Tag Archives: Barbados

Simaruba amara

 

Botanical Name: Simaruba amara
Family: Simaroubaceae
Genus: Simarouba
Species: S. amara
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales

Synonyms: Dysentery Bark. Mountain Damson. Bitter Damson. Slave Wood. Stave Wood. Sumaruppa. Maruba. Quassia Simaruba.

Part Used: Dried root-bark.

Habitat: French Guiana, the Islands of Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and Barbados
Description:
The name given by the founder of the genus was Carib Simarouba, but later writers adopted the present spelling.

The tree is 60 feet or more in height, with many long, crooked branches covered with smooth, greyish bark, leaves 9 to 12 inches long, and flowers growing in small clusters, with rather thick, dull-white petals. The bark is usually found in pieces several feet long, the roots being long, horizontal, and creeping. Very often the outer bark has been removed, when it shows a pale yellowish or pinkish-brown surface. It is odourless, difficult to powder, and intensely bitter. It is usually imported from Jamaica, in bales.

Constituents: Simaruba root-bark contains a bitter principle identical with quassin, a resinous matter, a volatile oil having the odour of benzoin, malic acid, gallic acid in very small proportion, an ammoniacal salt, calcium malate and oxalate, some mineral salts, ferric oxide, silica, ulmin, and lignin.

It readily imparts its virtues at ordinary temperatures to water and alcohol. The infusion is as bitter as the decoction, whichbecomes turbid as it cools.

Medicinal Uses: A bitter tonic. It was first sent from Guiana to France in 1713 as a remedy for dysentery. In the years 1718 and 1725 an epidemic flux prevailed in France, which resisted all the usual medicines. Simaruba was tried with great success, and established its medical character in Europe. It restores the lost tone of the intestines, promotes the secretions, and disposes the patient to sleep. It is only successful in the latter stage of dysentery, when the stomach is not affected. In large doses it produces sickness and vomiting. On account of its difficult pulverization, it is seldom given in substance, the infusion being preferred, but like many bitter tonics, it is now seldom used. From its use, it has been called ‘dysentery bark.’
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simarouba_amara
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/s/simaru50.html

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Lachnanthes tinctoria

Botanical Name: Lachnanthes tinctoria
Family: Haemodoraceae
Tribe: Haemodoreae
Genus: Lachnanthes
Species: L. caroliniana
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Commelinales
Synonyms: Gyrotheca capitata. Gyrotheca tinctoria. Wool Flower. Red Root. Paint Root. Spirit Weed.

Common Names: Carolina redroot or Bloodroot.

Parts Used:   Root, herb.

Habitat: Lachnanthes tinctoria, a plant indigenous to the United States of America, growing in sandy swamps along the Atlantic coast, from Florida to New Jersey and Rhode Island, and also found in Cuba, blossoming from June to September, according to locality.
Description:
Lachnanthes tinctoria is a perennial herb, 1 1/2 to 2 feet high, the upper portion whitewoolly, hence one of its local names: Woolflower. The rhizome is about 1 inch in length and of nearly equal thickness, and bears a large number of long, coarse, somewhat waxy, deep-red roots, yielding a red dye, to which its popular names of Paintroot and Redroot are due.

The leaves are mostly borne in basal rosettes and are somewhat succulent, 1/5 to 3/5 inch wide and reduced to bracts on the upper part of the stem. The flowers are in a close, woolly cyme, the ovary inferior, the perianth sixparted, the sepals narrower than the petals, the stamens three, alternately with the petals on long filaments; the style is solitary, threadlike, its stigma slightly lobed; the fruit, a three-celled, many seeded, rounded capsule…..CLICK &  SEE THE  PICTURES

Constituents: The root yields a fine red dye and a little resin, but so far no analysis determining the nature of its specific constituents has been made: they are, however, quite active, producing a peculiar form of cerebral stimulation or narcosis.

The drug has a somewhat acrid taste, but no odour.

Medicinal Uses:
‘The root,’ says Millspaugh, ‘was esteemedan invigorating tonic by the American aborigines, especially by the Seminole tribe, who use it, it is said, to cause brilliancy and fluency of speech. A tincture of the root has been recommended in typhus and typhoid fevers, pneumonia, severe forms of brain disease,’ rheumatic wry-neck and laryngeal cough.’
The drug is employed for various nervous disorders. A homoeopathic tincture is prepared from the whole fresh plant, while flowering. Doses varying from a few drops of the tincture to a drachm, cause mental exhilaration, followed by ill-humour, vertigo and headache.

The drug Lachnanthes is prepared from the entire plant, but especially from the rhizome and roots of the plant.

Other Uses: Apart from its narcotic uses among the Indians, it has been used in the United States for dyeing purposes.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lachnanthes
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/l/lachna03.html

Senecio vulgaris

Botanical Name: Senecio vulgaris
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Senecioneae
Genus: Senecio
Species: S. vulgaris
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms: (Scotch) Grundy Swallow, Ground Glutton.
(Norfolk) Simson, Sention

Common Names: Vernacular names for Senecio vulgaris in English include old-man-in-the-spring, common groundsel, groundsel, ragwort, grimsel, grinsel, grundsel, simson, birdseed, chickenweed, old-man-of-the-spring, squaw weed, grundy swallow, ground glutton and common butterweed.
Habitat : Senecio vulgaris is considered to be native to Europe, northern Asia, and parts of North Africa. Its further distribution is less clear. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Natural Resources Conservation Service Plants Profile Database considers it to be native to all 50 of the United States of America, Canada, Greenland, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the same USDA through the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) considers it to be native only to parts of Afro-Eurasia. The Integrated Taxonomic Information System Organization (ITIS), a partnership between many United States federal government departments and agenciesstates that the species has been introduced to the 50 United States, and the online journal Flora of North America calls it “probably introduced” to areas north of Mexico. Individual research groups claim it is not native to areas they oversee: Florida, Washington, Wisconsin, Saskatchewan, British Columbia, Missouri. The United States Geological Survey reports that Common Groundsel is exotic to all 50 states and all Canadian provinces with the exception of Georgia, Kentucky, Massachusetts, and Labrador. It is found along roadsides and waste places, it is also a common weed of cultivated land, succeeding on most soils but avoiding shade.

Description:
Senecio vulgaris is an annual plant, the root consisting of numerous white fibres and the round or slightly angular stem, erect, 6 inches to nearly 1 foot in height, often branching at the top, is frequently purple in colour. It is juicy, not woody, and generally smooth, though sometimes bears a little loose, cottony wool. The leaves are oblong, wider and clasping at the base, a dull, deep green colour, much cut into (pinnatifid), with irregular, blunt-toothed or jagged lobes, not unlike the shape of oak leaves. The cylindrical flower-heads, each about 1/4 inch long and 1/8 inch across, are in close terminal clusters or corymbs, the florets yellow and all tubular; the scales surrounding the head and forming the involucre are narrow and black-tipped, with a few small scales at their base. The flowers are succeeded by downy heads of seeds, each seed being crowned by little tufts of hairs, by means of which they are freely dispersed by the winds. Groundsel is in flower all the year round and scatters an enormous amount of seed in its one season of growth, one plant if allowed to seed producing one million others in one year.

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A variety of Senecio vulgaris, named S. radiata (Koch), with minute rays to the outer florets, is found in the Channel Islands.

Cultivation: A common weed of cultivated land, it does not require cultivation. Groundsel is a good food plant for the caterpillars of many butterfly and moth species, and is one of only two species that provide food for cinnabar moth caterpillars. One report states that this plant was formerly cultivated as a food crop for livestock[54]! Since the plant is a cumulative toxin this use is most questionable.

Propagation: Seed – it doesn’t need any encouragement from us.

Edible Uses: Leaves – cooked or raw. The young leaves have been used in many areas as a salad, though this is very inadvisable, see the notes on toxicity at the top of the pag.

Medicinal Uses:
Anthelmintic; Anticonvulsant; Antiscorbutic; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Emmenagogue; Homeopathy; Poultice; Purgative.

Senecio vulgaris has a long history of herbal use and, although not an officinal plant, it is still often used by herbalists. The whole herb is anthelmintic, antiscorbutic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue and purgative. It is often used as a poultice and is said to be useful in treating sickness of the stomach, whilst a weak infusion is used as a simple and easy purgative. The plant can be harvested in May and dried for later use, or the fresh juice can be extracted and used as required. Use with caution. This plant should not be used by pregnant women, see also the notes above on toxicity. A homeopathic remedy is made from the plant. It is used in the treatment of menstrual disorders and nose bleeds.
Known Hazards: All parts of the plant are poisonous to many mammals, including humans. The toxin affects the liver and has a cumulative affect. Some mammals, such as rabbits, do not seem to be harmed by the plant, and will often seek it out. Various birds also eat the leaves and seeds.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senecio_vulgaris
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/g/grocom41.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Senecio+vulgaris

Caesalpinia pulcherrima

Botanical Name : Caesalpinia pulcherrima
Family: Fabaceae
Genus: Caesalpinia
Species: C. pulcherrima
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales

Synonym : Poinciana pulcherrima, Poinciana bijuga.

Common Names :Poinciana, Peacock Flower, Red Bird of Paradise, Mexican Bird of Paradise, Dwarf Poinciana, Pride of Barbados, and flamboyan-de-jardin. Pride of Barbados, dwarf poinciana, red bird of paradise, krere – krere, Barbados flower – fence, pearock flower, tabachin, tabaquin.

Common names for this species in other languages include:-

Bengali: Radhachura and maybe also Krishnachura   (though this usually refers to Delonix regia)
Hindi: Guletura
Filipino: Caballer:
Spanish: Flamboyan
 Kannada: Kenjige
Konkani: Ratnagandhi Phoolor “meshae phool”
Malayalam: Settimandaram or Rajamalli
Manipuri: Krishnachura
Marathi: Sankasur
Oriya: Krushnachuda
Sanskrit: Sidhakya
 Tamil: Mayirkonrai; Nazhal
Telugu: Ratnagandhi

Sranantongo: Krere-krere
Vietnamese: Kim ph??ng
Sinhalese: Monara pila

Habitat :Caesalpinia pulcherrima is native to West Indies; common throughout Sonoran deserts, naturalized in Texas. It is the national flower of the Caribbean island of Barbados, and is depicted on the Queen’s personal Barbadian flag.

Description:
Pride of Barbados is a small evergreen perennial shrub or tree, from the West Indies, 10 – 15 feet high with alternate, bipinnate leaves. The stem and branches are armed with spines. The red, orange, yellow and pink flowers grow at the end of the prickly branches.
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This small, graceful tree flowers throughout the year and is a beautiful garden plant.
Pride of Barbados has beautiful bowl – shaped flowers in the colors red, orange, orange – red and yellow.
The yellow variety is often called yellow bird of paradise.
The fruits are legumes, 3 – 4″ long; when ripe they split open and release the brown bean.
The variety of pride of Barbados with red flowers is also called red bird of paradise, while the yellow species is called phoenix bird of paradise.
Closely related is the Yellow bird of paradise (Caesalpinnia gilliesii) which has yellow flowers with long red stamens.

The leaves are bipinnate, 20–40 cm long, bearing 3-10 pairs of pinnae, each with 6-10 pairs of leaflets 15–25 mm long and 10–15 mm broad. The flowers are borne in racemes up to 20 cm long, each flower with five yellow, orange or red petals. The fruit is a pod 6–12 cm long.
Leaves: bipinnately compound, fern-like, many 3/4in leaflets; normally bright green turning red in winter, sometimes leafless in winter
Flowers: distinctive panicle of bright blooms; flowers are red, orange and yellow with long red stamens; on terminal ends of branches in summer
Fruit: hard brownish pod, 2.5in long, thin and flat, twists when drying, explosively dehiscent, poisonous
USDA zone : 8 – 11.

Propagation :  Seeds and cuttings (For details about germination, go to ISHS).

Medicinal Uses:
Medicine men in the Amazon Rainforest have long known some of the medicinal uses for Caesalpinia pulcherrima, which is known as ayoowiri. Four grams from the root is also said to induce abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy.

Traditionally the seed has been used as a liver tonic.  In Latin America: for ‘irritacion”, an infantile disease characterized by fever, swollen belly, cold hands and feet, perspiration, and diarrhea—squeeze a large double handful of leaves in 1 gallon of hot water and allow to soak in sun all day; bathe infant with this warm sun tea for 3 nights and give ¼ cup to drink after each bath.

For both children and adults suffering from “tristesa”—sadness and grief—bathe in this mixture.  A methyl alchohol extract of the dried bark of Bird of Paradise flower was shown to have in vitro activity against Staphylococcus aureus and a water extract of the fresh leaves was shown to have strong in vitro antifungal activity against Ustilago maydis and Ustilago nuda, both plant pathogens.  A methanol extract of dried root bark was shown to have in vitro activity against Staphylococcus aueus and Escherichia coli.  An ethanol-chloroform extract of fresh seed pods was shown to have tumor promoting effect (94% enhancement of sarcoma HS1 tumor) in mice.

Other Uses:
OrnamentalC. pulcherrima is the most widely cultivated species in the genus Caesalpinia. It is a striking ornamental plant, widely grown in domestic and public gardens and has a beautiful inflorescence in yellow, red and orange. Its small size and the fact that it tolerates pruning well allows it to be planted in groups to form a hedgerow; it can be also used to attract hummingbirds

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caesalpinia_pulcherrima
http://www.tropilab.com/caesal-pul.html
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_AB.htm

http://ag.arizona.edu/pima/gardening/aridplants/Caesalpinia_pulcherrima.html

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Grapefruit

 

Orange blossom and oranges. Taken by Ellen Lev...
Image via Wikipedia

Botanical Name:Citrus paradisi
Family: Rutceae
Genus: Citrus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales
Species: C. × paradisi

Common Name : Grapefruit

Other Names:Citrus grandis, Pomelo, Mahanimbu,  Batabi limbu  in bengali

Habitat :  Grapefruit  is native to tropical   &  subtropical  regions of the world.

The grapefruit is a sub-tropical citrus tree grown for its fruit which was originally named the “forbidden fruit” of Barbados.

Description:The grapefruit tree reaches 15 to 20 ft (4.5-6 m) or even 45 ft (13.7 m) with age, has a rounded top of spreading branches; the trunk may exceed 6 in (15 cm) in diameter; that of a very old tree actually attained nearly 8 ft (2.4 m) in circumference. The twigs normally bear short, supple thorns. The evergreen leaves are ovate, 3 to 6 in (7.5-15 cm) long, and 1 3/4 to 3 in (4.5-7.5 cm) wide; dark-green above, lighter beneath, with minute, rounded teeth on the margins, and dotted with tiny oil glands; the petiole has broad, oblanceolate or obovate wings. The white, 4-petalled flowers, are 1 3/4 to 2 in (4.5-5 cm) across and borne singly or in clusters in the leaf axils. The fruit is nearly round or oblate to slightly pear-shaped, 4 to 6 in (10-15 cm) wide with smooth, finely dotted peel, up to 3/8 in (1 cm) thick, pale-lemon, sometimes blushed with pink, and aromatic outwardly; white, spongy and bitter inside. The center may be solid or semi-hollow. The pale-yellow, nearly whitish, or pink, or even deep-red pulp is in 11 to 14 segments with thin, membranous, somewhat bitter walls; very juicy, acid to sweet-acid in flavor when fully ripe. While some fruits are seedless or nearly so, there may be up to 90 white, elliptical, pointed seeds about 1/2 in (1.25 cm) in length. Unlike those of the pummelo, grapefruit seeds are usually polyembryonic. The number of fruits in a cluster varies greatly; a dozen is unusual but there have been as many as 20.
These evergreen trees are usually found at around 5-6 m tall, although they can reach 13-15 m. The leaves are dark green, long (up to 150 mm) and thin. It produces 5 cm white four-petalled flowers. The fruit is yellow-skinned, largely oblate and ranges in diameter from 10-15 cm . The flesh is segmented and acidic, varying in color depending on the cultivars, which include white, pink and red pulps of varying sweetness. The 1929 US Ruby Red (of the Redblush variety) has the first grapefruit patent.

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The fruit has only become popular from the late 19th century; before that it was only grown as an ornamental plant. The US quickly became a major producer of the fruit, with orchards in Florida, Texas, Arizona, and California. In Spanish, the fruit is known as toronja or pomelo.

Click to learn more about Grapefruit

History:
The fruit was first documented in 1750 by the Rev. Griffith Hughes describing specimens from Barbados. Currently, the grapefruit is said to be one of the “Seven Wonders of Barbados.” It had developed as a hybrid of the pomelo (Citrus maxima) with the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), though it is closer to the former. It was brought to Florida by Odette Philippe in 1823. Further crosses have produced the tangelo (1905), the minneola (1931), and the sweetie (1984). The sweetie has very small genetic and other differences from pomelo.

The grapefruit was known as the shaddock or shattuck until the 1800s. Its current name alludes to clusters of the fruit on the tree, which often appear similar to grapes. Botanically, it was not distinguished from the pomelo until the 1830s, when it was given the name Citrus paradisi. Its true origins were not determined until the 1940s. This led to the official name being altered to Citrus × paradisi. Grapefruit peel oil is used in aromatherapy and it is historically known for its aromatic scent.

The 1929 Ruby Red patent was associated with real commercial success, which came after the discovery of a red grapefruit growing on a pink variety. Only with Ruby Red the grapefruit transformed into a real agricultural fruit. The Red grapefruit, starting from the Ruby Red, has even become a symbol fruit of Texas, where white “inferior” grapefruit were eliminated and only red grapefruit were grown for decades. Using radiation to trigger mutations, new varieties were developed to retain the red tones which typically faded to pink, with Rio Red is the current (2007) Texas grapefruit with registered trademarks Rio Star and Ruby-Sweet, also sometimes promoted as “Reddest” and “Texas Choice”.

Colors & Flavors:
Grapefruit comes in many varieties, determinable by color, which is caused by the pigmentation of the fruit in respect of both its state of ripeness and genetic bent. The most popular varieties cultivated today are red, white, and pink hues, referring to the inside, pulp color of the fruit. The family of flavors range from highly acidic and somewhat bitter to sweet and tart. Para-1-menthene-8-thiol, a sulfur-containing terpene, is one of the substances which has a strong influence on the taste and odor of grapefruit, compared with other citrus fruits.

Nutritional properties:
Grapefruit is an excellent source of many nutrients and phytochemicals, for a healthy diet. Grapefruit is a good source of vitamin C,pectin fiber, and the pink and red hues contain the beneficial antioxidant lycopene Studies have shown grapefruit helps lower cholesterol and there is evidence that the seeds have high levels of antioxidant properties. Grapefruit forms a core part of the “grapefruit diet”, the theory being that the fruit’s low glycemic index is able to help the body‘s metabolism burn fat.

Grapefruit seed extract has been claimed to be a strong antimicrobial with proven activity against bacteria and fungi. However, studies have shown the efficacy of grapefruit seed extract as an antimicrobial is not demonstrated. Although GSE is promoted as a highly effective plant-based preservative by some natural personal care manufacturers, studies indicate the universal antimicrobial activity associated with GSE preparations is merely due to contamination with synthetic preservatives.

A 2007 study found a correlation between eating a quarter of grapefruit daily and a 30% increase in risk for breast cancer in post-menopausal women. The study points to the inhibition of CYP3A4 enzyme by grapefruit, which metabolizes estrogen.

Medicinal Value
Grapefruit stimulates the appetite and is used for its digestive, stomachic, antiseptic, tonic, and diuretic qualities.

Grapefruit and Weight Loss Diets
Over the years a number of people have promoted the grapefruit as possessing a unique ability to burn away fat. People following grapefruit diets lose weight because they eat little else-a practice that can lead to nutritional deficiencies.

Grapefruits, however, are a good food to include in a sensible weight-loss diet; a serving contains less than 100 calories, and its high-fiber content satisfies hunger. If you’re trying to lose weight, make grapefruit your first course to help prevent overeating. It’s also an ideal snack food.

Grapefruit and Cholesterol Control
Grapefruits are especially high in pectin, a soluble fiber that helps lower blood cholesterol.

Grapefruit for Cancer Control
Recent studies indicate that grapefruits contain substances that are useful in preventing several diseases. Pink and red grapefruits are high in lycopene, an antioxidant that appears to lower the risk of prostate cancer. Researchers have not yet identified lycopene’s mechanism of action, but a 6-year Harvard study involving 48,000 doctors and other health professionals has linked 10 servings of lycopene-rich foods a week with a 50 percent reduction in prostate cancer.

Other protective plant chemicals found in grapefruits include phenolic acid, which inhibits the formation of cancer-causing nitrosamines; limonoids, terpenes, and monoterpenes, which induce the production of enzymes that help prevent cancer; and bioflavonoids, which inhibit the action of hormones that promote tumor growth.

Ayurvedic Uses:Vata-kaphha nashak, mild laxative, digestive, appetiser, loss of appetite, abdominal colic, worms, vomiting, nausea.

Other Uses of Grapefruit
Some people with rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and other inflammatory disorders find that eating grapefruit daily seems to alleviate their symptoms. This is thought to stem from plant chemicals that block Prostaglandins, substances that cause inflammation.

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Medicinal Use of Citrus

Grape Fruit  is Very Good for Gums

Click to see ->Grapefruit diet

Drug interactions:
Grapefruit can have a number of interactions with drugs, often increasing the effective potency of compounds. Grapefruit contains naringin, bergamottin and dihydroxybergamottin, which inhibit the cytochrome P450 isoform CYP3A4 in the intestine. It is via inhibition of this enzyme that grapefruit increases the effects of buspirone (Buspar), carbamazepine, several statin drugs (such as simvastatin), terfenadine, felodipine, nifedipine, verapamil, estradiol, tacrolimus, dextromethorphan (significant only at recreational doses), benzodiazepines, and ciclosporin. The effect of grapefruit juice with regard to drug absorption was originally discovered in 1989. However, the effect became well-publicized after being responsible for a number of deaths due to overdosing on medication.

Safety :-
People who are allergic to citrus fruits are likely to react to grapefruits, too. The sensitivity may be to the fruit itself or to an oil in the peel.

CLICK & SEE  :->  Grapefruit raises breast cancer risk   

Click & see : Grapefruit Juice Dangers Q&A

Interactions With Drugs and Medicines:-

Grapefruit has serious interactions with many commonly prescribed medications.

Grapefruit juice inhibits a special enzyme in the intestines that is responsible for the natural breakdown and absorption of many medications. When the action of this enzyme is blocked, the blood levels of these medications increase, which can lead to toxic side effects from the medications.

Grapefruit juice research has suggested that flavonoids and/or furanocoumarin compounds are the substances that act to block the enzyme in the intestines that normally metabolizes many drugs.

The grapefruit juice-drug interaction can lead to unpredictable and hazardous levels of certain important drugs.

These medications should not be consumed with grapefruit juice  unless advised by a doctor:

Statins (Cholesterol Lowering Drugs):

* Baycol (Cerivastatin)

* Mevacor (Lovastatin)

*Lipitor (Atorvastatin)

*Zocor (Simvastatin)

Antihistamines:

*Ebastine

*Seldane (Terfenadine, taken off the U.S. market)

Calcium Channel Blockers (Blood Pressure Drugs):

*Nimotop (Nimodipine)

*Nitrendipine

*Plendil (Felodipine)

* Pranidipine

*Sular (Nisoldipine)

Psychiatric Medications:

*Buspar (Buspirone)

*Halcion (Triazolam)

*Tegretol (Carbamazepine)

* Valium (Diazepam)

* Versed (Midazolam)

Intestinal Medications:

Propulsid (Cisapride, taken off the U.S. market)

*Immune Suppressants:

* Neoral (Cyclosporine)

* Prograf (Tacrolimus)

*Pain Medications:

*Methadone

*Impotence Drug:

*Viagra (Sildenafil)

Toxic blood levels of these medications can occur when patients taking them consume grapefruit juice. The high blood levels of the medications can cause damage to organs or impair their normal function, which can be dangerous.


The following drugs may potentially have interactions with grapefruit juice, but this potential has not been scientifically studied. Use caution:

*Amiodarone (CordaroneÒ)

* Cilostazol (PletalÒ)

*Donepezil (AriceptÒ)

* Losartan (CozaarÒ)

*Montelukast (SingulairÒ)

*Pimozide (OrapÒ)

*Quetiapine (SeroquelÒ)

*Sildenafil (ViagraÒ)

* Tamoxifen (NolvadexÒ)

*Tamsulosin (FlomaxÒ)

Related Topic: Interactions of Grapefruit with Medications For a detailed description of how grapefruit affects the metabolism of prescription drugs.

Click to see-> List of drugs affected by grapefruit

Click to read:->Grapefruit ‘may cut gum disease’:Grapefruit heals stomach ulcers :

Grapefruit may help weight loss

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grapefruit

http://www.holisticonline.com/Herbal-Med/_Herbs/h_grapefruit.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_herbs_and_minerals_in_Ayurveda

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