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Pyrola asarifolia

Botanical Name : Pyrola asarifolia
Family: Ericaceae
Subfamily: Monotropoideae
Genus: Pyrola
Species: P. asarifolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ericales

Common Names: Bog Wintergreen, Liverleaf wintergreen, Pink wintergreen, Pink Pyrola

Habitat : Pyrola asarifolia is native to N. America – Alaska to Newfoundland, south to New York, California and New Mexico.It grows on wet soils of bogs, stream courses and around springs, mostly in shady areas and especially in coniferous woodlands, from the plains to around 2,700 metres in the mountains.

Description:
Pyrola asarifolia is an evergreen Perennial plant, growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in).
It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Jun to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects, self.The plant is self-fertile….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Flowers: Raceme of 7 to 15 flowers on slender stalks at the top of the plant. Flowers are ½ to ¾ inch across with 5 round petals, pink or white with pink to pinkish purple edging, the edges often curled down. A cluster of stamens with dark pink to red tips is hidden under the upper petals. The style is light green, curved down and out below the lower petals like an elephant’s trunk.

Leaves and stem:
Leaves are basal, 1 to 1½ inches long, round to kidney shaped, often wider than long, the blade typically shorter than the leaf stalk. The tip may have slight point. The upper surface is very shiny. A few scale like leaves may be present on lower part of the flowering stem.
Cultivation:
Prefers a moist sandy woodland soil in a cool position with partial shade. Requires a peaty or leafy acid soil that remains moist in the summer.  This is a very difficult plant to grow. It requires a mycorrhizal relationship in the soil and therefore needs to be grown initially in soil collected from around an established plant. It is also very difficult from seed as well as being intolerant of root disturbance which makes division difficult. This species is extremely rare and endangered in the wild.
Propagation:
Seed – the only information we have on this species is that it is difficult from seed and germinates infrequently. We would suggest sowing the seed as soon as it is ripe if this is possible. Sow it into soil collected from around an established plant, only just covering the seed, and put the pot in a shady part of a cold frame. Pot up any young seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle, once again using soil from around an established plant. Plant out into their permanent positions when the plants are large enough. You should not need to use soil from around an established plant to do this since the soil in the pot will contain the necessary micorrhiza. Division with great care in the spring. Pot up the divisions using some soil from around an established plant, grow on in a lightly shaded part of a greenhouse or frame and do not plant out until the plants are growing away vigorously.
Medicinal Uses:
This plant was considered to be an effective remedy in the treatment of rheumatism. A decoction of the leaves, or the leaves and roots, has been used as an eyewash for sore eyes. A decoction of the plant has been used to treat the coughing up of blood. A decoction of the root has been used to treat liver complaints.

Other Uses:
Plants can be used as a ground cover when spaced about 30cm apart each way. They are somewhat slow to settle down though, and only form a good cover when they are growing luxuriantly.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyrola_asarifolia
https://www.minnesotawildflowers.info/flower/pink-pyrola
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Pyrola+asarifolia

How to stop being furiously angry

Isabel Clarke, a clinical psychologist who runs an anger-management clinic, explains why bad temper is a growing problem — and how to keep it in check.

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Imagine a pill you could take that instantly calms your temper when it’s about to burst into a Herculean mess. That’s what researchers might be on the brink of formulating after experiments helped them to identify the brain’s anger centre. Scientists at New York University found that chemical changes in the brain’s lateral septum made the mice attack other animals. It’s a discovery that could lead to a calming drug.

Meanwhile, we remain a nation of quiet seethers. Research by PruHealth found that nearly half of us admit to snapping at colleagues, 28 per cent to shouting at people at work and one in four to slamming down phones and banging fists on desks. On social media, it takes far less than a Katie Hopkins soundbite to enrage the digital British public into attack mode. But until the anger pill is a reality, our only option is self-management…

Why are we all so angry?
The more stress someone is under, the more likely they are to have an anger problem. Because we are working harder than ever, more chronically stressed people are presenting to their GPs and mental health clinics with anger issues.

Add to this, disinhibition — there is a greater level of acceptance of anger, swearing and even violent behaviour than there was 50 years ago — and the increased speed of our reactions, thanks to social media and email (as opposed to writing letters) and the root of our anger problem is clear.

Anger manifests itself in different ways. One person might turn their anger against themselves, which can manifest as depression, addiction or self-harm. Another might explode. But anger has a necessary function: to protect, by alerting us to threat and giving us the courage to meet challenges.

That “threat system” is part of our evolution and changes your body from a calm state into one that is ready to attack or run away. A shot of the stress hormone adrenaline is released, which leads to tense muscles, increased blood circulation, short breathing and alertness.

People who are under chronic stress exist in a constant state of attack mode, which can have a detrimental effect on their health. It is like driving in second gear on the motorway — you’re using the car’s resources to tackle a problem that isn’t there, which means that your car is likely to be damaged, burn out or even explode. The other problem is that the buzz from adrenaline can be addictive. Likewise, when a person gets what they want as a result of showing their anger, they can get caught in an anger trap, where outbursts seem like the only way to express their needs. So controlling excess anger is essential.

Look out for warning signs:….CLICK & SEE
Notice when your body is moving into threat mode — this might be during a conversation, while driving or when commuting — and pay attention to your early-warning signs of anger. Everyone’s signs will be different but they might include a tenseness across the shoulders or an uncomfortable feeling in the stomach. Ask yourself: What’s the matter? Then do something about it. This might be having a constructive conversation or using a simple breathing technique. For example, making your out breath longer than your in breath can be instantly relaxing. Paying attention to the physical reality around you and taking in the bigger picture, rather than the thoughts in your head, can also help. This allows you to instantly distance yourself from your own threat system and get the mental space to ask yourself whether you need to take some time out (see below).

Escape wind-up thinking:
The language we use in our thoughts and conversations can alert the body to a threat, priming it to react with anger. Characteristic wind-up thoughts include “shoulds”, “musts” or “oughts” as well as phrases beginning with “You never”, “You always” or “It’s not fair”. These are definite, accusatory and inflexible, and can keep you fixed in threat mode where you’re more likely to blow up. It can be hard to change your thought patterns. Instead, recognise wind-up thinking and acknowledge that it’s not in your best interest to continue it.

Object without losing it:
Angry people often try to project an attitude of “I’m cool, nothing gets to me”. As a result, they may allow resentments to build up until they eventually explode. Learning to communicate assertively is essential. The key is to state what you want firmly and calmly with words such as: “Excuse me, I can’t let this go.” It’s also important to put yourself in the other person’s shoes — this is something people with anger issues often have a hard time with, as they tend to be wound up in their own position.

Call time:
It can be difficult to have a constructive conversation if one or both parties have switched into attack mode. Take a couple having an argument. If one of them notices their own, or the other person’s, anger building up with physical signs, such as increased breathing and a raised voice, they might say they need to go out for a walk to clear their head. Often, this is the point where the other partner won’t let them, desperate to get one last point across. But it’s also the point where arguments can escalate to emotional or physical violence.

An expart councelor has worked with couples on negotiating this space and ensuring the other person respects it. Having such an agreement is essential for dealing with anger, especially at home. Don’t continue the discussion if you observe in someone’s behaviour or speech — or your own — that the body has gone into action mode. Take time out. Go for a walk outside, write in a journal or call a friend — set aside some alone time…...CLICK & SEE

Let go:
When your body is in threat mode, anything — from being told you might lose your job to someone jumping in front of you in a queue — can feel equally outrageous and worthy of an outburst. By taking a step back with the simple breathing practices mentioned above, you can see the bigger picture and work out whether it really is outrageous and worth fighting for. Ask yourself if it will matter in five minutes. If the answer is no, let it go.

Source: The Telegraph (Kolkata, India)

Best way to get rid from sudden anger  is to practice Yoga  with  Medition & Pranayama.

Cytinus hypocistus

Botanical Name : Cytinus hypocistus
Family: Cytinaceae
Genus: Cytinus
Species:C. hypocistis
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Malvales

Synonyms:Asarum hypocistis L. (basionym)

Habitat : Cytinus hypocistis is native to Albania; Algeria; Crete; Croatia; Cyprus; Greece; France (including Corsica); Israel; Italy (including Sardinia and Sicily); Lebanon; Libya; Malta; Morocco; Portugal; Spain (including both the Balearic and Canary Islands); Syria; Tunisia; and Turkey.

The subspecies macranthus is native to Portugal and western Spain; orientalis is native to southern Greece and Crete; and pityusensis is endemic to Ibiza of the Balearic Islands.

It grows on the maquis and garigue, parasitic on the roots of several species but especially Cistus species.

Description:
Cytinus hypocistus is a parasitic flowering plant. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation: A parasitic plant.

Propagation:Through Seed

Edible Uses: Young plant – cooked. An asparagus substitute.
Medicinal Uses: Cytinus hypocistus has been used in traditional medicine to treat dysentery and tumors of the throat, and has been used for its astringent qualities

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Cytinus+hypocistus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytinus_hypocistis

Solidago canadensis scabra

Botanical Name : Solidago canadensis scabra
Family: Asteraceae/Compositae
Tribe: Astereae
Genus: Solidago
Species: S. canadensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms:
*Solidago altissima L. subsp. altissima
*Solidago canadensis L.
*Solidago lepida DC. var. elongata (Nutt.) Fernald (misapplied)

Common Names: American goldenrod, Canada goldenrod, Canadian goldenrod, common golden-rod, common goldenrod, golden rod, goldenrod, tall goldenrod

Habitat : Solidago canadensis scabra is native to Eastern N. America – Maine to Ontario, Nebraska, Georgia and Texas. It grows in dry to damp thickets, roadsides and clearings.

Description:
Solidago canadensis scabra is a perennial plant , growing to 1.8 m (6ft) by 1 m (3ft 3in).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 3. It is in flower from Aug to September, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.It is noted for attracting wildlife.

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USDA hardiness zone : 3-7

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in any moderately fertile moisture retentive soil in sun or semi-shade. Grows well in heavy clay soils. A rather greedy plant, it is apt to impoverish the soil. Hybridizes freely with S. canadensis. The plant attracts various beneficial insects such as ladybirds, lacewings and hoverflies to the garden, these insects will help to control insect pests in the garden.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Only just cover the seed and do not allow the compost to become dry. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle, and grow them on for their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in spring or early summer. Division in spring or autumn. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found it best to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in a lightly shaded position in a cold frame, planting them out once they are well established in the summer.

Edible Uses: Young leaves and flowering stems – cooked. It can be used as a thickener in soups. The seed is very small and fiddly to harvest or utilize. A tea can be made from the flowers and/or the leaves.

Medicinal Uses:
The whole plant is antiseptic, haemostatic, salve and styptic. An infusion of the dried powdered herb can be used as an antiseptic. A poultice of the flowers has been used in the treatment of ulcers and burns. A poultice of the moistened, crushed root has been used in the treatment of boils.

Other Uses;..…Dye; Latex……..A source of latex, contained in the leaves. A potentially good source of rubber. Mustard, orange and brown dyes can be obtained from the whole plant

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/Solidago_canadensis_var._scabra.htm
http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Solidago+canadensis+scabra

Kohl Rabi (Bengali Olkopi)

Botanical Name : Brassica oleracea gongylodes
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Brassica
Species: B. oleracea
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Brassicales

Synonyms: Brassica caulorapa. Pasq.

Common Names: Kohl Rabi , German turnip or Turnip cabbage
Bengali Name : Olkopi

Habitat: It is grown allover the world as vegitable. In tropical countries it grows in winter and in colder countries in summer.

Description:
Brassica oleracea gongylodes is an annual/biennial vegetable plant, growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) at a fast rate. It is a low, stout cultivar of cabbage. Kohlrabi can be eaten raw as well as cooked.
It is not frost tender.

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Kohlrabi has been created by artificial selection for lateral meristem growth (a swollen, nearly spherical shape); its origin in nature is the same as that of cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, collard greens, and Brussels sprouts: they are all bred from, and are the same species as, the wild cabbage plant (Brassica oleracea).

The taste and texture of kohlrabi are similar to those of a broccoli stem or cabbage heart, but milder and sweeter, with a higher ratio of flesh to skin. The young stem in particular can be as crisp and juicy as an apple, although much less sweet.

Except for the Gigante cultivar, spring-grown kohlrabi much over 5 cm in size tend to be woody, as do full-grown kohlrabi much over perhaps 10 cm in size; the Gigante cultivar can achieve great size while remaining of good eating quality. The plant matures in 55–60 days after sowing. Approximate weight is 150 g and has good standing ability for up to 30 days after maturity.

There are several varieties commonly available, including White Vienna, Purple Vienna, Grand Duke, Gigante (also known as “Superschmelz”), Purple Danube, and White Danube. Coloration of the purple types is superficial: the edible parts are all pale yellow. The leafy greens can also be eaten.
Cultivation:
Succeeds in full sun in a well-drained fertile preferably alkaline soil[200]. Succeeds in any reasonable soil, though it is best not grown in an acid soil. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.5 to 7.5. Prefers some shade and plenty of moisture in the growing season. Established plants are drought tolerant but the best stems are formed when the plant does not go short of moisture. Succeeds in maritime gardens. Very winter hardy, kohl rabi withstands severe frosts and so can be left in the ground all winter in most areas and be harvested as required. The young growing plant, however, is sensitive to low temperatures and a week at 10°c will cause the plants to bolt. It grows best at a temperature between 18 and 25°c. Kohl rabi is often cultivated for its edible swollen stem which can be available almost all year round from successional sowings. There are several named varieties and stem colour can range from white to green and purple. Green forms are faster to mature and so more suitable for early sowings, the purple forms are hardier and later to mature, they are used mainly for winter crops. Very fast growing, the stems of some cultivars can be harvested 6 – 8 weeks after sowing. The plant is more tolerant of drought and high temperatures than turnips, which it resembles in flavour, and so it is often grown as a substitute for that species. Grows well with onions, beet and aromatic herbs which seem to reduce insect predations. Plants also grow well with cucumbers, the roots of each species occupying different levels in the soil. Grows badly with strawberries, runner beans and tomatoes.

Propagation :
Seed – sow April to August in situ. Earlier sowings can be made under cloches

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Leaves; Stem.
Edible Uses:

Leaves – cooked. Used as a vegetable, though the quality is not as good as cabbage. The young leaves can also be added to salads, though some people find them difficult to digest. A nutritional analysis is available. Stem – raw or cooked. The plant produces a swollen stem just above ground level, and this is often used as a root vegetable. It has a mild cabbage flavour, when finely grated it makes a good addition to mixed salads and, when cooked, is an excellent vegetable. It is best eaten whilst fairly small and tender, between golf ball and tennis ball size. It becomes coarse with age. A nutritional analysis is available.

Kohlrabi stems are surrounded by two distinct fibrous layers that do not soften appreciably when cooked. These layers are generally peeled away prior to cooking or serving raw, with the result that the stems often provide a smaller amount of food than one might assume from their intact appearance.

The Kohlrabi root is frequently used raw in salad or slaws. It has a texture similar to that of a broccoli stem, but with a flavor that is sweeter and less vegetal.

Kohlrabi leaves are edible and can be used interchangeably with collard greens and kale.

Kohlrabi is an important part of the Kashmiri diet and one of the most commonly cooked foods. It is prepared with its leaves and served with a light gravy and eaten with rice

Composition :
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.
Leaves (Dry weight)

•320 Calories per 100g
•Water : 0%
•Protein: 23.5g; Fat: 2.5g; Carbohydrate: 62.5g; Fibre: 13g; Ash: 10.5g;
•Minerals – Calcium: 430mg; Phosphorus: 450mg; Iron: 10.5mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 80mg; Potassium: 3100mg; Zinc: 0mg;
•Vitamins – A: 15000mg; Thiamine (B1): 0.6mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0.7mg; Niacin: 4.5mg; B6: 0mg; C: 670mg;
Medicinal Uses:.…..Digestive: Tonic……..The leaf is digestive and tonic

Other Uses: Some varieties are grown as feed for cattle.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kohlrabi
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Brassica+oleracea+gongylodes