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Allium neapolitanum

Botanical Name: Allium neapolitanum
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Tribe: Allieae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. neapolitanum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms:
*Allium album Santi
*Allium amblyopetalum Link
*Allium candidissimum Cav.
*Allium candidum C.Presl
*Allium cowanii Lindl.

Common Names: Neapolitan Garlic, Naples Garlic, Daffodil Garlic, False Garlic, Flowering Onion, Naples Onion, Guernsey Star-of-Bethlehem, Star, White Garlic, Wood Garlic.
Habitat : Allium neapolitanum is native to Europe – Mediterranean area in Europe, Africa and W. Asia.It is naturalized in other areas, including Pakistan, Australia, New Zealand, and in southern and western parts of the United States. It is classed as an invasive species in parts of the U.S., and is found primarily in the U.S. states of California, Texas, Louisiana, and Florida. It grows on dry grassy places and fields.
Description:
Allium neapolitanum is a BULB growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in). Plant is a perennial type. The leaves which are not very attractive which also wither back qoickly after flowering. It is not frost tender. It is in leaf 7-Oct It is in flower from Mar to May, and the seeds ripen from May to June.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Cultivation:
An easily grown plant, it prefers a sheltered sunny position in a light well-drained soil. Established plants are reasonably drought tolerant. Plants are said to be rather frost tender. They probably tolerate temperatures down to between -5 and -10°c and can only be grown outdoors in the milder areas of the country. The dormant bulbs are fairly hardy and will withstand soil temperatures down to at least -5°c. The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply. Most members of this genus are intolerant of competition from other growing plants. A very ornamental plant, it is sometimes grown as a decorative indoor plant. There is at least one named variety, ‘Grandiflorum’ has a richer display of flowers than the type. In sunny weather the flowers develop a sweet scent. Plants come into new growth in late autumn and provide edible leaves throughout most winters. When well-sited, plants can sometimes self-sow to the point of nuisance. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse. The seed can also be sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in early summer. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle – if you want to produce clumps more quickly then put three plants in each pot. Grow on for the first winter in a greenhouse and plant out in late summer whilst the bulbs are dormant. Division in summer once the plant has died down. Very easy, the bulbs divide freely and can be planted straight out into their permanent positions if required.
Edible Uses:
Leaves – raw or cooked. Delicious in salads, they start off being sweet and then develop a fairly strong garlic-like flavour, they are liked by most people who try them. The leaves are available from late autumn until early spring and are greatly appreciated at this time of year. Bulb – raw or cooked. Rather small but a very nice mild garlic flavour. Sliced up, they make a delicious addition to salads and can also be used as a vegetable or as a flavouring in cooked foods. They are harvested in mid summer once the plant dies down and will store for 6 months or more. The bulbs are 10 – 20mm in diameter. Flowers – raw or cooked. Excellent in salads, making them look attractive as well as adding a strong onion flavour.
Medicinal Uses:
Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.
Other Uses:
Repellent.

The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent. The whole plant is said to repel insects and moles
Known Hazards : Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals, of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible[

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allium_neapolitanum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?latinname=Allium+neapolitanum
https://www.gardenia.net/plant/allium-neapolitanum-ornamental-onion

Allium macleanii

Botanical Name: Allium macleanii
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Tribe: Allieae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. macleanii
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms: A. elatum. Regel.

Habitat : Allium macleanii is native to W. Asia – Afghanistan. It is found at high elevations in Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan, Nepal, Tajikistan, and northern India. It grows in gentle slopes at low altitudes to 1200 metres.

Description:
Allium macleanii is a perennial herb up to 100 cm tall, with a spherical umbel up to 7 cm in diameter. The umbel is crowded with many purple flowers. It is in flower from Jun to July.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
An easily grown plant, it prefers a sunny position in a light well-drained soil[1, 90, 203]. Dislikes dry soils. Plants are not very hardy in Britain, succeeding outdoors in the milder areas of the country and probably tolerating temperatures down to between -5 and -10°c. This species is closely related to A. giganteum. The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply. Most members of this genus are intolerant of competition from other growing plants. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle – if you want to produce clumps more quickly then put three plants in each pot. Grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter and plant them out into their permanent positions in spring once they are growing vigorously and are large enough. Division in spring. The plants divide successfully at any time in the growing season, pot up the divisions in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are growing well and then plant them out into their permanent positions.

Edible Uses:
Bulb – raw or cooked. An onion substitute, it can be sliced and added to salads, cooked as a vegetable, or added as a flavouring to cooked foods. The bulbs are 2 – 6 cm in diameter. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.

Medicinal Uses:
Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.
Other Uses: The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent. The whole plant is said to repel insects and moles.

Known Hazards : Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals, of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allium_macleanii
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+macleanii

Linaria canadensis

Botanical Name : Linaria canadensis
Family: Plantaginaceae
Genus: Nuttallanthus
Species: N. canadensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Synonyms: Linaria canadensis (L.) Dumort., Antirrhinum canadense L.; Blue toadflax, Canada toadflax, Old-field toadflax.

Common Name: Blue Toadflax

Habitat : Linaria canadensis is native to eastern North America from Ontario east to Nova Scotia and south to Texas and Florida. It has been introduced to western North America and Europe, and is now locally naturalized, from Washington south to California, and also in Russia. It grows on dry sterile or sandy soils, often a weed in sandy loams.

Description:
It is an annual or biennial plant growing to 25–80 cm tall, with slender, erect flowering stems. The leaves are slender, 15–30 mm long and 1-2.5 mm broad. The flowers are purple to off-white, 10–15 mm long, appearing from mid spring to late summer. It typically grows in bare areas and grassland.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Cultivation:
A very drought resistant plant once established, it thrives in a poor gravelly soil. Nitrogen-rich soils produce excessive leaf growth at the expense of flowering. Prefers a sunny position.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in situ. An autumn sowing can also be made in areas with mild winters. This sowing will produce larger plants.
Medicinal Uses: The leaves are antihaemorrhoidal, diuretic and laxative. They are applied externally in the treatment of haemorrhoids.

Other Uses: Linaria canadensis is grown as an ornamental plant in its native area.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuttallanthus_canadensis
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Linaria+canadensis

Kickxia elatine

Botanical Name : Kickxia elatine
Family: Plantaginaceae
Genus: Kickxia
Species: K. elatine
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Synonyms: Linaria elatine

Common Names: Sharpleaf cancerwort, Sharp-leaved fluellin, Fluellen

Habitat : Kickxia elatine is native to Europe and Asia, but it is present on other continents as an introduced species, and sometimes a noxious weed. It grows on arable land, usually cornfields in light soils.

Description;
Kickxia elatine is an annual hairy herb growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It has trailing stem with many branches. It is in flower from Jul to October. It produces oval to arrowhead-shaped fuzzy leaves at wide intervals along the slender stem, and solitary snapdragon-like flowers borne on long, straight pedicels. Each flower is up to 1.5 centimeters long with a narrow, pointed spur extending from the back. The lobes of the mouth are yellow, white, and purple, and the whole flower is fuzzy to hairy. The fruit is a spherical capsule about 4 millimeters long. It is dry and splits open when ripe.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)The plant is not self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:   Requires a light to medium soil and a sunny position.

Propagation:   Seed – sow spring or autumn in situ[

Medicinal Uses: Haemostatic.
The plant is haemostatic. It is used externally to staunch wounds and bleeding

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kickxia_elatine
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Kickxia+elatine
https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/kickxia/elatine/

Fritillaria pallidiflora

Botanical Name : Fritillaria pallidiflora
Family: Liliaceae
Genus: Fritillaria
Species: F. pallidiflora
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Liliales

Synonymys:
*Fritillaria bolensis G.Z.Zhang & Y.M.Liu
*Fritillaria halabulanica X.Z.Duan & X.J.Zheng
*Fritillaria pallidiflora var. halabulanica (X.Z.Duan & X.J.Zheng) G.J.Liu
*Fritillaria pallidiflora var. plena X.Z.Duan & X.J.Zheng
*Fritillaria pallidiflora var. pluriflora Regel
*Fritillaria pallidiflora var. uniflora Regel

Common Names: Siberian fritillary, Pale-Flowered Fritillary
Habitat : Fritillaria pallidiflora is native to E. Asia – China to E. Siberia.(Xinjiang, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan) It grows in the Alpine meadows, woods and scrub. Slopes in the sub-alpine zone. Forests, thickets, meadows, grassy slopes, mountain steppes, 1300 – 2500 metres in NW Xinjiang, China.

Description:
Fritillaria pallidiflora is a bulb growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in) It is in flower from May to June. The flowers are yellow, and nodding (hanging downward).

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
One of the best species in this genus for growing outdoors in Britain, it is easily grown in a moderately fertile well-drained soil so long as it is not allowed to dry out. Prefers a rich peaty soil in semi-shade. Another report says that it succeeds outdoors when grown in a bed of river sand and leafmould about 60cm deep. A very ornamental plant. Cultivated for medicinal use in China.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as ripe in a cold frame, it should germinate in the spring. Protect from frost. Stored seed should be sown as soon as possible and can take a year or more to germinate. Sow the seed quite thinly to avoid the need to prick out the seedlings. Once they have germinated, give them an occasional liquid feed to ensure that they do not suffer mineral deficiency. Once they die down at the end of their second growing season, divide up the small bulbs, planting 2 – 3 to an 8cm deep pot. Grow them on for at least another year in light shade in the greenhouse before planting them out whilst dormant. Division of offsets in August. The larger bulbs can be planted out direct into their permanent positions, but it is best to pot up the smaller bulbs and grow them on in a cold frame for a year before planting them out in the autumn. Bulb scales.
Medicinal Uses:
The bulbs are antitussive, expectorant, febrifuge and pectoral. They contain fritimine which lowers blood pressure, diminishes excitability of respiratory centres, paralyses voluntary movement and counters effects of opium. An infusion of the dried powdered bulb is used internally in the treatment of coughs, bronchitis, pneumonia, feverish illnesses, abscesses etc. The bulbs also have a folk history of use against cancer of the breast and lungs in China. This remedy should only be used under the supervision of a qualified practitioner, excessive doses can cause breathing difficulties and heart failure. The bulbs are harvested in the winter whilst they are dormant and are dried for later use.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritillaria_pallidiflora
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Fritillaria+pallidiflora

Astragalus hamosus

Botanical Name: Astragalus hamosus
Family : Fabaceae
Subfamily : Faboideae
Tribe : Galegeae
United : Plantae
Division : magnoliophyta
Class : magnoliopsida
Subclass: Rosidae
Order : Fabales

Common Name : European milkvetch
Habitat : Astragalus hamosus is native to EuropeMediterranean to Armenia, Ukraine and the Caucasus. It grows on the dry grassland. Semidesert areas in foothills and the low montane belt, on clay, loess, sand and rock debris.

Description:
Astragalus hamosus is an annual herbiculas plant growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in). The lives in dry fields and meadows terofíticos . It branches from the base but branches are applied to the soil. The leaves have many leaflets , but less and are smaller than in Astragalus boeticus .
It is in flower from May to July, and the seeds ripen from Jul to September.

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The flowers are white, are grouped at the end of a stalk . The fruits perfectly characterize this species as they are strongly curved, they are similar to some fishhooks. It blooms in the spring and the seeds ripen from Jul to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, lepidIt is in flower from May to July, and the seeds ripen from Jul to September. optera.It can fix Nitrogen.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry soil.
Cultivation:
Requires a dry well-drained soil in a sunny position. Grows well in Cornwall. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance and are best sown in situ. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby. When removing plant remains at the end of the growing season, it is best to only remove the aerial parts of the plant, leaving the roots in the ground to decay and release their nitrogen. Many members of this genus can be difficult to grow, this may be due partly to a lack of their specific bacterial associations in the soil.

Propagation:
Seed – sow late winter in a greenhouse. Pre-soak the seed for 24 hours in warm water. If any seed does not swell up in this time then carefully prick it with a needle making sure that you do not damage the embryo, and re-soak for a further 24 hours. Germination usually takes place within 3 – 6 weeks at 13°c. As soon as it is large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in early summer.
Edible Uses: Young seedpods – cooked. They quickly become tough and fibrous. The young seedpods are also used in salads. They have only a mediocre taste, but look very much like certain worms and so are used mainly for their novelty value.
Medicinal Uses:
The plant is demulcent, emollient, galactogogue and laxative. It is useful in treating irritation of the mucous membranes, nervous affections and catarrh.

Known Hazards: Many members of this genus contain toxic glycosides. All species with edible seedpods can be distinguished by their fleshy round or oval seedpod that looks somewhat like a greengage. A number of species can also accumulate toxic levels of selenium when grown in soils that are relatively rich in that element.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Astragalus+hamosus
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astragalus_hamosus

Picea jezoensis

Botanical Name: Picea jezoensis
Family: Pinaceae
Genus: Picea
Species: P. jezoensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales

Synonym(s):
*Abies jezoensis Siebold & Zucc.
*Abies microsperma Lindl.
*Picea ajanensis Fisch.
*Veitchia japonica Lindl

Common Names: Yezo Spruce, Yeddo Spruce

Habitat : Picea jezoensis is native to northeast Asia, from the mountains of central Japan and the Changbai Mountains on the China-North Korea border, north to eastern Siberia, including the Sikhote-Alin, Kuril Islands, Sakhalin and Kamchatka. It is found in cold but humid temperate rain forests, and nowhere does its range extend more than 400 km from the Pacific Ocean.
Description:
Picea jezoensis is an evergreen Tree growing to 35 m (114ft 10in) at a medium rate. The bark is thin and scaly, becoming fissured in old trees. The crown is broad conic. The shoots are pale buff-brown, glabrous (hairless) but with prominent pulvini. The leaves are needle-like, 15-20 mm long, 2 mm broad, flattened in cross-section, dark green above with no stomata, and blue-white to white below with two dense bands of stomata.

The cones are pendulous, slender cylindrical, 4-7 cm long and 2 cm broad when closed, opening to 3 cm broad. They have thin, flexible scales 12-18 mm long. They are green or reddish, maturing pale brown 5–6 months after pollination. The seeds are black, 3 mm long, with a slender, 6-8 mm long pale brown wing.
It is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils and can grow in very acid soils.

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It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure. It cannot tolerate atmospheric pollution.
Cultivation:
Likes abundant moisture at the roots, if grown in drier areas it must be given a deep moist soil. Tolerates poor peaty soils. Succeeds in wet cold and shallow soils but is not very wind-firm in shallow soils. Prefers a pH between 4 to 6. Dislikes shade. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution. Resists wind exposure to some degree. This species is not very successful in Britain. Whilst it is very cold-hardy when dormant, it comes into new growth too early in the spring and this growth is often cut back by late frosts. The few trees that can be found are stunted and poor due to repeated frost damage. The sub-species P. jezoensis hondoensis. (Mayr.)Rehder. is much more successful, it shows remarkably consistent growth in all parts of the country. Though not of the fastest, older trees average 40cm increase a year. Increase in girth is more rapid, 4cm a year is common. In some upland areas, especially over granitic or other base-poor soils, growth rate and health have been seriously affected by aluminium poisoning induced by acid rain. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance.

Propagation:
Seed – stratification will probably improve germination so sow fresh seed in the autumn in a cold frame if possible. Sow stored seed as early in the year as possible in a cold frame. A position in light shade is probably best. Seed should not be allowed to dry out and should be stored in a cool place. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter. They can be planted out into their permanent positions in early summer of the following year, or be placed in an outdoor nursery bed for a year or so to increase in size. They might need protection from spring frosts. Cuttings of semi-ripe terminal shoots, 5 – 8cm long, August in a frame. Protect from frost. Forms roots in the spring. Cuttings of mature terminal shoots, 5 – 10cm long, September/October in a cold frame. Takes 12 months. Cuttings of soft to semi-ripe wood, early summer in a frame. Slow but sure.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Flowers; Inner bark; Seed.

Young male catkins – raw or cooked. Used as a flavouring. Immature female cones – cooked. The central portion, when roasted, is sweet and syrupy. Inner bark – dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread. An emergency food, it is only used when all else fails. Seed – raw. Too small and fiddly to be worthwhile unless you are desperate. A refreshing tea, rich in vitamin C, can be made from the young shoot tips.
Medicinal Uses:

Vulnerary.

Cancer chemopreventive agents, serratane-type triterpenoids from Picea jezoensis :

Other Uses :
Essential; Resin; Tannin; Wood.

A resin obtained from the trunk of the tree is used medicinally. Tannin is obtained from the bark. An essential oil is obained from the leaves. Wood – soft, light, elastic, flexible. Used for interior finishes, furniture etc. It is also valued for its use in the pulp industry to make paper. The timber is used for construction, machines, poles, furniture, and wood.

Jezo spruce is important in the Russian Far East and northern Japan, for timber and paper production. Much of what is cut is harvested unsustainably (and often illegally) from pristine natural forests.

It is also occasionally planted as an ornamental tree in large gardens.

The Ainu string instrument called tonkori has a body made from Jezo Spruce.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Picea_jezoensis
http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/42325/0
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Picea+jezoensis

Betula ermanii

Botanical Name: Betula ermanii
Family:
 Betulaceae
Genus: 
Betula
Subgenus:
 Neurobetula
Species: 
B. ermanii
Kingdom: 
Plantae
Order: 
Fagales

Synonyms : B. incisa. B. shikokiana.

Common Names: Erman’s birch,Gold Birch

Habitat: Betula ermanii is native to N.E. Asia – China, Japan. It is an extremely variable species and can be found in Northeast China, Korea, Japan, and Russian Far East (Kuril Islands, Sakhalin, Kamchatka).It grows on mountains all over Japan.

Description:
Betula ermanii is a bushy deciduous medium-sized Tree growing to 25 m (82ft) by 5 m (16ft) at a fast rate. Sometimes it is multi-stemmed, with peeling cream bark on the trunk, papery brown bark on the branches; coarsely toothed, ovate leaves turn yellow in autumn; male catkins open with the leaves.

It is not frost tender. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in September. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.

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Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Succeeds in a well-drained loamy soil in a sheltered position. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Dislikes wet soils. Shade tolerant. A very polymorphic species, it hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. The young growth in spring is subject to damage by late frosts. A colonizer of poor soils and cleared woodlands, it tolerates very poor soils. Trees are notably susceptible to honey fungus.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a light position in a cold frame. Only just cover the seed and place the pot in a sunny position. Spring sown seed should be surface sown in a sunny position in a cold frame. If the germination is poor, raising the temperature by covering the seed with glass can help. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. If you have sufficient seed, it can be sown in an outdoor seedbed, either as soon as it is ripe or in the early spring – do not cover the spring sown seed. Grow the plants on in the seedbed for 2 years before planting them out into their permanent positions in the winter.

Medicinal Uses:…Vulnerary. The bark is used to bandage wounds.

Other Uses:
The tree colonizes poor soils and cleared woodlands in the wild. This makes it suitable for use as a pioneer species for re-establishing woodlands. It is a quite short-lived species, but grows fairly quickly and creates suitable conditions for more permanent trees to become established. Because its seedlings do not grow well in shady conditions, the birch is eventually out-competed by the other woodland trees.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betula_ermanii
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Betula+ermanii
https://www.rhs.org.uk/Plants/2242/i-Betula-ermanii-i/Details?returnurl=%2Fplants%2Ftrees%3Faliaspath%3D%252fplants%252ftrees

Anabasis aphylla

Botanical Name : Anabasis aphylla
Family: Amaranthaceae
Subfamily:Salsoloideae
Tribe: Salsoleae
Genus: Anabasis
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:Caryophyllales

Habitat :Anabasis aphylla is native to Europe – Russia to Siberia and northern China. It grows in the gobi desert, inter-dunes, gravelly alluvial fans, sometimes on arid slopes.

Description:
Anabasis aphylla is a perennial herb, growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is in flower from Aug to September, and the seeds ripen in October. It is a low, branching semishrub with tiny, scalelike, opposite leaves; the flowers are spikelike inflorescences. The fruit is berry-shaped and has yellowish or pink winglike appendages. It grows in the saline and clayey deserts and semideserts of Southeast, Middle, and Central Asia and also in the southern European part of the USSR, the Caucasus, and Southern Siberia. The young, green branchlets of A. aphylla contain alkaloids, most importantly anabasine, an effective agent for control of insect pests in agriculture; anabasine is also the raw material for obtaining nicotinic acid, or niacin…...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native habitat it is likely to succeed at least in the milder parts of the country, particularly the drier areas. It is likely to prefer a well-drained soil and a sunny position.

Propagation : Seed –

Medicinal Uses:…The plant is used medicinally. No more information is given.

Other Uses:….Insecticide; Miscellany; Soil stabilization.

The annual branches contain the alkaloid anabasine (C10H14N2), a botanical insecticide. The plant is used for stabilizing sand dunes

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anabasis_(plant)
http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Anabasis+Aphylla
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Anabasis+aphylla

Carex arenaria

Botanical Name : Carex arenaria
Family: Cyperaceae
Genus: Carex
Subgenus:C. subg. Vignea
Section:C. sect. Ammoglochin
Species:C. arenaria
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Poales

Synonyms: C. spadicea.

Common Names: Sand sedge

Habitat :Carex arenaria is native to Coastal areas of Europe, including Britain, the Black Sea, Siberia and N. America. It grows on sandy sea shores, especially on fixed dunes and wind-blown sand.

Description:
Carex arenaria is a perennial plant, growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) by 2 m (6ft) at a fast rate.
It is in flower from Jun to July, and the seeds ripen from Jul to August. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Best grown in a sandy soil in a sunny position. Tolerates maritime exposure. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation:
Seed – sow in situ in the spring in a moist soil in light shade. If seed is in short supply it can be sown in a cold frame and be planted out in the summer. The seed usually germinates in 2 – 6 weeks at 15°c. Division in spring. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer or following spring.

Edible Uses: ….Root – cooked. Seed. No further details are given, but the seed is small and fiddly to use.
Medicinal Uses:

Antiflatulent; Antirheumatic; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Hypoglycaemic; TB.

The root is diaphoretic and diuretic. An infusion has been used in the treatment of bronchitis and catarrhs, abdominal and stomach disorders, liver complaints, arthritis and rheumatism and skin conditions such as eczema and pruritus. It has been used as a substitute for the tropical plant sarsaparilla. The root is harvested in the spring and dried for later use.

The rootstock of the sand sedge is also referred to as German sarsaparilla because it has a similar effect to the Central American smilax derived from Radix Sarsparillae. It was used as a diuretic as well as a blood purifier for bronchitis, gout and rheumatism. An infusion has been used in the treatment of abdominal and stomach disorders, liver complaints, and skin conditions such as eczema and pruritus.

Other Uses:…Soil stabilization…..The long creeping rootstock is valuable for binding sandy soils

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carex_arenaria
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Carex+arenaria
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm