Botanical Name:Clausena anisata
Species: C. anisata
Common names: Horsewood (E) Maggot killer (E) Muvengahonye (S) Muvhunambezo (S)
Engl: Horsewood, maggot killer
African vernacular names:
Kwere: Mkomavikali Massai: Ol matassia Pare: Mkwingwimi
Shona: Runga honya Venda mudede Xhosa: Umukambi, isifuta, isitutu
Zigua: Mjavikali Zulu: Nukamdida, umsanga
Philippines: nampi (Tagalog)
Shrub or small tree. The plant, a tropical shrub or tree up to 10 meters high is growing in and on the margins of evergreen forests. Leaves pinnately compound with 10-17 alternate or subopposite leaflets and a terminal leaflet.
Trunk\bark : Bark reddish brown, scaly; blaze pink.
Branchlets : Young branchlets terete, grey pubescent.
Leaves : Leaves compound, usually imparipinnate, sometimes paripinnate, cluster at twig ends, alternate, spiral, 13-26 cm long; rachis terete, grey pubescent, sometimes glabrescent; petiolule 0.2 cm long; leaflets 7-13 pairs, 2.5-8 (-12) x 1.3-3.5 (-6.5) cm, generally increase in size towards apex, ovate with unequal sides, apex acuminate with retuse tip, base asymmetric, margin entire to crenulate, chartaceous, glandular punctuate, usually grey pubescent on nerves and midrib on both surfaces, sometimes glabrescent; midrib raised above; secondary_nerves 7-11 pairs; tertiary_nerves broadly reticulate.
Flowers : Inflorescence axillary racemes; flowers white, tetramerous. Flowering time is August – November…
Fruit& seed : Berry, globose, 1.3 cm across; seeds oblong.
Carbazole alkaloids are the major constituents of Rutaceous plants together with
coumarines and phenylpropanoids which are named clausamines. Their chemical
structure was determined by spectroscopic data and MS. They belong to the class of
1-oxygenated-3-methoxy-carbazoles having a prenyl side chain or an analogous
moiety at C-4.
In Cl. anisata nine carbazole alkaloids extracted by acetone could be found.
Clausamine D is a colourless powder, structure formula C20H21NO3,
Clausamine E is a colourless oil, C20H21NO4
Clausamine G is a yellow oil, C20H21NO5 (4)
From the alcoholic extract of the stem bark of C. anisata contains the two alkaloids
clausenol and clausenine. Their structure was 1-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-
methylcarbazole and 1,6-dimethoxy-3-methyl carbazole, respectively. The
molecular weight of clausenol was 227(m/z), the structure formula C14H31NO2 (1).
In Nigeria four coumarins could be found from the root bark, among these
chalepin and imperatorin (5).
Steam distillation of fresh leaves yields sweet smelling, brownish-yellow oil. Its
major component is estragole, not anethole. It is 1 ½ times more toxic than the
Plant parts used: The root, the stem bark, the fresh leaves
The pounded roots, with lime and Guinea grains, are applied to rheumatic and other pains in Nigeria, where also the leaves are considered anthelmintic. In some parts of Africa it is considered a cough remedy. Recent research has shown the root methanolic extract indicates
This species is used in treating an uncommonly wide range of ailments and conditions. Decoctions of the leaves or roots are taken for gastro-intestinal disorders, fever, pneumonia, headache, hypotension, sore throat and sinusitis, venereal diseases, as an aphrodisiac and anthelmintic, as a tonic for pregnant women, and as a tonic for infants to prevent rickets and to control convulsions. Root decoctions and infusions are also taken for whooping cough, malaria, syphilis and kidney ailments, irregular menses, threatening abortion, skin diseases and epilepsy, and given to women before and after parturition to ease delivery and to expel blood from the uterus, and later to boost milk production. Roots are chewed to combat indigestion.
Crushed leaves are used as an antiseptic and analgesic, and are applied to open wounds, mouth infections, otitis and abscesses, also burns, haemorrhoids, rheumatism and general body pains. Crushed leaves are also used to treat wounds in domestic animals, and as a snake-bite antidote. Dried leaves are widely used as an arthropod repellent, such as a filling material for mattresses and pillows against fleas, lice and bedbugs. The fruits are sweet and readily eaten by people and other animals. Stem bark is pounded and used as rope.
that the herb possesses hypoglycaemic activity, though not as strong as insulin; and thus lends credence to the suggested folkloric use of C. anisata root in the management and/or control of adult-onset, Type-2 diabetes mellitus in some communities of South Africa.
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
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