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Herbs & Plants

Linaria canadensis

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Botanical Name : Linaria canadensis
Family: Plantaginaceae
Genus: Nuttallanthus
Species: N. canadensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Synonyms: Linaria canadensis (L.) Dumort., Antirrhinum canadense L.; Blue toadflax, Canada toadflax, Old-field toadflax.

Common Name: Blue Toadflax

Habitat : Linaria canadensis is native to eastern North America from Ontario east to Nova Scotia and south to Texas and Florida. It has been introduced to western North America and Europe, and is now locally naturalized, from Washington south to California, and also in Russia. It grows on dry sterile or sandy soils, often a weed in sandy loams.

Description:
It is an annual or biennial plant growing to 25–80 cm tall, with slender, erect flowering stems. The leaves are slender, 15–30 mm long and 1-2.5 mm broad. The flowers are purple to off-white, 10–15 mm long, appearing from mid spring to late summer. It typically grows in bare areas and grassland.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Cultivation:
A very drought resistant plant once established, it thrives in a poor gravelly soil. Nitrogen-rich soils produce excessive leaf growth at the expense of flowering. Prefers a sunny position.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in situ. An autumn sowing can also be made in areas with mild winters. This sowing will produce larger plants.
Medicinal Uses: The leaves are antihaemorrhoidal, diuretic and laxative. They are applied externally in the treatment of haemorrhoids.

Other Uses: Linaria canadensis is grown as an ornamental plant in its native area.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuttallanthus_canadensis
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Linaria+canadensis

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Herbs & Plants

Prunus apetala

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Botanical Name: Prunus apetala
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Amygdaloideae
Tribes: Amygdaleae
Genus: Prunus
Subgenus: P. subg. Cerasus
Species: Prunus apetala

Synonyms: P. crassipes. Koidz.

Common Name : Clove Cherry

Habitat :Prunus apetala is native to E. Asia – Japan. It grows on the Low mountains in C. and S. Japan.

Description:
Prunus apetala is a deciduous Shrub growing to 7 m (23ft). It is in flower in May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Cultivation:
Thrives in a well-drained moisture-retentive loamy soil. Prefers some lime in the soil but is likely to become chlorotic if too much lime is present. Succeeds in sun or partial shade though it fruits better in a sunny position. Most members of this genus are shallow-rooted and will produce suckers if the roots are damaged. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus.

Propagation:
Seed – requires 2 – 3 months cold stratification and is best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. Protect the seed from mice etc. The seed can be rather slow, sometimes taking 18 months to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Grow them on in a greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood with a heel, July/August in a frame. Softwood cuttings from strongly growing plants in spring to early summer in a frame. Layering in spring.

Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw or cooked. The fruit is about 8mm in diameter and contains a single large seed. Seed – raw or cooked. Do not eat the seed if it is too bitter – see the notes below on toxicity.
Medicinal Uses:
Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, all members of the genus contain amygdalin and prunasin, substances which break down in water to form hydrocyanic acid (cyanide or prussic acid). In small amounts this exceedingly poisonous compound stimulates respiration, improves digestion and gives a sense of well-being.
Other Uses:.… Dye……A green dye can be obtained from the leaves. A dark grey to green dye can be obtained from the fruit.

Known Hazards: Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, it belongs to a genus where most, if not all members of the genus produce hydrogen cyanide, a poison that gives almonds their characteristic flavour. This toxin is found mainly in the leaves and seed and is readily detected by its bitter taste. It is usually present in too small a quantity to do any harm but any very bitter seed or fruit should not be eaten. In small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.
Dsclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Prunus_apetala
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Prunus+apetala

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Herbs & Plants

Aralia mandschurica

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Botanical Name : Aralia mandschurica
Family: Araliaceae
Genus: Aralia
Species:A. elata
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Apiales

Synonyms : Manchurian Thorn Tree

Common Name: Manchurian Angelica Tree

Habitat :Aralia mandschurica is native to E. Asia – China, Japan, Korea, Manchuria. It grows in forests on rich well moistened slopes, 900 – 2000 metres in N. Hupeh. Thickets and thin woods in lowland and hills in Japan.
Description:
Aralia mandschurica is a deciduous Shrub growing to 3.5 m (11ft 6in).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 4 and is not frost tender. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil…...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Prefers a good deep loam and a position in semi-shade. Requires a sheltered position. Plants are hardier when grown on poorer soils. The young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun[. This plant is very closely related to A. elata and is included in that species by many botanists.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as ripe in a cold frame. Stored seed requires 3 – 5 months of cold stratification. Germination usually takes place within 1 – 4 months at 20°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in light shade in a greenhouse for at least their first winter. Once the plants are 25cm or more tall, they can be planted out into their permanent positions, late spring or early summer being the best time to do this. Root cuttings 8cm long, December in a cold frame. Store the roots upside down in sand and pot up in March/April. High percentage. Division of suckers in late winter. Very easy, the suckers can be planted out direct into their permanent positions if required.

Edible Uses:
Young shoots – cooked. They can also be blanched and used in salads.

Medicinal Uses:
Anodyne; Carminative; Tonic.

Anodyne, carminative. The root, and especially the bark, stimulates the central nervous system. The plant is said to restore the appetite, memory, vigour etc

It is used in Homeopathic medicines.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aralia_elata
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Aralia+mandschurica

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Herbs & Plants

Viburnum dentatum

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Botanical Name : Viburnum dentatum
Family: Adoxaceae
Genus: Viburnum
Species:.V dentatum
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Dipsacales

Synonyms: Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade.

Common Names: Southern arrowwood or Arrowwood viburnum or Roughish arrowwood,Arrow Wood, Southern Arrowwood Viburnum

Habitat : Viburnum dentatum is native to the Eastern United States and Canada from Maine south to Northern Florida and Eastern Texas.It grows well on Moist soils.

Description:
Viburnum dentatum is a deciduous Shrub growing to 4.5 m (14ft 9in) at a fast rate.Like most Viburnum, it has opposite, simple leaves and fruit in berry-like drupes. Foliage turns yellow to red in late fall. Localized variations of the species are common over its entire geographic range. Common differences include leaf size and shape and placement of pubescence on leaf undersides and petioles.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURE

It is in flower from Jul to August.The flowers are white and are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is not self-fertile.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Subspecies:
*Viburnum dentatum dentatum
*Viburnum dentatum lucidum – smooth arrowwood
Larvae of moths feed on V. dentatum. Species include the unsated sallow or arrowwood sallow (Metaxaglaea inulta) or Phyllonorycter viburnella. It is also consumed by the viburnum leaf beetle, Pyrrhalta viburni, an invasive species from Eurasia. The fruits are a food source for songbirds. Berries contain 41.3% fat.

The fruits appear blue. The major pigments are cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-sambubioside and cyanidin 3-vicianoside, but the total mixture is very complex.
Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Border, Massing, Screen, Seashore, Specimen, Woodland garden. An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils but is ill-adapted for poor soils and for dry situations. It prefers a deep rich loamy soil in sun or semi-shade. Best if given shade from the early morning sun in spring. Plants are self-incompatible and need to grow close to a genetically distinct plant in the same species in order to produce fruit and fertile seed. Special Features:Attracts birds, North American native, Attracts butterflies, Blooms are very showy.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Germination can be slow, sometimes taking more than 18 months. If the seed is harvested ‘green’ (when it has fully developed but before it has fully ripened) and sown immediately in a cold frame, it should germinate in the spring. Stored seed will require 2 months warm then 3 months cold stratification and can still take 18 months to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame or greenhouse. Plant out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of soft-wood, early summer in a frame. Pot up into individual pots once they start to root and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 5 – 8 cm long with a heel if possible, July/August in a frame. Plant them into individual pots as soon as they start to root. These cuttings can be difficult to overwinter, it is best to keep them in a greenhouse or cold frame until the following spring before planting them out. Cuttings of mature wood, winter in a frame. They should root in early spring – pot them up when large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer if sufficient new growth is made, otherwise keep them in a cold frame for the next winter and then plant them out in the spring. Layering of current seasons growth in July/August. Takes 15 months

Edible Uses: ...Fruit raw or cooked. A pleasantly sweet flavour, but there is very little edible flesh surrounding a relatively large seed. The fruit is up to 9.5mm in diameter. Berries contain 41.3% fat.
Medicinal Uses:

Birthing aid; Contraceptive.

A decoction of the twigs has been taken by women to prevent conception. A poultice of the plant has been applied to the swollen legs of a woman after she has given birth. Both of the above uses are for the sub-species V. dentatum lucidum. Ait.

Other Uses: Larvae of moths feed on V. dentatum. Species include the unsated sallow or arrowwood sallow (Metaxaglaea inulta) or Phyllonorycter viburnella. It is also consumed by the viburnum leaf beetle, Pyrrhalta viburni, an invasive species from Eurasia. The fruits are a food source for songbirds.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viburnum_dentatum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Viburnum+dentatum

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Herbs & Plants

Amelanchier intermedia

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Botanical Name : Amelanchier intermedia
Family:Rosaceae
Genus: Amelanchier
Species:Amelanchier intermedia Spach
Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering Plants
Class: Magnoliopsida
Sub Class:Rosidae
Order:Rosales

Common Name: Serviceberry

Habitat :Amelanchier intermedia is native to Eastern N. America – Vermont to North Carolina. It grows on swamps and moist soils.

Description:
Amelanchier intermedia is a  perennial deciduous Shrub growing to 6 m (19ft) by 4 m (13ft).The plant does not have spines, prickles, or thorns.The bark of an adult plant is thin and smooth. The leaf blade is simple (i.e., lobed or unlobed but not separated into leaflets) There is one leaf per node along the stem but the edge of the leaf blade has teeth. Leaf blade length is 25–60 mm and the width is 18–30 mm.There are three or more scales on the winter bud, and they overlap like shingles, with one edge covered and the other edge exposed.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
It is not frost tender. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July.The fruit is fleshy. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile.
Cultivation:
Prefers a rich loamy soil in a sunny position or semi-shade but thrives in any soil that is not too dry or water-logged. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers an acid or neutral soil. Plants are hardy to about -25°c. All members of this genus have edible fruits and, whilst this is dry and uninteresting in some species, in many others it is sweet and juicy. Many of the species have potential for use in the garden as edible ornamentals. The main draw-back to this genus is that birds adore the fruit and will often completely strip a tree before it is fully ripe. Considerable confusion has existed between this species and A. arborea, A. canadensis and A. laevis, see for the latest (1991) classification. Some botanists consider this species to be part of A. canadensis or A. lamarckii. A group of plants growing at Kew were about 5 years old in 1995. They were flowering well in early April, were about 2 metres tall and had lots of side branches. Their native range was given as western N. America, which conflicts with other reports. Older plants are being grown at Hilliers Arboretum in Hampshire, in early April 1999 they were 4 metres tall, suckering quite freely in a tight clump and flowering very freely. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Grafting onto seedlings of Sorbus aucuparia is sometimes practised in order to avoid the potential problem of hybridizing.

Propagation:
Seed – it is best harvested ‘green’, when the seed is fully formed but before the seed coat has hardened, and then sown immediately in pots outdoors or in a cold frame. If stored seed is obtained early enough in the autumn, it can be given 4 weeks warm stratification before being left out in the winter and it should then germinate in the spring. Otherwise seed can be very slow to germinate, perhaps taking 18 months or more. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a sheltered outdoor position, planting them out once they are 20cm or more tall. If there is sufficient seed it is best to sow it thinly in an outdoor seedbed. Grow the seedlings on for two years in the seedbed before planting them out into their permanent positions during the winter. Layering in spring – takes 18 months. Division of suckers in late winter. The suckers need to have been growing for 2 years before you dig them up, otherwise they will not have formed roots. They can be planted out straight into their permanent positions if required

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses:

Edible fruit – raw or cooked. We have yet to see the fruit on this species, but if it is like the closely related A. lamarckii, then it will be sweet and succulent with a flavour of apples. The fruit can also be dried for later use and is up to 10mm in diameter. The fruit is rich in iron and copper.

Medicinal Uses: Not yet known.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Amelanchier+intermedia
http://www.newyork.plantatlas.usf.edu/Plant.aspx?id=2778
https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/amelanchier/intermedia/