Tag Archives: Astringent

Prunus cerasoides

Botanical Name : Prunus cerasoides
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Prunus
Subgenus: Cerasus
Species: P. cerasoides
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms:
*Prunus majestica Koehne
*Prunus puddum Franch.

Common Names: Wild Himalayan cherry or Sour cherry

Habitat : Prunus cerasoides is native to E. Asia – Himalayas from Himachel Pradesh to S.W. China and Burma. It grows in the forests, 1200 – 2400 metres. Forests in ravines at elevations of 700 – 3700 metres in western China.
Description:
Prunus cerasoides is a deciduous Tree growing to 30 m (98ft 5in). It has glossy, ringed bark. When the tree is not in flower, it is characterised by glossy, ringed bark and long, dentate stipules.

The tree flowers in autumn and winter. Flowers are pinkish white in color. It has ovoid yellow fruit that turns red as it ripens.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Thrives in a well-drained moisture-retentive loamy soil. Prefers some lime in the soil but is likely to become chlorotic if too much lime is present. Requires an open sunny sheltered position. Not very hardy in Britain but it succeeds outdoors in the milder areas of the country. Most members of this genus are shallow-rooted and will produce suckers if the roots are damaged. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus.
Propagation:
Seed – requires 2 – 3 months cold stratification and is best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. Protect the seed from mice etc. The seed can be rather slow, sometimes taking 18 months to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Grow them on in a greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood with a heel, July/August in a frame. Softwood cuttings from strongly growing plants in spring to early summer in a frame. Layering in spring.
Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Fruit; Seed.

Fruit – raw or cooked. Acid and astringent, they are only occasionally eaten raw but are more often cooked. The fruit is about 15mm in diameter and contains one large seed. Gum – chewed. Obtained from the trunk, it can be employed as a substitute for gum tragacanth, see Astragalus spp. Seed – raw or cooked. Do not eat the seed if it is too bitter – see the notes below on toxicity.

Medicinal Uses:
The fruit is astringent. The juice of the bark is applied externally to treat backaches. Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, all members of the genus contain amygdalin and prunasin, substances which break down in water to form hydrocyanic acid (cyanide or prussic acid). In small amounts this exceedingly poisonous compound stimulates respiration, improves digestion and gives a sense of well-being.
Other Uses:
Beads; Dye; Gum; Wood.

A green dye can be obtained from the leaves. A dark grey to green dye can be obtained from the fruit. The seeds are used as beads in necklaces and rosaries. Wood – moderately hard, strong, durable, aromatic. The branches are used as walking sticks
Known Hazards: Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, it belongs to a genus where most, if not all members of the genus produce hydrogen cyanide, a poison that gives almonds their characteristic flavour. This toxin is found mainly in the leaves and seed and is readily detected by its bitter taste. It is usually present in too small a quantity to do any harm but any very bitter seed or fruit should not be eaten. In small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prunus_cerasoides
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Prunus+cerasoides

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Prunus caroliniana

Botanical Name : Prunus caroliniana
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Prunus
Species: P. caroliniana
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms: Laurocerasus caroliniana. (Mill.)Roem.

Common Names: American Cherry Laurel, Carolina laurelcherry, Laurel Cherry, Cherry laurel, or Carolina cherry

Habitat : Prunus caroliniana is native to the lowlands of Southeastern United States, from North Carolina south to Florida and westward to central Texas. The species has also escaped into the wild in a few places in California. It grows on deep, well-drained rich moist bottomlands, bluffs or streambanks.
Description:
Prunus caroliniana is a small to medium-sized evergreen tree which grows to about 5–13 meters (16–43 ft) tall, with a spread of about 6–9 meters (20–30 ft). The leaves are dark green, alternate, shiny, leathery, elliptic to oblanceolate, 5–12 cm (2–4.5 in) long, usually with an entire (smooth) margin, but occasionally serrulate (having subtle serrations), and with cuneate bases. Reproductively mature trees have entire margins, whereas immature ones often have subtle serrations. The twigs are red to grayish brown, slender, and glabrous.

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Fragrant white to cream-colored flowers are produced in racemes (stalked bunches) 5–8 cm (2–3 in) long in the late winter to early spring. The fruits are tiny black cherries about 1 cm (0.5 in) in diameter, which persist through winter and are primarily consumed by birds (February – April).
It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
Characteristics:
The leaves and branches contain high amounts of cyanogenic glycosides that break down into hydrogen cyanide when damaged, making it a potential toxic hazard to grazing livestock and children. Due to this, it is considered highly deer-resistant. When crushed, its leaves and green twigs emit a fragrance described as resembling maraschino cherries or almond extract..

Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Pest tolerant, Screen, Standard, Street tree, Woodland garden. Requires a well-drained moisture retentive soil.   Succeeds in a hot dry position. Succeeds in light shade but fruits better in a sunny position. Thrives in a loamy soil, doing well on limestone.  Prefers some chalk in the soil but apt to become chlorotic if too much is present. Fairly wind-resistant[200]. One report says that this species is tender in most of Britain, whilst another says that it succeeds in climatic zone 7 (tolerating frosts down to about -15°c). A fast-growing but short-lived tree. Most members of this genus are shallow-rooted and will produce suckers if the roots are damaged. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus. Special Features:North American native, Naturalizing, All or parts of this plant are poisonous, Fragrant flowers, Attractive flowers or blooms.
Propagation:
Seed – requires 2 – 3 months cold stratification and is best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. Protect the seed from mice etc. The seed can be rather slow, sometimes taking 18 months to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Grow them on in a greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood with a heel, July/August in a frame. Softwood cuttings from strongly growing plants in spring to early summer in a frame. Layering in spring.
Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Fruit; Seed.
The fruit might be edible. It has a thick skin and a thin dry flesh[82] and is not edible. It is slightly toxic to humans. The fruit is about 13mm in diameter and contains one large seed. Seed – raw or cooked. Do not eat the seed if it is too bitter – see the notes below on toxicity.

Medicinal Uses:
Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, all members of the genus contain amygdalin and prunasin, substances which break down in water to form hydrocyanic acid (cyanide or prussic acid). In small amounts this exceedingly poisonous compound stimulates respiration, improves digestion and gives a sense of well-being.
Other Uses:
Dye; Hedge; Hedge; Shelterbelt; Wood.

Amenable to trimming, this plant can be grown as a screen and hedge. It can also be used in shelterbelt plantings. A green dye can be obtained from the leaves. A dark grey to green dye can be obtained from the fruit. Wood – hard, heavy, strong, close grained. The trees are seldom large enough for the wood to be exploited commercially.

Known Hazards: The leaves and young branches of this species contain considerable quantities of hydrogen cyanide, a poison that gives almonds their characteristic flavour. This toxin is readily detected by its bitter taste. It is usually present in too small a quantity to do any harm but any very bitter seed or fruit should not be eaten. In small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Prunus+caroliniana
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prunus_caroliniana

Hound’s Tongue

Botanical Name : Cynoglossum officinale
Kingdom: Plantae
Family: Boraginaceae
Genus:     Cynoglossum
Species: C. officinale

Synonyms: Lindefolia spectabilis. Dog’s Tongue.

Common Names :Houndstongue, Houndstooth, Dog’s tongue, Gypsy flower, and Rats and mice.
The name houndstongue comes from the belief that it could ward off dog attacks if a leaf was worn in the shoe.

Habitat : Hound’s Tongue  is  found in most parts of Europe and east to Asia,  North America where it was accidentally introduced.It grows in dry grassy areas and the edges of woods, often near the sea, on sand, gravel, chalk or limestone soils.

Description:
Hound’s Tongue is a rough, bristly perennial,stout and herbaceous  plant, grows 1 1/2 to 3 feet tall.(It can be either annual or biennial too) with reddish-purple flowers blooming between May and September. and terminal (the end of the stem).The stem, hairy and leafy, 1 to 2 feet high, branched above, arises from amidst large, narrow, radical, stalked leaves.
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It forms a rosette (a disk of foliage) the first year (leaves near the ground in a circle with no visible stem).  The heavy, tongued shaped leaves alternate up the stem and are about 4 to 12 inches long.  The leaves are hairy and rough and feel like a dog’s tongue, and that’s how it acquired it’s name.    The seed pods are distinctive 1/3 of an inch across and covered with barbs that enable them to stick to hairs, clothing etc., which is how they spread.

Cultivation:
Prefers sandy, gravelly and basic soils. Grows well in an ordinary well-drained soil. Succeeds in full sun or partial shade. The flowers are an absolute magnet for bees. The plant smells of mice.

Propagation:
Seed – sow in situ in early summer. The seed can be sown in spring or autumn, a period of cold stratification improves germination.

Edible Uses:  Young leaves are eaten raw or cooked. A disagreeable odour and taste.

Medicinal Uses:
Analgesic; Antihaemorrhoidal; Antispasmodic; Astringent; Cancer; Digestive; Emollient; Narcotic.

Hound’s tongue has a long history of use as a medicinal herb, though it is rarely used in modern herbalism. The leaves contain allantoin, a highly effective agent that speeds up the healing process in the body. Caution should be applied, however, since narcotic effects result from large doses taken internally and the plant is potentially carcinogenic (though it has also been used in the treatment of cancer). The leaves and roots are analgesic, antihaemorrhoidal, antispasmodic, astringent, digestive, emollient and slightly narcotic. The plant contains the alkaloids cynoglossine and consolidin, which are used medicinally to relieve pain. They depress the central nervous system and are also potentially carcinogenic. The plant has been used internally in the treatment of coughs and diarrhoea, though it is now mainly used externally as a poultice on piles, wounds, minor injuries, bites and ulcers. The root is harvested at the end of spring of the plants second year. Another report says that it is best harvested in the autumn and dried for later use. The leaves and flowering shoots are harvested as the plant comes into flower and are dried for later use. The plant has a wide antitumour reputation for cancers of various types. A homeopathic remedy is made from the roots. It is very effective in the treatment of insomnia.

An infusion from shaved root or crushed leaves is used to bathe cuts, bruises, burns and eczema and to treat coughs and bronchitis.  The leaves produce a potent poultice for external relief of scrofulous tumors, burns, goiter and inflammations.  Use similar to comfrey.  It makes a good treatment for piles and hemorrhoids, drink a cup of the herb or root every day.  It has been used in  catarrhs, hemoptysis, diarrhea, and dysentery. Externally, it has been found highly beneficial in removing the pain and soreness attending irritated, bruised, or chafed parts especially in excoriation of the feet from much traveling. The tincture, or the application of bruised fresh leaves will remove the swelling and ecchymosis consequent upon severe blows or bruises.

Other Uses:
Scented Plants
Leaves: Crushed
The plant smells of mice.

Known Hazards: Houndstongue contains alkaloids that can cause cancer when the plant is consumed in large quantities. The plant is also said to be slightly poisonous, there are no reported cases of human poisoning but there are some cases of cattle being poisoned. The plant has a disagreeable odour and taste so is seldom eaten by animals. Contact with the plant can cause dermatitis in sensitive people.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/h/houndt40.html
http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Cynoglossum+officinale
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cynoglossum_officinale
http://mtwow.org/houndstongue.html

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_FGH.htm

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Water Avens

Botanical Name :Geum rivale

Family: Rosaceae

Genus: Geum

Species: G. rivale

Kingdom: Plantae

Order: Rosales

Synonyms:Nodding Avens. Drooping Avens. Cure All. Water Flower. Indian Chocolate.

Common Names:Drooping avens, cure-all, water flower and indian chocolate.

Habitat-–The Water Avens  is native to much of Europe, with the exception of Mediterranean areas, as well as some parts of Central Asia and North America. In North America, it is known as purple avens. It grows in bogs and damp meadows, and produces nodding red flowers from May to September

Description: The Water Avens is a  Perennial herb. The rootstock is vertical and has clove-like fragrance.The plant grows to a height of 25–50 cm (10–20 in.). Stem is soft-haired and the upper part is reddish brown.

 

click to see  >...(01)…...(1)...…(2)..…...(3)..…..(4)…..(5).……..(6)... Flower: Corolla campanulate, yellowish white–reddish, dark-veined, 10–15 mm (0.4–0.6 in.) broad; petals usually 5, slightly longer than calyx. Calyx quite campanulate, 5-lobed, reddish brown; with epicalyx. Stamens many. Gynoecium separate, pistils several. Inflorescence a sparse corymb, flowers nodding. Leaves: Basal rosette and alternate on stem, stalked, stipulate. Rosette leaves’ blade pinnate, 2–4-paired, with terminal leaflet. Terminal leaflet 3-lobed, lobes large-toothed–shallowly lobed. Stem leaves’ blade deeply 3-lobed. Stipules small. Fruit: Achene with hooked hairs, several together. Infructescence spherical, erect. Flowering time: May–July.

Edible Uses: Chocolate;  Condiment;  Drink. The dried or fresh root can be boiled in water to make a delicious chocolate-like drink. It can also be used as a seasoning. It is best harvested in the spring or autumn but can be used all year round. Fragrant, it was once used to flavour ales.

Cultivation:    Easily grown in any moderately good garden soil that is well-drained. Easily grown in a moist or shady border. Prefers a soil rich in organic matter. Prefers a base rich soil. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus, especially with G. urbanum. There are some named varieties selected for their ornamental value

Propagation : Seed – sow spring or autumn in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer’ Division in spring or autumn. This should be done every 3 – 4 years in order to maintain the vigour of the plant. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.

Medicinal Action and Uses: Antidiarrhoeal;  Antiinflammatory;  Antiseptic;  Aromatic;  AstringentDiaphoreticFebrifuge;  Stomachic;  Styptic;  Tonic. The root is anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, aromatic, astringent, diaphoretic, febrifuge, stomachic, styptic and tonic. An infusion is taken internally in the treatment of diarrhoea (and is suitable for children to use), intestinal and stomach complaints, liver disorders etc, it is also applied externally as a wash to various skin afflictions – it is said to remove spots, freckles and eruptions from the face. This plant has similar properties but is less active than the related G. urbanum and so is seldom used medicinally. The root is best harvested in the spring, since at this time it is most fragrant. Much of the fragrance can be lost on drying, so the root should be dried with great care then stored in a cool dry place in an airtight container, being sliced and powdered only when required for use. The root is rich in tannin and is a powerful astringent The Water Avens has similar properties to those of the Common Avens and is employed in the same way, the root having tonic and powerfully astringent action and being beneficial in passive haemorrhage and diarrhoea. In the eastern states of North America (where it is called Indian Chocolate, Cure All and Water Flower) it is much used as a popular remedy in pulmonary consumption, simple dyspepsia and diseases of the bowels consequent on disorders of the stomach, and is valued as a febrifuge and tonic.

Other Uses: Can be used as repelant. The dried root repels moths. Plants are suitable for ground cover when spaced about 30cm apart each way[208]. The cultivar ‘Leonard’s Variety’ is the best for this purpose .

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

 

Resources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geum_rivale

http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/a/avens085.html http://www.luontoportti.com/suomi/en/kukkakasvit/water-avens http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Geum+rivale

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Helianthemum canadense

Botanical Name :Helianthemum canadense (L.) Michx.
Family: Cistaceae
Genus: Helianthemum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malvales
Syn.: Cistus canadensis

Common Names:rock rose, sunrose, or rushrose

Habitat : Helianthemum canadense is native to  Eastern N. America – Maine to Ontario and Wisconsin, south to North Carolina and Mississippi. It grows in  Open woods, clearings and barrens in dry sandy soils

Description:
Helianthemum canadense is a perennial plant growing to 0.4 m (1ft 4in).The leaves are opposite, simple oval, 1–4 cm long and 0.5–2 cm broad, varying from glossy green to tomentose grey-green. The flowers are 2–4 cm diameter, with five petals, white or yellow, occasionally tinged pink; in some species the flowers are bicoloured with a brighter yellow centre to act as a ‘target’ for pollinating insects.

click to see the pictures....

It is hardy to zone 7. It is in flower from May to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects, cleistogamy.

Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Cultivation :   
Requires a light well-drained soil in a sunny open position[200]. Tolerates a pH range from 5.5 to 8.

Propagation:     
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 6 – 8cm with a heel, late summer in a sandy soil in a frame.

Medicinal Uses:
Alterative;  Antiscrophulatic;  Astringent;  Cancer;  Tonic.

Rock rose was once a common botanical medicine in early America, mostly used by the Eclectics at the turn of the last century. Its most prominent modern use is in the homeopathic Balch flower remedies. Rose rose rescue remedy is recommended for fear and panic. The European rockwort, (Cistus Creticus, Linn.) is a source of the gum resin ladanum, and used as an ethical alternative to ambergris in the perfumery industry. The gum resin was once used in medicine as a emmenagogue and stimulant to the mucus membranes in treating coughs and colds.

“Cistus (Rock rose) has been long held in repute as a remedy for scofula and for many disorders.. especially for such persons needing as astringent,tonic, or alternative in cases of diarrhoea, ulcers, syphillis and the like. The prepartion in the Eclectic Materia Medica is Decoctum Heliantemi ”

The dried leaves are alterative, antiscrofulatic, astringent and tonic. A tea made from the leaves is used in the treatment of kidney ailments and sore throats. A strong leaf tea has been used in the treatment of scrofula. It is applied externally to skin diseases and eye infections. It is said that an oil helpful in the treatment of cancer has been obtained from the plant. Some caution is advised since an overdose can cause nausea and vomiting.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Helianthemum+canadense
http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail557.php
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helianthemum

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