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Clausena anisata

Botanical Name:Clausena anisata
Family: Rutaceae
Subfamily: Aurantioideae
Genus: Clausena
Species: C. anisata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales

Synonyms: Clausena abyssinica (Engl.) Engl. ,Clausena inaequalis (DC.) Benth.

Common names: Horsewood (E) Maggot killer (E) Muvengahonye (S) Muvhunambezo (S)

Engl: Horsewood, maggot killer

African vernacular names:
Kwere: Mkomavikali Massai: Ol matassia Pare: Mkwingwimi
Shona: Runga honya Venda mudede Xhosa: Umukambi, isifuta, isitutu
Zigua: Mjavikali Zulu: Nukamdida, umsanga
Philippines: nampi (Tagalog)

Habitat : India, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Africa; in the Western_Ghats- throughout.

Description:
Shrub or small tree. The plant, a tropical shrub or tree up to 10 meters high is growing in and on the margins of evergreen forests. Leaves pinnately compound with 10-17 alternate or subopposite leaflets and a terminal leaflet.

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Trunk\bark :  Bark reddish brown, scaly; blaze pink.

Branchlets : Young branchlets terete, grey pubescent.

Leaves :  Leaves compound, usually imparipinnate, sometimes paripinnate, cluster at twig ends, alternate, spiral, 13-26 cm long; rachis terete, grey pubescent, sometimes glabrescent; petiolule 0.2 cm long; leaflets 7-13 pairs, 2.5-8 (-12) x 1.3-3.5 (-6.5) cm, generally increase in size towards apex, ovate with unequal sides, apex acuminate with retuse tip, base asymmetric, margin entire to crenulate, chartaceous, glandular punctuate, usually grey pubescent on nerves and midrib on both surfaces, sometimes glabrescent; midrib raised above; secondary_nerves 7-11 pairs; tertiary_nerves broadly reticulate.

Flowers :  Inflorescence axillary racemes; flowers white, tetramerous. Flowering time is August – November…

Fruit& seed : Berry, globose, 1.3 cm across; seeds oblong.

Constituents:

Carbazole alkaloids are the major constituents of Rutaceous plants together with
coumarines and phenylpropanoids which are named clausamines. Their chemical
structure was determined by spectroscopic data and MS. They belong to the class of
1-oxygenated-3-methoxy-carbazoles having a prenyl side chain or an analogous
moiety at C-4.
In Cl. anisata nine carbazole alkaloids extracted by acetone could be found.
Among them:
Clausamine D is a colourless powder, structure formula C20H21NO3,
Clausamine E is a colourless oil, C20H21NO4
Clausamine G is a yellow oil, C20H21NO5 (4)
From the alcoholic extract of the stem bark of C. anisata contains the two alkaloids
clausenol and clausenine. Their structure was 1-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-
methylcarbazole and 1,6-dimethoxy-3-methyl carbazole, respectively. The
molecular weight of clausenol was 227(m/z), the structure formula C14H31NO2 (1).
In Nigeria four coumarins could be found from the root bark, among these
chalepin and imperatorin (5).
Steam distillation of fresh leaves yields sweet smelling, brownish-yellow oil. Its
major component is estragole, not anethole. It is 1 ½ times more toxic than the
crude oil

Medicinal Uses:
Plant parts used:  The root, the stem bark, the fresh leaves

The pounded roots, with lime and Guinea grains, are applied to rheumatic and other pains in Nigeria, where also the leaves are considered anthelmintic.   In some parts of Africa it is considered a cough remedy.  Recent research has shown the root methanolic extract indicates

This species is used in treating an uncommonly wide range of ailments and conditions. Decoctions of the leaves or roots are taken for gastro-intestinal disorders, fever, pneumonia, headache, hypotension, sore throat and sinusitis, venereal diseases, as an aphrodisiac and anthelmintic, as a tonic for pregnant women, and as a tonic for infants to prevent rickets and to control convulsions. Root decoctions and infusions are also taken for whooping cough, malaria, syphilis and kidney ailments, irregular menses, threatening abortion, skin diseases and epilepsy, and given to women before and after parturition to ease delivery and to expel blood from the uterus, and later to boost milk production. Roots are chewed to combat indigestion.

Crushed leaves are used as an antiseptic and analgesic, and are applied to open wounds, mouth infections, otitis and abscesses, also burns, haemorrhoids, rheumatism and general body pains. Crushed leaves are also used to treat wounds in domestic animals, and as a snake-bite antidote. Dried leaves are widely used as an arthropod repellent, such as a filling material for mattresses and pillows against fleas, lice and bedbugs. The fruits are sweet and readily eaten by people and other animals. Stem bark is pounded and used as rope.

that the herb possesses hypoglycaemic activity, though not as strong as insulin; and thus lends credence to the suggested folkloric use of C. anisata root in the management and/or control of adult-onset, Type-2 diabetes mellitus in some communities of South Africa.

 

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=133210
http://www.biotik.org/india/species/c/clauanis/clauanis_en.html
http://www.mmh-mms.com/downloads/mp09clausenaanisata.pdf

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clausena_anisata

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

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Gifts From The Universe

Accepting Your Family
Families can contain a fascinating grouping of personalities. Despite the potential for so many to have similar traits, there are many different ways to express them. As people marry into families and have children, even more personalities enter the picture. There may be some people that we would not choose to be related to, but that’s what friends are for.

If we trust in a universe that has a higher purpose for everything, then we must believe that family members are in our lives for a good reason. These reasons may be easy to see and appreciate with some, but others may offer us a challenge. With those, we can look for something we can learn or perhaps teach. In the modern world where everyone seeks to be individuals, many move far away from their families in an attempt to escape them. But when we’ve successfully built a world around us that requires no one’s help, our families are the people who are still attached to us. We can still choose whether or not to honor the family ties, and how to treat each other, but the fact remains that we are energetically tied to our families.

Our families help us see where we have come from so that we may more clearly decide where we’d like to go. If we can learn to accept our families for who they are, then we go out into the world armed with the ability to deal with anyone. Some families are better than others at preparing us for the world. What we learn from our families, even if they are simply blank spots on our family trees, becomes the basis of our identities as individuals. Rather than denying our connections, we can choose to accept their presence in our lives. Acceptance does not mean we have to like them; we simply acknowledge that we are connected to them and honor that connection for like it or not, there is a reason. When we can embrace all that they bring into our experience, we may be grateful for all we have learned from them and have to learn, while we experience everything that comes with family fully and completely.
Source:Daily Om

Decorating Life

The World As Home
There are few things more thrilling than having a new house or an empty room to decorate. Our imaginations soar as we consider the many possibilities. In the same way, our lives offer us the opportunity to express ourselves within various contexts, to ask ourselves questions about what we want to see as we move through our days and how we want things to flow. Some people do this instinctively, moving through the various environments they inhabit and shifting the energy with their presence. These people have a knack for decorating life. This can be as simple as the way they dress, the way they speak, or the fact that they always bring a bouquet of wildflowers when they come for a visit.

As we move through the world, we make a statement, whether we intend to or not. We shift the energy one way when we enter a room dressed elegantly and simply, and another when we show up in bright, cheerful colors and a floppy hat. One is not better than the other. It is simply a question of the mood we wish to create. What we wear is just one choice we can focus on. The way we speak to people, or touch them, shifts the energy more profoundly than almost anything else. The words we speak and the tone in which we say them are the music we choose to play in the world that is our home. Some of us fill the space with passionate arias, others with healing hymns. Again, one is not better than the other. We are all called to contribute.

Just as we consciously create an environment within our homes, we can consciously choose to decorate life itself with our particular energy. Ideally, in doing so, we express our deeper selves, so that the adornments we add to the world make it more meaningful, more beautiful, and as welcoming as a beloved home.

Source:Daily Om

Moving In Real Time

We all go through times when we wish we could press a fast-forward button and propel ourselves into the future and out of our current circumstances. Whether the situation we are facing is minor, or major such as the loss of a loved one, it is human nature to want to move away from pain and find comfort as soon as possible. Yet we all know deep down that we need to work through these experiences in a conscious fashion rather than bury our heads in the sand, because these are the times when we access important information about ourselves and life. The learning process may not be easy, but it is full of lessons that bring us wisdom we cannot find any other way.

The desire to press fast-forward can lead to escapism and denial, both of which only prolong our difficulties and in some cases make them worse. The more direct, clear, and courageous we are in the face of whatever we are dealing with, the more quickly we will move through the situation. Understanding this, we may begin to realize that trying to find the fast-forward button is really more akin to pressing pause. When we truly grasp that the only way out of any situation in which we find ourselves is to go through it, we stop looking for ways to escape and we start paying close attention to what is happening. We realize that we are exactly where we need to be. We remember that we are in this situation in order to learn something we need to know, and we can alleviate some of our pain with the awareness that there is a purpose to our suffering.

When you feel the urge to press the fast-forward button, remember that you are not alone; we all instinctively avoid pain. But in doing so, we often prolong our pain and delay important learning. As you choose to move forward in real time, know that in the long run, this is the least painful way to go.

Source:Daily Om