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Allium neapolitanum

Botanical Name: Allium neapolitanum
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Tribe: Allieae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. neapolitanum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms:
*Allium album Santi
*Allium amblyopetalum Link
*Allium candidissimum Cav.
*Allium candidum C.Presl
*Allium cowanii Lindl.

Common Names: Neapolitan Garlic, Naples Garlic, Daffodil Garlic, False Garlic, Flowering Onion, Naples Onion, Guernsey Star-of-Bethlehem, Star, White Garlic, Wood Garlic.
Habitat : Allium neapolitanum is native to Europe – Mediterranean area in Europe, Africa and W. Asia.It is naturalized in other areas, including Pakistan, Australia, New Zealand, and in southern and western parts of the United States. It is classed as an invasive species in parts of the U.S., and is found primarily in the U.S. states of California, Texas, Louisiana, and Florida. It grows on dry grassy places and fields.
Description:
Allium neapolitanum is a BULB growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in). Plant is a perennial type. The leaves which are not very attractive which also wither back qoickly after flowering. It is not frost tender. It is in leaf 7-Oct It is in flower from Mar to May, and the seeds ripen from May to June.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Cultivation:
An easily grown plant, it prefers a sheltered sunny position in a light well-drained soil. Established plants are reasonably drought tolerant. Plants are said to be rather frost tender. They probably tolerate temperatures down to between -5 and -10°c and can only be grown outdoors in the milder areas of the country. The dormant bulbs are fairly hardy and will withstand soil temperatures down to at least -5°c. The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply. Most members of this genus are intolerant of competition from other growing plants. A very ornamental plant, it is sometimes grown as a decorative indoor plant. There is at least one named variety, ‘Grandiflorum’ has a richer display of flowers than the type. In sunny weather the flowers develop a sweet scent. Plants come into new growth in late autumn and provide edible leaves throughout most winters. When well-sited, plants can sometimes self-sow to the point of nuisance. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse. The seed can also be sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in early summer. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle – if you want to produce clumps more quickly then put three plants in each pot. Grow on for the first winter in a greenhouse and plant out in late summer whilst the bulbs are dormant. Division in summer once the plant has died down. Very easy, the bulbs divide freely and can be planted straight out into their permanent positions if required.
Edible Uses:
Leaves – raw or cooked. Delicious in salads, they start off being sweet and then develop a fairly strong garlic-like flavour, they are liked by most people who try them. The leaves are available from late autumn until early spring and are greatly appreciated at this time of year. Bulb – raw or cooked. Rather small but a very nice mild garlic flavour. Sliced up, they make a delicious addition to salads and can also be used as a vegetable or as a flavouring in cooked foods. They are harvested in mid summer once the plant dies down and will store for 6 months or more. The bulbs are 10 – 20mm in diameter. Flowers – raw or cooked. Excellent in salads, making them look attractive as well as adding a strong onion flavour.
Medicinal Uses:
Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.
Other Uses:
Repellent.

The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent. The whole plant is said to repel insects and moles
Known Hazards : Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals, of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible[

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allium_neapolitanum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?latinname=Allium+neapolitanum
https://www.gardenia.net/plant/allium-neapolitanum-ornamental-onion

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Allium macleanii

Botanical Name: Allium macleanii
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Tribe: Allieae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. macleanii
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms: A. elatum. Regel.

Common Names: Wild Onion

Habitat : Allium macleanii is native to W. Asia – Afghanistan. It is found at high elevations in Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan, Nepal, Tajikistan, and northern India. It grows in gentle slopes at low altitudes to 1200 metres.

Description:
Allium macleanii is a perennial herb up to 100 cm tall, with a spherical umbel up to 7 cm in diameter. The umbel is crowded with many purple flowers. It is in flower from Jun to July.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
An easily grown plant, it prefers a sunny position in a light well-drained soil[1, 90, 203]. Dislikes dry soils. Plants are not very hardy in Britain, succeeding outdoors in the milder areas of the country and probably tolerating temperatures down to between -5 and -10°c. This species is closely related to A. giganteum. The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply. Most members of this genus are intolerant of competition from other growing plants. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle – if you want to produce clumps more quickly then put three plants in each pot. Grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter and plant them out into their permanent positions in spring once they are growing vigorously and are large enough. Division in spring. The plants divide successfully at any time in the growing season, pot up the divisions in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are growing well and then plant them out into their permanent positions.

Edible Uses:
Bulb – raw or cooked. An onion substitute, it can be sliced and added to salads, cooked as a vegetable, or added as a flavouring to cooked foods. The bulbs are 2 – 6 cm in diameter. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.

Medicinal Uses:
Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.
Other Uses: The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent. The whole plant is said to repel insects and moles.

Known Hazards : Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals, of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allium_macleanii
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+macleanii

Linaria canadensis

Botanical Name : Linaria canadensis
Family: Plantaginaceae
Genus: Nuttallanthus
Species: N. canadensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Synonyms: Linaria canadensis (L.) Dumort., Antirrhinum canadense L.; Blue toadflax, Canada toadflax, Old-field toadflax.

Common Name: Blue Toadflax

Habitat : Linaria canadensis is native to eastern North America from Ontario east to Nova Scotia and south to Texas and Florida. It has been introduced to western North America and Europe, and is now locally naturalized, from Washington south to California, and also in Russia. It grows on dry sterile or sandy soils, often a weed in sandy loams.

Description:
It is an annual or biennial plant growing to 25–80 cm tall, with slender, erect flowering stems. The leaves are slender, 15–30 mm long and 1-2.5 mm broad. The flowers are purple to off-white, 10–15 mm long, appearing from mid spring to late summer. It typically grows in bare areas and grassland.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Cultivation:
A very drought resistant plant once established, it thrives in a poor gravelly soil. Nitrogen-rich soils produce excessive leaf growth at the expense of flowering. Prefers a sunny position.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in situ. An autumn sowing can also be made in areas with mild winters. This sowing will produce larger plants.
Medicinal Uses: The leaves are antihaemorrhoidal, diuretic and laxative. They are applied externally in the treatment of haemorrhoids.

Other Uses: Linaria canadensis is grown as an ornamental plant in its native area.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuttallanthus_canadensis
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Linaria+canadensis

Kickxia elatine

Botanical Name : Kickxia elatine
Family: Plantaginaceae
Genus: Kickxia
Species: K. elatine
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Synonyms: Linaria elatine

Common Names: Sharpleaf cancerwort, Sharp-leaved fluellin, Fluellen

Habitat : Kickxia elatine is native to Europe and Asia, but it is present on other continents as an introduced species, and sometimes a noxious weed. It grows on arable land, usually cornfields in light soils.

Description;
Kickxia elatine is an annual hairy herb growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in). It has trailing stem with many branches. It is in flower from Jul to October. It produces oval to arrowhead-shaped fuzzy leaves at wide intervals along the slender stem, and solitary snapdragon-like flowers borne on long, straight pedicels. Each flower is up to 1.5 centimeters long with a narrow, pointed spur extending from the back. The lobes of the mouth are yellow, white, and purple, and the whole flower is fuzzy to hairy. The fruit is a spherical capsule about 4 millimeters long. It is dry and splits open when ripe.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)The plant is not self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:   Requires a light to medium soil and a sunny position.

Propagation:   Seed – sow spring or autumn in situ[

Medicinal Uses: Haemostatic.
The plant is haemostatic. It is used externally to staunch wounds and bleeding

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kickxia_elatine
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Kickxia+elatine
https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/kickxia/elatine/

Fritillaria pallidiflora

Botanical Name : Fritillaria pallidiflora
Family: Liliaceae
Genus: Fritillaria
Species: F. pallidiflora
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Liliales

Synonymys:
*Fritillaria bolensis G.Z.Zhang & Y.M.Liu
*Fritillaria halabulanica X.Z.Duan & X.J.Zheng
*Fritillaria pallidiflora var. halabulanica (X.Z.Duan & X.J.Zheng) G.J.Liu
*Fritillaria pallidiflora var. plena X.Z.Duan & X.J.Zheng
*Fritillaria pallidiflora var. pluriflora Regel
*Fritillaria pallidiflora var. uniflora Regel

Common Names: Siberian fritillary, Pale-Flowered Fritillary
Habitat : Fritillaria pallidiflora is native to E. Asia – China to E. Siberia.(Xinjiang, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan) It grows in the Alpine meadows, woods and scrub. Slopes in the sub-alpine zone. Forests, thickets, meadows, grassy slopes, mountain steppes, 1300 – 2500 metres in NW Xinjiang, China.

Description:
Fritillaria pallidiflora is a bulb growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in) It is in flower from May to June. The flowers are yellow, and nodding (hanging downward).

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
One of the best species in this genus for growing outdoors in Britain, it is easily grown in a moderately fertile well-drained soil so long as it is not allowed to dry out. Prefers a rich peaty soil in semi-shade. Another report says that it succeeds outdoors when grown in a bed of river sand and leafmould about 60cm deep. A very ornamental plant. Cultivated for medicinal use in China.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as ripe in a cold frame, it should germinate in the spring. Protect from frost. Stored seed should be sown as soon as possible and can take a year or more to germinate. Sow the seed quite thinly to avoid the need to prick out the seedlings. Once they have germinated, give them an occasional liquid feed to ensure that they do not suffer mineral deficiency. Once they die down at the end of their second growing season, divide up the small bulbs, planting 2 – 3 to an 8cm deep pot. Grow them on for at least another year in light shade in the greenhouse before planting them out whilst dormant. Division of offsets in August. The larger bulbs can be planted out direct into their permanent positions, but it is best to pot up the smaller bulbs and grow them on in a cold frame for a year before planting them out in the autumn. Bulb scales.
Medicinal Uses:
The bulbs are antitussive, expectorant, febrifuge and pectoral. They contain fritimine which lowers blood pressure, diminishes excitability of respiratory centres, paralyses voluntary movement and counters effects of opium. An infusion of the dried powdered bulb is used internally in the treatment of coughs, bronchitis, pneumonia, feverish illnesses, abscesses etc. The bulbs also have a folk history of use against cancer of the breast and lungs in China. This remedy should only be used under the supervision of a qualified practitioner, excessive doses can cause breathing difficulties and heart failure. The bulbs are harvested in the winter whilst they are dormant and are dried for later use.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritillaria_pallidiflora
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Fritillaria+pallidiflora