such as on the upper trunk and limbs.

Sometimes similar bumps appear on a baby’s gums or the roof of the mouth. These are known as Epstein pearls. Some babies also develop baby acne, often characterized by small red bumps and pustules on the cheeks, chin and forehead.

Causes:
No one really understands why they appear or why some people get them while others don’t. They don’t appear to be related to different lifestyles or diets and are certainly not infectious or caused by poor hygiene.

Diagnosis: The doctor can usually diagnose milia just by examining the skin. No specific testing is needed.

Treatment:
Milia typically disappear on their own within several weeks, and no medical treatment is recommended.

The following may help to get rid of milia:

•Hold a hot, wet face cloth over the skin for a few minutes – the temperature should feel comfortable, not painful. This simple facial sauna helps to loosen and remove dead skin cells and debris from the skin.

•Use an exfoliating facial scrub to remove the top layer of skin, which can enable the cysts to fall out. These scrubs are available from the pharmacist and are the kind of facial wash used for treating mild acne. Those containing salicylic acid work well, but always read the label or ask the pharmacist to make sure the one you select is suitable for you.

A qualified beautician may also be able to recommend possible  help.

Most importantly, resist the temptation to pick at them. This will hurt, damage and possibly scar the skin, and may introduce a nasty infection.
.

Lifestyle & Homeremedies:
You may try these tips to help your baby’s skin look its best:

*Keep your baby’s face clean. Wash your baby’s face with warm water daily.

*Dry your baby’s face gently.Simply pat your baby’s skin dry.

*Avoid any other type of treatment. Don’t pinch or scrub the tiny bumps, and don’t use any type of lotions, oils or medicated creams on your baby’s skin.

Prognosis:
In babies & children, milia usually disappear after the first several weeks of life without treatment and without any lasting effects.

In adults, milia removal can usually be done without scarring.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/milia/DS01059

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001367.htm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/milia.shtml

http://www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/picture-of-white-bumps-milia

http://www.bion-research.com/whiteheads_(milia).htm

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Odontoma

Definition:
Odontoma is a benign tumor that usually forms at the root of a tooth. It may have genetic origins or may result from some sort of trauma to the tooth.
It  is a hamartoma of odontogenic origin.The average age of people found with an odontoma is 14, and the condition is frequently associated with an unerupted tooth…..CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

There are two types: compound and complex.

A compound odontoma still has the three separate dental tissues (enamel, dentin and cementum), but may present a lobulated appearance where there is no definitive demarcation of separate tissues between the individual “toothlets” (or denticles). It usually appears in the anterior maxilla.

 

The complex Odontoma is unrecognizable as dental tissues, usually presenting as a radioopaque area with varying densities. It usually appears in the posterior maxilla or in the mandible.

In 2011; 66% of odontogenic tumors are odontomas (University of Louisville School of Dentistry). 22% of odontogenic tumors are odontomas.

In July of 2014 in Mumbai, India, surgeons at Mumbai’s JJ Hospital removed 232 tooth-like growths from a complex odontoma growing in the lower jaw of 17 year old Ashik Gavai. This odontoma is proposed as “The World Record” to date.

Symptoms:

The most common symptoms are:Pain,Rash,Diarrea,Headache,Back pain,Constipation,Fever,Caugh,Runing nose,Vision change.

The list of signs and symptoms mentioned in various sources for Odontoma includes the 6 symptoms listed below:

*Dysphagia ( Dysphagia is difficulty in swallowing.There are about 194 causes of Dysphagia, including diseases and drug side effect causes.)
*Lump on gums
*Delayed tooth eruption (It is a condition in which there is a slow or late development of a tooth. There are about  60 causes of Delayed tooth eruption)
*Absent tooth
*Delayed primary tooth loss
*Increased bone size under tooth

Causes:
There are several causes of odontoma, some of them are :

*Dental conditions(Any condition that affects dental organs such as the teeth and gums. Examples of dental conditions include tooth decay, tooth infection, gingivitis, periodontitis, impacted tooth and canker sores)

*Oral conditions(Any condition affecting the mouth. Mouth conditions can affect any structure of the mouth such as teeth, gums, lips, tongue and cheeks. Conditions that can affect the mouth include candidiasis, oral cancer, stuttering, cleft palate, bad breath and gingivitis. )

*Head conditions(Any condition affecting the head. Some head conditions can be serious such as cancers and skull fractures whereas other conditions may be less threatening such as headaches and head lice)

*Benign tumors (A benign tumor is one that does not spread or “metastasize” to other parts of the body; a “malignant tumor” is one that does. A benign tumor is caused by cell overgrowth, and thus is different from a cyst or an abcess,)

Diagnosis:
Odontoma does not usually show external symptoms. These tumors are revealed when the x-rays are examined by the dentist. Although it is true that a delayed tooth or absent tooth may suggest there is a need for further examination.

The presence of an a tumor of dental origin requires further examination to determine what type of tumor it is before further action is taken. In addition, a histological diagnosis of the tissues that were extracted provides valuable information to the dentist.

No one really knows why an odontoma forms. The most likely reasons are trauma and/or infection at the site. Some dentists and researchers believe they are hereditary or they develop because of genetic mutations. One example of an inherited syndrome is known as Gardener Syndrome. It is responsible for a wide range of tumors in the body, including occasional odontoma.  When examined at the cellular level, all of the dental tissues are found, but in an abnormal combination.

Pulp, dentin, enamel and cementum may sometimes resemble a tooth like structure in a compound odontoma. These denticles are found in a surrounding supporting layer of fibrous cells. Since it is decalcified, the enamel looks like spaces around the tiny tooth structures.   Looking closer, you can see the calicified material either as a solid mass or as multiple, small tooth-like bodies visible by x-rays. Because it is easily separated from its bony location it can be distinguished from other possible tumors.

A complex odontoma has no specific sequence for all of the dental tissue. It does not resemble normal tooth structure. At the cellular level it appears as mostly tubular dentin that encloses hollow spaces. These circular spaces are decalcified but they once held enamel. On the edges there may be a thin layer of cementum which forms a capsule like tissue surrounding the mass.

Treatment :
The only real treatment of an these dental tumors is removal by surgery. An early discovery and treatment will be beneficial to the patient. It is a benign tumor made of dental tissue and it is a fairly simple extraction in most cases. A speedy recovery is generally expected.  Some complex tumors can result in complications after extraction. So it is essential to stay in contact with the dental surgeon.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odontoma

http://www.allhealthsite.com/odontoma.html

http://www.rightdiagnosis.com/o/odontoma/intro.

Acanthosis nigricans

Definition:
Acanthosis nigricans is a fairly common skin pigmentation disorder.It is a brown to black, poorly defined, velvety hyperpigmentation of the skin. It is usually found in body folds, such as the posterior and lateral folds of the neck, the armpits, groin, navel, forehead, and other areas.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Types:
This is conventionally divided into benign and malignant forms., although may be divided into syndromes according to cause.

*Benign This may include obesity-related, hereditary, and endocrine forms of acanthosis nigricans.

*Malignant. This may include forms that are associated with tumour products and insulin-like activity, or tumour necrosis factor.

An alternate classification system still used to describe acanthosis nigricans was proposed in 1994 by dermatologist Schwartz. This classification system delineates acanthosis nigricans syndromes according to their associated syndromes, including benign and malignant forms, forms associated with obesity and drugs, acral acanthosis nigricans, unilateral acanthosis nigricans, and mixed and syndromic forms.

Acanthosis nigricans may be a sign of a more serious health problem such as pre-diabetes. The most effective treatments focus on finding and resolving medical condition at the root of the problem. Fortunately, these skin patches tend to disappear after successfully treating the root condition.

Signs and symptoms:
Acanthosis nigricans may present with thickened, relatively darker areas of skin on the neck, armpit and in skin folds.These patches may also appear on the groin, elbows, knees, knuckles, or skin folds. Lips, palms, and soles of the feet.

Causes:
It typically occurs in individuals younger than age 40, may be genetically inherited, and is associated with obesity or endocrinopathies, such as hypothyroidism, acromegaly, polycystic ovary disease, insulin-resistant diabetes, or Cushing’s disease.

This occurs when epidermal skin cells begin to rapidly reproduce. This abnormal skin cell growth is most commonly triggered by high levels of insulin in the blood. In rare cases, the increase in skin cells may be caused by medications, cancer, or other medical conditions, as describe below.

*Too Much Insulin
The most frequent trigger for acanthosis nigricans is too much insulin in your bloodstream. Here’s why.

When you eat, your body converts carbohydrates into sugar molecules such as glucose. Some of this glucose is used for energy while the rest is stored. In order to use the glucose for energy, insulin must also be used. The insulin enables the glucose to enter the cells.

Overweight people tend to develop resistance to insulin over time. So although the pancreas is making insulin, the body cannot use it properly. This creates a buildup of glucose in the bloodstream, which can result in high levels of both blood glucose and insulin in your bloodstream.

Excess insulin causes normal skin cells to reproduce at a rapid rate. For those with dark skin, these new cells have more melanin. This increase in melanin produces a patch of skin that is darker than the skin surrounding it. Thus, the presence of acanthosis nigricans is a strong predictor of future diabetes. If this is indeed the cause, it is relatively easy to correct with proper diet, exercise, and blood sugar control.

*Medications:
Acanthosis nigricans can also be triggered by certain medications such as birth control pills, human growth hormones, thyroid medications, and even some body-building supplements. All of these medications can cause changes in insulin levels. Medications used to ease the side effects of chemotherapy have also been linked to acanthosis nigricans. In most cases, the condition clears up when the medications are discontinued.

Some Other Causes:(Potential but rare)

#stomach cancer (gastric adenocarcinoma)
#adrenal gland disorders such as Addison’s disease
#disorders of the pituitary gland
#low levels of thyroid hormones
#high doses of niacin

Diagnosis:
Acanthosis nigricans is typically diagnosed clinically.It is easy to recognize by sight. The doctor may want to check for diabetes or insulin resistance as the root cause. These tests may include blood glucose tests or fasting insulin tests. Your doctor may also review all your medications to see if they are a contributing factor.

It is important to inform the doctor of any dietary supplements, vitamins, or muscle-building supplements you may be taking in addition to your prescription medications.

In rare cases, the doctor may perform other tests such as a small skin biopsy to rule out other possible causes.

Treatment :
People with acanthosis nigricans should be screened for diabetes and, although rare, cancer. Controlling blood glucose levels through exercise and diet often improves symptoms. Acanthosis nigricans maligna may resolve if the causative tumor is successfully removed.

Cosmetic treatments exist for cases that are especially unsightly or embarrassing. Dark patches may be covered up with cosmetics or lightened with prescription skin lighteners. Although these treatments are not as effective as treating the root cause of the condition, they can provide some relief. Available skin lighteners include Retin-A, 20 percent urea, alpha hydroxy acids, and salicylic acid.

Prognosis:
Acanthosis nigricans often fades if the underlying cause can be determined and treated  properly.

 

Prevention:
Maintaining a healthy lifestyle & exercisIng regularly can usually prevent Acanthosis nigricans. Losing weight, controlling your diet, and, perhaps adjusting any medications that are contributing to the condition are all crucial steps. Healthier lifestyle choices will also reduce your risks for many other types of illnesses.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:

http://www.healthline.com/health/acanthosis-nigricans#Definition

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acanthosis_nigricans

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Diabetics

Definition:
Diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.[2] This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger).

CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES

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There are three main types of diabetes mellitus (DM).

*Type 1 DM results from the body’s failure to produce insulin, and currently requires the person to inject insulin or wear an insulin pump. This form was previously referred to as “insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (IDDM) or “juvenile diabetes”.

*Type 2 DM results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. This form was previously referred to as non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or “adult-onset diabetes”.

*The third main form, gestational diabetes, occurs when pregnant women without a previous diagnosis of diabetes develop a high blood glucose level. It may precede development of type 2 DM.

Other forms of diabetes mellitus include congenital diabetes, which is due to genetic defects of insulin secretion, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, steroid diabetes induced by high doses of glucocorticoids, and several forms of monogenic diabetes.
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Diabetes has no age bar. It can appear in a newborn, children, young adults, during pregnancy or in older people. If there are suspicious symptoms, tests should be done.

Some families have a tendency to develop diabetes, with many members being affected. This is because it is a genetic disease that an be inherited from both parents. Type 1 and 2 diabetes are inherited from multiple genes. In type 2 diabetes particularly, the environment and family’s dietary and exercise habits also influence these genes. Families that eat “well” and are sedentary with snacking and excessive TV viewing are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes. Sometimes type 1 diabetes can develop in persons without a family history or genetic predisposition. It may follow viral infections, especially with the mumps and coxsackie group of viruses. The virus attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas responsible for manufacturing insulin.

There is now a third type of diabetes, where the mutation occurs in a single gene. This gene is dominant, so that if either parent carries it, then half the children (male and female) will be affected. It was called MODY (maturity onset diabetes of youth). The diabetes affecting newborn children is of this type.

Initially, MODY was called type 1.5 diabetes and it was presumed that it was caused by only one type of genetic defect. Recent research has shown that there are 13 defects that lead to MODY.

*It is likely to be present in people who have been diagnosed with diabetes before the age of 30.

*It is present in every generation of the family.

*It can be managed with diet, exercise and tablets. Insulin is usually not required (even in children).

*MODY (depending on the type) can result in the affected woman having small or large babies.

* There may be cysts in the kidney.

* Malabsorption can occur.

* Patients may be infertile.

The incidence of MODY is higher in areas where there is a great deal of consanguinity (marrying a close relative) and when people marry generation after generation from the same community.

It is now possible to test for MODY genes in many centres and identify high-risk individuals and families.

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Symptoms:
The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are loss of weight, polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger). Symptoms may develop rapidly (weeks or months) in type 1 diabetes, while they usually develop much more slowly and may be subtle or absent in type 2 diabetes.

Prolonged high blood glucose can cause glucose absorption in the lens of the eye, which leads to changes in its shape, resulting in vision changes. Blurred vision is a common complaint leading to a diabetes diagnosis. A number of skin rashes that can occur in diabetes are collectively known as diabetic dermadromes.

Causes:
The cause of diabetes depends on the type.

Type 1

Type 1 diabetes is partly inherited, and then triggered by certain infections, with some evidence pointing at Coxsackie B4 virus. A genetic element in individual susceptibility to some of these triggers has been traced to particular HLA genotypes (i.e., the genetic “self” identifiers relied upon by the immune system). However, even in those who have inherited the susceptibility, type 1 DM seems to require an environmental trigger. The onset of type 1 diabetes is unrelated to lifestyle.

Type 2

Type 2 diabetes is due primarily to lifestyle factors and genetics.[16] A number of lifestyle factors are known to be important to the development of type 2 diabetes, including obesity (defined by a body mass index of greater than thirty), lack of physical activity, poor diet, stress, and urbanization.[4] Excess body fat is associated with 30% of cases in those of Chinese and Japanese descent, 60-80% of cases in those of European and African descent, and 100% of Pima Indians and Pacific Islanders. Those who are not obese often have a high waist–hip ratio.

Dietary factors also influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks in excess is associated with an increased risk.  The type of fats in the diet is also important, with saturated fats and trans fatty acids increasing the risk and polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat decreasing the risk.  Eating lots of white rice appears to also play a role in increasing risk.  A lack of exercise is believed to cause 7% of cases.

The following is a comprehensive list of other causes of diabetes:

*Genetic defects of ?-cell function
*Maturity onset diabetes of the young
*Mitochondrial DNA mutations

*Genetic defects in insulin processing or insulin action
*Defects in proinsulin conversion
*Insulin gene mutations
*Insulin receptor mutations

*Exocrine pancreatic defects
*Chronic pancreatitis
*Pancreatectomy
*Pancreatic neoplasia
*Cystic fibrosis
*Hemochromatosis
*Fibrocalculous pancreatopathy

Diabetes has no age bar. It can appear in a newborn, children, young adults, during pregnancy or in older people. If there are suspicious symptoms, tests should be done.

Some families have a tendency to develop diabetes, with many members being affected. This is because it is a genetic disease that an be inherited from both parents. Type 1 and 2 diabetes are inherited from multiple genes. In type 2 diabetes particularly, the environment and family’s dietary and exercise habits also influence these genes. Families that eat “well” and are sedentary with snacking and excessive TV viewing are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes. Sometimes type 1 diabetes can develop in persons without a family history or genetic predisposition. It may follow viral infections, especially with the mumps and coxsackie group of viruses. The virus attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas responsible for manufacturing insulin.

Diagnosis:
Diabetes is diagnosed with blood tests. Blood sugar count after a 12 hour fast should be less than 100mg/dl and two hours after a full meal less than 140 mg/. Glycosolated haemoglobin (HbA1 c) should be 5.6.

A GTT (glucose tolerance test) can be done in suspect cases. In this the fasting blood glucose level is checked and 75gm glucose given. The blood is checked every 30 to 60 minutes after that. One hour later the blood glucose level should be lower than 180 mg/dL, two hours later less than 155 mg/dL, and three hours later lower than 140 mg/dL.

Complications:
Uncontrolled, untreated, neglected diabetes of all types causes complications with the nervous system, heart, kidneys, eyes and muscles affected.

All forms of diabetes increase the risk of long-term complications. These typically develop after many years (10–20), but may be the first symptom in those who have otherwise not received a diagnosis before that time. The major long-term complications relate to damage to blood vessels. Diabetes doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease. The main “macrovascular” diseases (related to atherosclerosis of larger arteries) are ischemic heart disease (angina and myocardial infarction), stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.

Diabetes also damages the capillaries (causes microangiopathy). Diabetic retinopathy, which affects blood vessel formation in the retina of the eye, can lead to visual symptoms including reduced vision and potentially blindness. Diabetic nephropathy, the impact of diabetes on the kidneys, can lead to scarring changes in the kidney tissue, loss of small or progressively larger amounts of protein in the urine, and eventually chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis.

Another risk is diabetic neuropathy, the impact of diabetes on the nervous system — most commonly causing numbness, tingling, and pain in the feet, and also increasing the risk of skin damage due to altered sensation. Together with vascular disease in the legs, neuropathy contributes to the risk of diabetes-related foot problems (such as diabetic foot ulcers) that can be difficult to treat and occasionally require amputation. Additionally, proximal diabetic neuropathy causes painful muscle wasting and weakness.

Several studies suggest a link between cognitive deficit and diabetes. Compared to those without diabetes, the research showed that those with the disease have a 1.2 to 1.5-fold greater rate of decline in cognitive function, and are at greater risk.

Treatment:
The major goal in treating diabetes is to minimize any elevation of blood sugar (glucose) without causing abnormally low levels of blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin, exercise, and a diabetic diet. Type 2 diabetes is treated first with weight reduction, a diabetic diet, and exercise. When these measures fail to control the elevated blood sugars, oral medications are used. If oral medications are still insufficient, treatment with insulin is considered.

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A change in lifestyle goes a long way in preventing the onset of diabetes and controlling it after it sets in. These guidelines are particularly important if you have MODY or feel that you or your family members are in danger of developing it.

Prevention:
To prevent development of the disease as an adult, it is our children who need to be targeted for intervention. Lifestyle changes — a healthy diet and regular exercise — should be implemented at the school level.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diabetes_mellitus

http://www.medicinenet.com/diabetes_treatment/article.htm

http://www.telegraphindia.com/1131118/jsp/knowhow/story_17579340.jsp#.UolfgL4o52Y

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Ankle Sprain

Defination:
A sprained ankle is an injury that occurs when you roll, twist or turn your ankle in an awkward way. This can stretch or tear the tough bands of tissue (ligaments) that help hold your ankle bones together.

Ligaments help stabilize joints, preventing excessive movement. A sprained ankle occurs when the ligaments are forced beyond their normal range of motion. Most sprained ankles involve injuries to the ligaments on the outer side of the ankle.

Most people have twisted an ankle at some point in their life. But if your ankle gets swollen and painful after you twist it, you have most likely sprained it. This means you have stretched and possibly torn the ligaments in your ankle.

Ankle sprains are classified as grade 1, 2, and 3. Depending on the amount of damage or the number of ligaments that are damaged, each sprain is classified from mild to severe. A grade 1 sprain is defined as mild damage to a ligament or ligaments without instability of the affected joint. A grade 2 sprain is considered a partial tear to the ligament, in which it is stretched to the point that it becomes loose. (click to see)A grade 3 (click to see)sprain is a complete tear of a ligament, causing instability in the affected joint. Bruising may occur around the ankle.

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Inversion(lateral) ankle sprain:  click to see
The most common type of ankle sprain occurs when the foot is inverted too much, affecting the lateral side of the foot. When this type of ankle sprain happens, the outer, or lateral, ligaments are stretched too much. The anterior talofibular ligament is one of the most commonly involved ligaments in this type of sprain. Approximately 70-85% of ankle sprains are inversion injuries.

When the ankle becomes inverted, the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments are damaged. This is the most common ankle sprain.

Eversion (medial) ankle sprain:
A less common type of ankle sprain is called an eversion injury, affecting the medial side of the foot. When this occurs, the medial, or deltoid, ligament is stretched too much.

High ankle sprain:
A high ankle sprain is an injury to the large ligaments above the ankle that join together the two long bones of the lower leg, called the tibia and fibula. High ankle sprains commonly occur from a sudden and forceful outward twisting of the foot, which commonly occurs in contact and cutting sports such as football, rugby, ice hockey, roller derby, basketball, volleyball, lacrosse, softball, baseball, track, ultimate frisbee, gridiron, tennis and badminton and horse riding.

Symptoms:
The most common symptoms are :-

!.Pain, especially when you bear weight on the affected foot

2.Swelling and, sometimes, bruising

3.Restricted range of motion

Some people hear or feel a “pop” at the time of injury.

Causes:
Movements – especially twisting, turning, and rolling of the foot – are the primary cause of an ankle sprain.

The risk of a sprain is greatest during activities that involve explosive side-to-side motion, such as badminton, tennis or basketball. Sprained ankles can also occur during normal daily activities such as stepping off a curb or slipping on ice. Returning to activity before the ligaments have fully healed may cause them to heal in a stretched position, resulting in less stability at the ankle joint. This can lead to a condition known as Chronic Ankle Instability (CAI), and an increased risk of ankle sprains.

The following factors can contribute to an increased risk of ankle sprains:
Weak muscles/tendons that cross the ankle joint, especially the muscles of the lower leg that cross the outside, or lateral aspect of the ankle joint (i.e. peroneal or fibular muscles);

1.Weak or lax ligaments that join together the bones of the ankle joint – this can be hereditary or due to overstretching of ligaments as a result of repetitive ankle sprains;

2.Poor ankle flexibility;

3.Lack of warm-up and/or stretching before activity;

4.Inadequate joint proprioception (i.e. sense of joint position);

5.Slow neuron muscular response to an off-balance position;

6.Running on uneven surfaces;

6.Shoes with inadequate heel support; and

7.Wearing high-heeled shoes – due to the weak position of the ankle joint with an elevated heel, and a small base of support.

Ankle sprains occur usually through excessive stress on the ligaments of the ankle. This is can be caused by excessive external rotation, inversion or eversion of the foot caused by an external force. When the foot is moved past its range of motion, the excess stress puts a strain on the ligaments. If the strain is great enough to the ligaments past the yield point, then the ligament becomes damaged, or sprained

Diagnosis:
Your doctor will ask you how the injury occurred and if you have hurt your ankle before. He or she will check your foot and ankle, your lower leg, and even your knee to see if you are hurt anywhere else.

If the sprain is mild, your doctor may not order X-rays. But with more severe sprains, you may need X-rays to rule out a broken bone in the ankle or the foot. It is possible to break a bone in your foot or ankle at the same time as a sprain.

In most cases, doctors order X-rays in children with symptoms of an ankle sprain. This is because it is important to find and treat any damage to the growth plates in bones that support the ankle.

Treatment:
In many cases you can first use the PRINCE approach to treat your ankle:

1.Protection. Use a protective brace, such a brace with a built-in air cushion or another form of ankle support.

2.Rest. You may need to use crutches until you can walk without pain.

3.Ice. For at least the first 24 to 72 hours or until the swelling goes down, apply an ice pack for 10 to 20 minutes every hour or two during the day. Always keep a thin cloth between the ice and your skin, and press the ice pack firmly against all the curves of the affected area.

4.NSAIDs or acetaminophen. NSAIDs (such as Advil and Motrin) are medicines that reduce swelling and pain. Acetaminophen (such as Tylenol) reduces pain.

5.Compression. An elastic compression wrap, such as an ACE bandage, will help reduce swelling. You wear it for the first 24 to 36 hours. Compression wraps do not offer protection. So you also need a brace to protect your ankle if you try to put weight on it.

6.Elevation. Raise your ankle above the level of your heart for 2 to 3 hours a day if possible. This helps to reduce swelling and bruising.

Proper treatment and rehabilitation (rehab) exercises are very important for ankle sprains. If an ankle sprain does not heal right, the joint may become unstable and may develop chronic pain. This can make your ankle weak and more likely to be reinjured. Before you return to sports and other activities that put stress on your ankle, it’s a good idea to wait until you can hop on your ankle with no pain. Taping your ankle or wearing a brace during exercise can help protect your ankle. Wearing hiking boots or other high-top, lace-up shoes for support may also help. But use caution. Don’t force your foot into a boot if you feel a lot of pain or discomfort.

If your ankle is still unstable after rehab, or if the ligament damage is severe, your doctor may recommend surgery to repair the torn ligaments.

Rehabilitation:
Rehab exercises can begin soon after the injury. You can try to walk or put weight on your foot while using crutches if it doesn’t hurt too much. Depending on your pain, you can also begin range-of-motion exercises pop out while you have ice on your ankle. These exercises are easy to do-you just trace the alphabet with your toe. This helps the ankle move in all directions.

Ask your doctor about other rehab. Stretching, strength training, and balance exercises may help the ankle heal totally and may prevent further injury.

Prevention:
Take the following steps to help prevent a sprained ankle:

1.Warm up before you exercise or play sports.

2.Be careful when walking, running or working on an uneven surface.

3.Wear shoes that fit well and are made for your activity.

4.Don’t wear high-heeled shoes.

5.Don’t play sports or participate in activities for which you are not conditioned.

6.Maintain good muscle strength and flexibility.

7.Practice stability training, including balance exercises.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sprained_ankle

http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/sprained-ankle/DS01014/DSECTION=symptoms

http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/ankle-sprain-overview

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Strep throat

Other Names:
Streptococcal pharyngitis, streptococcal tonsillitis, or streptococcal sore throat

Definition:
Strep throat is a disease that causes a sore throat (pharyngitis). It is an infection with a germ called Group A Streptococcus bacteria.  Only a small portion of sore throats are the result of strep throat.

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It  is a contagious infection, spread through close contact with an infected individual.  this is not always needed as treatment may be decided based on symptoms. In highly likely or confirmed cases, antibiotics are useful to both prevent complications and speed recovery.

It’s important to identify strep throat for a number of reasons. If untreated, strep throat can sometimes cause complications such as kidney inflammation and rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever can lead to painful and inflamed joints, a rash and even damage to heart valves.

Strep throat is most common between the ages of 5 and 15, but it affects people of all ages. If you or your child has signs or symptoms of strep throat, see your doctor for prompt treatment.

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Symptoms:
Symptoms may be mild or severe.One will often start to feel sick about 2 to 5 days after he or she  come in contact with the strep germ.

Fever may begin suddenly and is often highest on the second day. You may have chills.

You can have a red sore throat, sometimes with white patches. It may hurt to swallow. You may feel swollen, tender glands in your neck.

Other symptoms may include:
*General ill feeling, a loss of appetite and abnormal taste & Fever
*Headache
*Nausea
*Throat pain
*Difficulty swallowing
*Red and swollen tonsils, sometimes with white patches or streaks of pus
*Tiny red spots on the soft or hard palate — the area at the back of the roof of the mouth
*Swollen, tender lymph glands (nodes) in your neck
*Headache
*Rash
*Stomachache and sometimes vomiting, especially in younger children
*Fatigue

It’s possible for you or your child to have many of these signs and symptoms, but not have strep throat. The cause of these signs and symptoms could be a viral infection or some other kind of illness. That’s why your doctor generally tests specifically for strep throat.

It’s also possible to have the bacteria that can cause strep in your throat without having a sore throat. Some people are carriers of strep, which means they can pass the bacteria on to others, but the bacteria are not currently making them sick.

Some strains of strep throat can lead to a scarlet fever-like rash. The rash first appears on the neck and chest. Then it spreads over the body. It may feel like sandpaper.

Causes:
Strep throat is caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GAS). Other bacteria such as non–group A beta-hemolytic streptococci and fusobacterium may also cause pharyngitis. It is spread by direct, close contact with an infected person and thus crowding as may be found in the military and schools increases the rate of transmission. It has been found that dried bacteria in dust are not infectious, although moist bacteria on toothbrushes or similar items can persist for up to fifteen days. Rarely, contaminated food can result in outbreaks. Of children with no signs or symptoms 12% carry GAS in their pharynx and after treatment approximately 15% remain carriers.

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Diagnosis:
The modified Centor criteria maybe used to determine the management of people with pharyngitis. Based on 5 clinical criteria, it indicates the probability of a streptococcal infection.

One point is given for each of the criteria:

*Absence of a cough
*Swollen and tender cervical lymph nodes
*Temperature >38.0 °C (100.4 °F)
*Tonsillar exudate or swelling
*Age less than 15 (a point is subtracted if age >44)

The Infectious Disease Society of America however recommends against empirical treatment and considers antibiotics only appropriate following positive testing. Testing is not needed in children under three as both group A strep and rheumatic fever are rare, except if they have a sibling with the disease.

Laboratory testing:
A throat culture is the gold standard for the diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis with a sensitivity of 90–95%. A rapid strep test (also called rapid antigen detection testing or RADT) may also be used. While the rapid strep test is quicker, it has a lower sensitivity (70%) and statistically equal specificity (98%) as throat culture.

A positive throat culture or RADT in association with symptoms establishes a positive diagnosis in those in which the diagnosis is in doubt. In adults a negative RADT is sufficient to rule out the diagnosis however in children a throat culture is recommended to confirm the result. Asymptomatic individuals should not be routinely tested with a throat culture or RADT because a certain percentage of the population persistently “carries” the streptococcal bacteria in their throat without any harmful results.

Differential diagnosis:
As the symptoms of streptococcal pharyngitis overlap with other conditions it can be difficult to make the diagnosis clinically. Coughing, nasal discharge, diarrhea, and red, irritated eyes in addition to fever and sore throat are more indicative of a viral sore throat than of strep throat. The presence of marked lymph node enlargement along with sore throat, fever and tonsillar enlargement may also occur in infectious mononucleosis.

Possible Complications & Risk Factors:

*Acute rheumatic fever….click to see
*Scarlet fever
*Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome
*Glomerulonephritis
*Ear infection
*Glomerulonephritis
*Guttate psoriasis
*Mastoiditis
*Peritonsillar abscess
*Sinusitis

Treatment:
A number of medications are available to cure strep throat, relieve its symptoms and prevent its spread.

Antibiotics:
If you or your child has strep throat, your doctor will likely prescribe an oral antibiotic such as:
Penicillin. This drug may be given by injection in some cases — such as if you have a young child who is having a hard time swallowing or is vomiting.
Amoxicillin. This drug is in the same family as penicillin, but is often a preferred option for children because it tastes better and is available as a chewable tablet.

If you or your child is allergic to penicillin, your doctor likely may prescribe:
A cephalosporin such as cephalexin (Keflex)
Clarithromycin (Biaxin)
Azithromycin (Zithromax, Zmax)
Clindamycin

These antibiotics reduce the duration and severity of symptoms, as well as the risk of complications and the likelihood that infection will spread to classmates or family members.

Once treatment begins, you or your child should start feeling better in just a day or two. Call your doctor if you or your child doesn’t feel better after taking antibiotics for 48 hours.

If children taking antibiotic therapy feel well and don’t have a fever, they often can return to school or child care when they’re no longer contagious — usually 24 hours after beginning treatment. But be sure to finish the entire course of medicine. Stopping medication early may lead to recurrences and serious complications, such as rheumatic fever or kidney inflammation.

Untreated streptococcal pharyngitis usually resolves within a few days. Treatment with antibiotics shortens the duration of the acute illness by about 16 hours. The primary reason for treatment with antibiotics is to reduce the risk of complications such as rheumatic fever and retropharyngeal abscesses and they are effective if given within 9 days of the onset of symptoms

Analgesics such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and paracetamol (acetaminophen) help significantly in the management of pain associated with strep throat. Viscous lidocaine may also be useful. While steroids may help with the pain they are not routinely recommended. Aspirin may be used in adults but is not recommended in children due to the risk of Reye’s syndrome.

Prognosis:
The symptoms of strep throat usually improve irrespective of treatment within three to five days. Treatment with antibiotics reduces the risk of complications and transmission; children may return to school 24 hours after antibiotics are administered. The risk of complications in adults is low. In children acute rheumatic fever is rare in most of the developed world. It is however the leading cause of acquired heart disease in India, sub-Saharan Africa and some parts of Australia.

Prevention:
Tonsillectomy may be a reasonable preventive measure in those with frequent throat infections (more than three a year). The benefits are however small and episodes typically lessen in time regardless of measures taken. Recurrent episodes of pharyngitis which test positive for GAS may also represent a person who is a chronic carrier of GAS who is getting recurrent viral infections. Treating people who have been exposed but who are without symptoms is not recommended. Treating people who are carriers of GAS is not recommended as the risk of spread and complications is low.

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Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streptococcal_pharyngitis

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000639.htm

http://ww.mayoclinic.com/health/strep-throat/DS00260

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SARS (Severe acute respiratory syndrome)

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Description:
SARS, or Severe acute respiratory syndrome, is the disease caused by SARS coronavirus. It causes an often severe illness marked initially by systemic symptoms of muscle pain, headache, and fever, followed in 2–10 days by the onset of respiratory symptoms,[3] mainly cough, dyspnea, and pneumonia. Another common finding in SARS patients is a decrease in the number of lymphocytes circulating in the blood.

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Virus classification:-

Group: Group IV ((+)ssRNA)

Order: Nidovirales

Family: Coronaviridae

Genus: Coronavirus

Species: SARS coronavirus

SARS coronavirus is a positive and single stranded RNA virus belonging to a family of enveloped coronaviruses. Its genome is about 29.7kb, which is one of the largest among RNA viruses. The SARS virus has 13 known genes and 14 known proteins. There are 265bp in the 5’UTR and 342bp in the 3’UTR. SARS is similar to other coronaviruses in that its genome expression starts with translation of two large ORFs 1a and 1b, which are two polyproteins.

The functions of several of these proteins are known:  ORFs 1a and 1b encode the replicase and there are four major structural proteins: nucleocapsid, spike, membrane and envelope. It also encodes for eight unique proteins, known as the accessory proteins, with no known homologues. The function of these accessory proteins remains unknown.
In the SARS outbreak of 2003, about 9% of patients with confirmed SARS infection died. The mortality rate was much higher for those over 50 years old, with mortality rates approaching 50% for this subset of patients.

Coronaviruses usually express pp1a (the ORF1a polyprotein) and the PP1ab polyprotein with joins ORF1a and ORF1b. The polyproteins are then processed by enzymes that are encoded by ORF1a. Product proteins from the processing includes various replicative enzymes such as RNA dependent polymerase, RNA helicase, and proteinase. The replication complex in coronavirus is also responsible for the synthesis of various mRNAs downstream of ORF 1b, which are structural and accessory proteins. Two different proteins, 3CLpro and PL2pro, cleave the large polyproteins into 16 smaller subunits.

SARS-Coronavirus follows the replication strategy typical of the Coronavirus genus.

In the SARS outbreak of 2003, about 9% of patients with confirmed SARS infection died. The mortality rate was much higher for those over 50 years old, with mortality rates approaching 50% for this subset of patients.

Causes:
SARS is caused by a strain of coronavirus, the same family of viruses that causes the common cold. Until now, these viruses have never been particularly dangerous in humans, although they can cause severe disease in animals. For that reason, scientists originally thought that the SARS virus might have crossed from animals to humans. It now seems likely that it evolved from one or more animal viruses into a completely new strain.
 
How do SARS spread:
Most respiratory illnesses, including SARS, spread through droplets that enter the air when someone with the disease coughs, sneezes or talks. Most experts think SARS spreads mainly through face-to-face contact, but the virus also may be spread on contaminated objects — such as doorknobs, telephones and elevator buttons.

Symptoms:
Once a person has contracted SARS, the first symptom that they present with is a fever of at least 38°C (100.4°F) or higher. The early symptoms last about 2–7 days and include non-specific flu-like symptoms, including chills/rigor, muscle aches, headaches, diarrhea, sore throat, runny nose, malaise, and myalgia (muscle pain). Next, they develop a dry cough, shortness of breath, and an upper respiratory tract infection.

SARS typically begins with flu-like signs and symptoms — signs and symptoms include:

*Fever of 100.4 F (38 C) or higher
* Dry cough
*Shortness of breath

Complications:
The main complication of SERS  is that most people develop pneumonia. Breathing problems can become so severe that a mechanical respirator is required. SARS is fatal in some cases, often due to respiratory failure. Other possible complications include heart and liver failure.

People older than the age of 60 — especially those with underlying conditions such as diabetes or hepatitis — are at highest risk of serious complications.

Risk Factors:
In general, people at greatest risk of SARS have had direct, close contact with someone who’s infected, such as family members and health care workers.

Diagnosis:
At that time, a chest x-ray is ordered to confirm pneumonia. If the chest appears clear and SARS is still suspected, a HRCT scan will be ordered, because it is visible earlier on this scan. In severe cases, it develops into respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and in 70-90% of the cases, they develop lymphopenia (low count of lymphocyte white blood cells).

The incubation period for SARS-CoV is from 2–10 days, sometimes lasting up to 13 days, with a mean of 5 days.  So symptoms usually develop between 2–10 days following infection by the virus. As part of the immune response, IgM antibody to the SARS-CoV is produced. This peaks during the acute or early convalescent phase (week 3) and declines by week 12. IgG antibody is produced later and peaks at week 12.

Tests:
When SARS first surfaced, no specific tests were available to help doctors diagnose the disease. Now several laboratory tests can help detect the virus. But no known transmission of SARS has occurred anywhere in the world since 2004.

Treatment:
Although global efforts are still on, scientists have not yet found out any effective treatment for SARS. Antibiotic drugs don’t work against viruses and antiviral drugs haven’t shown much benefit.

Prevention:
Researchers are working on several types of vaccines for SARS, but none has been tested in humans.Engineering of SARS virus has been done. In a paper published in 2006, a new transcription circuit was engineered to make recombinant SARS viruses. The recombination allowed for efficient expression of viral transcripts and proteins. The engineering of this transcription circuit reduces the RNA recombinant progeny viruses. The TRS (transcription regulatory sequences) circuit regulates efficient expression of SARS-CoV subgenomic mRNAs. The wild type TRS is ACGAAC.

A double mutation results in TRS-1 (ACGGAT) and a triple mutation results in TRS-2 (CCGGAT). When the remodeled TRS circuit containing viruses are genetically recombined with wild type TRS circuits, the result is a circuit reduced in production of subgenomic mRNA. The goal of modifying the SARS virus with this approach is to produce chimeric progeny that have reduced viability due to the incompatibility of the WT and engineered TRS circuits.

Novel subunit vaccine constructs for an S protein SARS vaccine based on the receptor binding domain (RBD) are being developed by the New York Blood Center. The re-emergence of SARS is possible, and the need remains for commercial vaccine and therapeutic development. However, the cost and length of time for product development, and the uncertain future demand, result in unfavorable economic conditions to accomplish this task. In the development of therapeutics and next-generation vaccines, more work is required to determine the structure/ function relationships of critical enzymes and structural proteins.

If SARS infections resume, follow these safety guidelines if you’re caring for an infected person:-

 *Wash your hands. Clean your hands frequently with soap and hot water or use an alcohol-based hand rub containing at least 60 percent alcohol.

* Wear disposable gloves. If you have contact with the person’s body fluids or feces, wear disposable gloves. Throw the gloves away immediately after use and wash your hands thoroughly.

* Wear a surgical mask. When you’re in the same room as a person with SARS, cover your mouth and nose with a surgical mask. Wearing eye glasses also may offer some protection.

* Wash personal items. Use soap and hot water to wash the utensils, towels, bedding and clothing of someone with SARS.

* Disinfect surfaces. Use a household disinfectant to clean any surfaces that may have been contaminated with sweat, saliva, mucus, vomit, stool or urine. Wear disposable gloves while you clean and throw the gloves away when you’re done.

Follow all precautions for at least 10 days after the person’s signs and symptoms have disappeared. Keep children home from school if they develop a fever or respiratory symptoms within 10 days of being exposed to someone with SARS. Children can return to school if signs and symptoms go away after three days.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SARS_coronavirus

http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/sars/DS00501/DSECTION=prevention

 

 

 

Foot order or Smelly foot

English: Grown male right foot (angle 1)

English: Grown male right foot (angle 1) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Description:
Our foot sometimes gives out an unpleasant smell which is very much embarrassing.         ( medical term bromohidrosis)

It is a type of body odor that affects the feet of humans.The quality of foot odor is often reported as a thick smell. Some describe the smell like that of malt vinegar. However, it can also be ammonia-like. Brevibacteria are considered a major cause of foot odor because they ingest dead skin on the feet and, in the process, convert amino acid methionine into methanethiol, which has a sulfuric aroma. The dead skin that fuels this process is especially common on the soles and between the toes. The brevibacteria is also what gives cheeses such as Limburger, Bel Paese, Port du Salut, Pálpusztai and Munster their characteristic pungency.

Propionic acid (propanoic acid) is also present in many foot sweat samples. This acid is a breakdown product of amino acids by Propionibacteria, which thrive in the ducts of adolescent and adult sebaceous glands. The similarity in chemical structures between propionic acid and acetic acid, which share many physical characteristics such as odor, may account for foot odors identified as being vinegar-like. Isovaleric acid (3-methyl butanoic acid) is the other source of foot odor and is a result of actions of the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis which is also present in several strong cheese types.

Other implicated micro-organisms include Micrococcaceae, Corynebacterium and Pityrosporum.

Bart Knols, of Wageningen Agricultural University, the Netherlands, received an “IG Nobel” prize in 2006 for showing that the female malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae “is attracted equally to the smell of limburger cheese and to the smell of human feet”. Fredros Okumu, of Ifakara Health Institute in Tanzania, received grants in 2009 and 2011 to develop mosquito attractants and traps to combat malaria. He uses a blend of eight chemicals, which is four times more effective than an actual human.

Causes;
The feet and hands contain more sweat glands than any other part of the body, with roughly 3,000 glands per square inch. Smelly feet are not only embarrassing, but can be physically uncomfortable as well.

Feet smell for two reasons: 1) shoe wear, and 2) sweating of the feet. The interaction between the perspiration and the bacteria that thrive in shoes and socks generates the odor.

Smelly feet or excessive sweating can also be caused by an inherited condition, called hyperhidrosis, which primarily affects men. Stress, some medications, fluid intake, and hormonal changes also can increase the amount of perspiration our bodies produce.

The main cause is foot sweat. Sweat itself is odorless, but it creates a beneficial environment for certain bacteria to grow and produce bad-smelling substances. These bacteria are naturally present on our skin as part of the human flora. Therefore, more smell is created with factors causing more sweating, such as wearing shoes and/or socks with inadequate air ventilation for many hours. Hair on the feet, especially on the toes, may contribute to the odor’s intensity by adding increased surface area in which the bacteria can thrive.

Given that socks directly contact the feet, their composition can have an impact on foot odor. Polyester and nylon are common materials used to make socks, but provide less ventilation than cotton or wool do when used for the same purpose. Wearing polyester or nylon socks may increase perspiration and therefore may intensify foot odor.[1] Because socks absorb varying amounts of perspiration from feet, wearing shoes without socks may increase the amount of perspiration contacting feet and thereby increase bacterial activities that cause odor

Treatments:
The best home remedy for foot odor is to soak feet in strong black tea for 30 minutes a day for a week. The acid in the tea kills the bacteria and closes the pores, keeping your feet dry longer. Use two tea bags per pint of water. Boil for 15 minutes, then add two quarts of cool water. Soak your feet in the cool solution. Alternately, you can soak your feet in a solution of one part vinegar and two parts water.

Persistent foot odor can indicate a low-grade infection or a severe case of hereditary sweating. In these cases, a prescription ointment may be required to treat the problem.

Treating Excessive Sweating:
A form of electrolysis, called iontophoresis, has been shown to reduce excessive sweating of the feet. However, it is more difficult to administer. In the worst cases of hyperhidrosis, a surgeon can cut the nerve that controls sweating. Recent advances in technology have made this surgery much safer, but may increase sweating in other areas of the body.

Prevention:
Methods of extinguishment may be used even before onset of the odor as prevention. However, a very effective and cheap way to prevent foot odor is with sodium bicarbonate (a mildly basic white salt also known as baking soda, bread soda, cooking soda, bicarbonate of soda, sodium bicarb, bicarb soda, or simply bicarb). Sodium bicarbonate

will create a hostile environment unsuitable for the bacteria responsible for the bad smell. Four pinches of it on each foot everyday are usually enough (two inside the sock and two on the insole of the shoe). Sometimes it might take one or two days before the shoes completely lose their old smell. Washing your feet and applying the sodium bicarbonate daily are also potentially useful solutions.

While there are a number of other remedies, sodium bicarbonate, if bought in a supermarket, costs approximately 20 times less than common odor-eaters or odor-killer powders.

Swabbing feet twice daily with isopropyl alcohol, found at your local drug store, for two weeks is a cheap and highly effective cure. One can also periodically remove their footwear, to reduce foot moisture and thereby reduce bacterial spawn.

Some types of powders and activated charcoal insoles, such as odor eaters, have been developed to prevent foot odor by keeping the feet dry. Special cedarsoles can be recommended for this purpose because of their antibacterial characteristics. Hygiene is considered important in avoiding odor, as is avoidance of synthetic shoes/socks, and rotation of the pairs of shoes worn

In general, smelly feet can be controlled with a few preventive measures:

•Always wear socks with closed shoes.
•Avoid wearing nylon socks or plastic shoes. Instead, wear shoes made of leather, canvas, mesh, or other materials that let your feet breathe.
•Bathe feet daily in lukewarm water, using a mild soap. Dry thoroughly.
•Change socks and shoes at least once a day.
•Check for fungal infections between toes and on the bottoms of your feet. If any redness or dry, patchy skin is observed, get treatment right away.
•Don’t wear the same pair of shoes two days in a row. If you frequently wear athletic shoes, alternate pairs so that the shoes can dry out. Give your shoes at least 24 hours to air out between wearings; if the odor doesn’t go away, discard the shoes.
•Dust your feet frequently with a nonmedicated baby powder or foot powder. Applying antibacterial ointment also may help.
•Practice good foot hygiene to keep bacteria levels at a minimum.
•Wear thick, soft socks to help draw moisture away from the feet. Cotton and other absorbent materials are best.

Extinguishment:

Once foot odor has begun, it can be extinguished, or at least alleviated, by either aromatic deodorants that neutralise the odor by their own smell, or by absorbers of the odor itself.

Among the earliest foot deodorants were aromatic herbs such as allspice, which nineteenth-century Russian soldiers would put in their boots.

Odor absorbers include activated charcoal foot insert wafers, such as Innofresh footwear odor absorbers.

General Tips: To tackle this problem, wash your feet with an antibacterial soap such as Neko and use a fresh pair of cotton socks daily. You can also apply deodorant to the soles of your feet. The best thing would be to buy another pair of work shoes and alternate wearing the two pairs so that the shoes have time to dry out.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foot_odor

http://www.wolfpodiatry.com/library/1932/SmellyFeetandFootOdor.html

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