Tag Archives: Antipyretic

Zanthoxylum schinifolium

 

Botanical Name : Zanthoxylum schinifolium
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Zanthoxylum
Species:Z. schinifolium
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Sapindales

Synonyms:
*Fagara mantchurica (Benn.) Honda
*Fagara pteropoda (Hayata) Y.C. Liu
*Fagara schinifolia (Siebold & Zucc.) Engl. nom. illeg.
*Zanthoxylum mantschuricum Benn.
*Zanthoxylum pteropodum Hayata

Common Name: Sichuan pepper,Chinese Prickly-ash

Habitat: Zanthoxylum schinifolium is native to E. Asia – China, Japan, Korea. It grows on low mountains, C. and S. Japan. Roadsides in Korea.

Description:
Zanthoxylum schinifolium is a deciduous Shrub growing to 4 m (13ft 1in). The leaves are compound aeromatic & glossy.
It is in flower in August, and the seeds ripen in November. The flowers are dark red and the baries are small & red.The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required)The plant is not self-fertile. …..CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Prefers a good deep well-drained moisture retentive soil in full sun or semi-shade. Flowers are formed on the old wood. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required. Self-sown seedlings have occasionally been observed growing in bare soil in the shade of the parent plant.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. Stored seed may requires up to 3 months cold stratification, though scarification may also help. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. Germination should take place in late spring, though it might take another 12 months. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Root cuttings, 3cm long, planted horizontally in pots in a greenhouse. Good percentage. Suckers, removed in late winter and planted into their permanent positions

Edible Uses: Seed – cooked. It is used as a condiment, a pepper substitute. Young leaves. No more details are given.

Medicinal Uses:
Anaesthetic; Diuretic; Parasiticide; Stimulant; Tonic; Vasodilator.

The pericarp is anaesthetic, diuretic, parasiticide and vasodilator. It is used in the treatment of gastralgia and dyspepsia due to cold with vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, ascariasis and dermal diseases. It has a local anaesthetic action and is parasiticide against the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium). The pericarp contains geraniol. In small doses this has a mild diuretic action, though large doses will inhibit the excretion of urine. There is a persistent increase in peristalsis at low concentration, but inhibition at high concentration. The resin contained in the bark, and especially in that of the roots, is powerfully stimulant and tonic

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zanthoxylum_schinifolium
http://marcopoloplants.com/Shrubs/Zanthoxylum-schinifolium.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Zanthoxylum+schinifolium

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Crataegus altaica

Botanical Name : Crataegus altaica
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Crataegus
Section: Sanguineae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonym: Crataegus purpurea altaica. Crataegus wattiana. Crataegus altaica var. villosa is considered to be a synonym of Crataegus maximowiczii.

Common Names: Altai Mountain Thorn
Habitat :Crataegus altaica is native to W. Asia – Altai Mountains. It grows on slopes, forest understories, stream sides; 400–1900 m. C and N Xinjiang [Russia (SE European part, Siberia)]
Description:

Crataegus altaica is a midium sized deciduous tree 3–6 m tall, unarmed, rarely with few 2–4 cm thorns. Branchlets purplish brown or reddish brown when young, grayish brown when old, terete, stout, glabrous; buds purplish brown, suborbicular, glabrous, apex acute. Stipules falcate or cordate, ca. 1 cm, herbaceous, glabrous, margin glandular serrate, apex acute; petiole 2–3.4 cm, glabrous; leaf blade broadly ovate or triangular-ovate, 5–9 × 4–7 cm, veins conspicuous, lateral veins extending to apices of lobes, abaxially barbate in vein axils, adaxially sparsely pubescent, base truncate or broadly cuneate, rarely subcordate, margin irregularly and sharply serrate, usually with 2–4 pairs of lobes, often parted near base, apex acute or obtuse. Compound corymb 3–4 cm in diam., many flowered; peduncle glabrous; bracts caducous, lanceolate, membranous. Pedicel 5–7 mm, glabrous. Flowers 1.2–1.5 cm in diam. Hypanthium campanulate, abaxially glabrous. Sepals triangular-ovate, or triangular-lanceolate, 2–4 mm, both surfaces glabrous, apex caudate-acuminate. Petals white, suborbicular, ca. 5 mm in diam. Stamens 20. Ovary sparsely pubescent apically, 4- or 5-loculed, with 2 ovules per locule; styles 4 or 5. Pome yellow, subglobose, 8–10 mm in diam., glabrous; sepals persistent, reflexed; pyrenes 4 or 5, with concave scars on both inner sides. flower blooms: May–Jun, fruit matures : Aug–Sep.

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It is not frost tender. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Midges.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist or wet soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.
Cultivation:
A very easily grown plant, it prefers a well-drained moisture retentive loamy soil but is not at all fussy. Once established, it succeeds in excessively moist soils and also tolerates drought. It grows well on a chalk soil and also in heavy clay soils. A position in full sun is best when plants are being grown for their fruit, they also succeed in semi-shade though fruit yields and quality will be lower in such a position. Most members of this genus succeed in exposed positions, they also tolerate atmospheric pollution. Seedling trees take from 5 – 8 years before they start bearing fruit, though grafted trees will often flower heavily in their third year. The flowers have a foetid smell somewhat like decaying fish. This attracts midges which are the main means of fertilization. When freshly open, the flowers have more pleasant scent with balsamic undertones. This species is closely related to C. wattiana. Hawthorns in general hybridize freely with other members of the genus. Seedlings should not be left in a seedbed for more than 2 years without being transplanted.
Propagation:
Seed – this is best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame, some of the seed will germinate in the spring, though most will probably take another year. Stored seed can be very slow and erratic to germinate, it should be warm stratified for 3 months at 15°c and then cold stratified for another 3 months at 4°c. It may still take another 18 months to germinate. Scarifying the seed before stratifying it might reduce this time. Fermenting the seed for a few days in its own pulp may also speed up the germination process. Another possibility is to harvest the seed ‘green’ (as soon as the embryo has fully developed but before the seedcoat hardens) and sow it immediately in a cold frame. If timed well, it can germinate in the spring. If you are only growing small quantities of plants, it is best to pot up the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow them on in individual pots for their first year, planting them out in late spring into nursery beds or their final positions. When growing larger quantities, it might be best to sow them directly outdoors in a seedbed, but with protection from mice and other seed-eating creatures. Grow them on in the seedbed until large enough to plant out, but undercut the roots if they are to be left undisturbed for more than two years.
Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw or cooked. About 8mm in diameter, the fruit is yellow with a fairly dry mealy texture and a pleasantly sweet flesh. The fruit can also be used in making pies, preserves, etc, and can also be dried for later use. The fruit ripens in August, making it one of the earliest ripening hawthorns. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed.
Medicinal Uses:
Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, the fruits and flowers of many hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart tonic. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak heart combined with high blood pressure. Prolonged use is necessary for it to be efficacious. It is normally used either as a tea or a tincture.

Other Uses: Wood – heavy, hard, tough, close-grained. Useful for making tool handles, mallets and other small items.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crataegus_altaica
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Crataegus+altaica
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200010796

Atriplex lentiformis

 

Botanical Name : Atriplex lentiformis
Family: Amaranthaceae
Subfamily:Chenopodioideae
Genus: Atriplex
Species:A. lentiformis
Kingdom:Plantae
Division:Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Caryophyllales

Synonyms: A. breweri S.Wats A. lentiformis var. breweri (S.Wats.) McMinn = A. lentiformis subsp. brewer

Common Names: Quail bush, Big saltbrush, Big saltbush, Quailbrush, Lenscale, Len-scale saltbush and White thistle

Habitat : Atriplex lentiformis is native to South-western N. AmericaCalifornia, Arizona, Nevada, Texas and Mexico. It grows on saline to essentially non-saline drainages, stream and canal banks, roadsides, warm desert shrub, saltbush, and riparian communities at elevations of 70 – 1000 metres.
Description:
Atriplex lentiformis is an evergreen spreading communal shrub reaching one to three meters in height and generally more in width. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from May to September, and the seeds ripen from Jul to October. It is highly branched and bears scaly or scurfy gray-green leaves up to 5 centimeters long and often toothed or rippled along the edges. This species may be dioecious or monoecious, with individuals bearing either male or female flowers, or sometimes both. Male flowers are borne in narrow inflorescences up to 50 centimeters long, while inflorescences of female flowers are smaller and more compact. Plants can change from monoecious to dioecious and from male to female and vice versa.The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind.

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Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline and saline soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Cultivation:
Requires a position in full sun in any well-drained but not too fertile soil. Tolerates saline and very alkaline soils. Succeeds in a hot dry position. This species is not hardy in the colder areas of the country, it tolerates temperatures down to between -5 and -10°c. Forms growing in coastal and near coastal regions of California have somewhat broader, merely ovate, rounded leaves, and they have been regarded either at species level as Atriplex breweri S. Watson or as a sub-species of A. lentiformis. Plants are more commonly dioecious, though monoecious forms can also be found.

Propagation:
Seed – sow April/May in a cold frame in a compost of peat and sand. The seed usually germinates in 1 – 3 weeks at 13°c. Pot up the seedlings when still small into individual pots, grow on in a greenhouse for the first winter and plant out in late spring or early summer after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Very easy. Pot up as soon as they start to root (about 3 weeks) and plant out in their permanent positions late in the following spring. Cuttings of mature wood of the current season’s growth, November/December in a frame. Very easy. Pot up in early spring and plant out in their permanent position in early summer.

Edible Uses:
Leaves and young shoots – cooked. Seed – cooked. It can be used as a piñole or be ground into a meal and used as a porridge, a thickener in soups or added to flour for making bread. The seed is rather small and fiddly to use.
Medicinal Uses:

Miscellany; Poultice.

The fresh leaves can be chewed, or the dried leaves smoked, in the treatment of head colds. The crushed flowers, stems and leaves can be steamed and inhaled to treat nasal congestion. A poultice of the powdered roots has been applied to sores.

Other Uses:...Miscellany; Soap…..The crushed leaves and roots have been used as a soap for washing clothes etc.
This saltbush species, A. lentiformis, and Atriplex canescens are the food plants for the saltbush sootywing Hesperopsis alpheus, a butterfly.

Atriplex lentiformis is used in restoration of riparian habitats, one of the native plants in riparian zone restoration projects in its native ranges

Known Hazards:  No member of this genus contains any toxins, all have more or less edible leaves. However, if grown with artificial fertilizers, they may concentrate harmful amounts of nitrates in their leaves.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atriplex_lentiformis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Atriplex+lentiformis

Musa basjoo

 

Botanical Name :Musa basjoo
Family: Musaceae
Genus: Musa
Species: M. basjoo
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Zingiberales

Synonyms:  Musa : japonica – Thiéb.&Ketel.

Common Name: Japanese Banana, Japanese Fibre Banana or Hardy Banana

Habitat :Musa basjoo  was previously thought to have originated from the Ryukyu islands of Japan, from where it was first described in cultivation, but is now known to have originated from southern China, where it is also widely cultivated, with wild populations found in Sichuan province.It grows well in Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Cultivated Beds.

Description:
Musa basjoo is a herbaceous perennial with trunk-like pseudostems growing to around 2–2.5 metres (6.6–8.2 ft), with a crown of mid-green leaves growing up to 2 metres (6.6 ft) long and 70 centimetres (28 in) wide when mature. The species produces male and female flowers on the same inflorescence which may extend for over 1 metre (3.3 ft). The banana fruit formed are yellow-green, around 5–10 centimetres (2.0–3.9 in) long and 2–3 centimetres (0.79–1.2 in) broad; they are inedible, with sparse white pulp and many black seeds.

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It is hardy to zone 8. It is in leaf all year. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant)
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation :
Requires a rich soil and a sunny sheltered position. The large leaves are very easily torn by the wind. This species is only hardy in the milder areas of Britain and even there will require protection in colder winters. It thrives and fruits in south-western Britain  where it survived the very severe winters of 1985 to 1987. Plants are herbaceous and die down after flowering, forming new shoots from the roots. Cultivated in Japan as a fibre plant

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a warm greenhouse. The seed usually germinates rapidly. Pre-soak stored seed for 72 hours in warm water, if it is still floating then it is not viable. Sow in a warm greenhouse in spring, planting one large seed in each pot. Germination usually takes place within 2 – 24 weeks at 22°c. Grow the plants on in the greenhouse for at least 3 years before trying them outdoors. The seed remains viable for 2 years. Removal of suckers as the plant comes into growth in spring.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Nectar.

The nectar of the flowers is sweet and drinkable.

Medicinal Uses:

Diuretic; Febrifuge; Sialagogue.

The roots are diuretic, febrifuge and sialagogue. A decoction is used in the treatment of beriberi, constipation, jaundice, dropsy, restlessness due to heat, leucorrhoea and croton bean poisoning. The leaves are diuretic.

In Chinese medicines, physicians use root stem, flower, leaves, rhizome of Musa basjoo for clearing heat-toxin, quenching thirst and disinhibiting urine.

Other Uses
Fibre.

A fibre is obtained from the leaf stems. Used for cloth, sails etc. The fibre can also be used for making paper The leaves are harvested in summer and are soaked in water for 24 hours prior to cooking. The fibres are cooked for 2 hours with lye and then beaten in a ball mill for 4½ hours before being made into paper.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musa_basjoo
http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Musa+basjoo
http://aquiya.sakura.ne.jp/zukan/Musa_basjoo.html

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Akebia quinata

Botanical Name : Akebia quinata
Family: Lardizabalaceae
Genus: Akebia
Species: A. quinata
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Ranunculales

Synonyms : Rajania quinata.

Common Names :Chocolate Vine or Five-leaf Akebia

Habitat : Akebia quinata is native to E. Asia – China, Japan, Korea. It grows in woods, hedges and thickets in mountainous areas. Forest margins along streams, scrub on mountain slopes at elevations of 300 – 1500 metres in China.

Description:
Akebia quinata is a deciduous Climber growing to 12 m (39ft 4in) at a fast rate.It has compound leaves with five leaflets. The inflorescences are clustered in racemes and are chocolate-scented, with three or four sepals. The fruits are sausage-shaped pods which contain edible pulp..

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It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant)The plant is not self-fertile.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation :    
Requires a well-drained moisture retentive soil. Prefers a good loamy soil. Succeeds in acid or alkaline soils. Prefers partial shade but succeeds in full sun. Succeeds on north facing walls. Plants are fast growing and can be invasive. Dormant plants are hardy to about -20°c but they can be somewhat tender when young. The young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun. This species grows very well in S.W. England. Plants are evergreen in mild winters. Resentful of root disturbance, either grow the plants in containers prior to planting them out or plant them out whilst very young. Plants are not normally pruned, if they are growing too large they can be cut back by trimming them with shears in early spring. The flowers have a spicy fragrance, reminiscent of vanilla. Plants are shy to fruit, they possibly require some protection in the flowering season, hand pollination is advisable. Plants are probably self-sterile, if possible at least 2 plants should be grown, each from a different source. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus.

                                                     
Propagation : 
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Surface sow in a light position. The seed usually germinates in 1 – 3 months at 15°c. Stored seed should be given 1 month cold stratification and can be very difficult to germinate. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in light shade in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. The cuttings can be slow to root. Cuttings can also be taken of soft wood in spring. Root cuttings, December in a warm greenhouse. Layering in early spring. Very easy, the plants usually self-layer and so all you need to do is dig up the new plants and plant them out directly into their permanent positions.

Edible Uses :
Edible Parts: Fruit;  Leaves.
Edible Uses: Tea.
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Fruit – raw. Sweet but insipid. The fruit has a delicate flavour and a soft, juicy texture. Lemon juice is sometimes added to the fruit to enhance the flavour. The bitter skin of the fruit is fried and eaten. The fruit is 5 – 10cm long and up to 4m wide. Soft young shoots are used in salads or pickled. The leaves are used as a tea substitute.

Medicinal Uses:
Anodyne;  Antiphlogistic;  Bitter;  Cancer;  Contraceptive;  Depurative;  Diaphoretic;  Diuretic;  Emmenagogue;  FebrifugeGalactogogue;
Laxative;  Resolvent;  Stimulant;  Stomachic;  Vulnerary.

The stems are anodyne, antifungal, antiphlogistic, bitter, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, laxative, galactogogue, resolvent, stimulant, stomachic and vulnerary. Taken internally, it controls bacterial and fungal infections and is used in the treatment of urinary tract infections, lack of menstruation, to improve lactation etc. The stems are harvested in the autumn and dried for later use. The fruit is antirheumatic, depurative, diuretic, febrifuge, stomachic and tonic. It is a popular remedy for cancer. The root is febrifuge. The plant was ranked 13th in a survey of 250 potential antifertility plants in China.

In the Chinese pharmacopoeia it is believed to be therapeutic as a diuretic, antiphlogistic, galactagogue and analgesic. The principal use of the herb in China is as a traditional remedy for insufficient lactation in nursing mothers. The medicinal part of the plant is the woody stem which is sliced in transverse sections and prepared as a decoction. The stem contains approximately 30% potassium salts thus giving the diuretic action.

A popular traditional remedy for insufficient lactation in nursing mothers is to simmer 10-15 grams of this herb together with pork knuckles for 3 hours, adding water as needed, then drinking the herbal broth throughout the day.

Other Uses:
The gelatinous placentation are littered with seeds but have a sweet flavor, so they used to be enjoyed by children playing out in the countryside in the olden days in Japan. The rind, with a slight bitter taste, is used as vegetable, e.g., stuffed with ground meat and deep-fried. The vines are traditionally used for basket-weaving .

In China A. quinata is referred to as (“mù tung” (Pinyin) or “mu tung” (Wade-Giles)) meaning “perforated wood”. It is also occasionally known as (“tong cao” (Pinyin) or “tung tsao” (Wade-Giles)) meaning “perforated grass”.

A. quinata is listed in the National Pest Plant Accord list which identifies pest plants that are prohibited from sale, commercial propagation and distribution across New Zealand.

The peeled stems are very pliable and can be used in basket making. Plants have sometimes been used as a ground cover, but their method of growth does not really lend themselves to this use.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akebia_quinata
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Akebia+quinata
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm

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