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Ailmemts & Remedies

Presbyopia

Definition:
Presbyopia (Greek word “presbys”, meaning “old person”) describes the condition where the eye exhibits a progressively diminished ability to focus on near objects with age. Presbyopia’s exact mechanisms are not known with certainty, however, the research evidence most strongly supports a loss of elasticity of the crystalline lens, although changes in the lens’s curvature from continual growth and loss of power of the ciliary muscles (the muscles that bend and straighten the lens) have also been postulated as its cause.

………CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Similar to grey hair and wrinkles, presbyopia is a symptom caused by the natural course of aging presbyopia is the gradual loss of your eyes’ ability to focus actively on nearby objects — is a not-so-subtle reminder that you’ve reached middle age. A natural, often annoying part of aging, presbyopia usually develops after age 40.The first symptoms (described below) are usually first noticed between the ages of 40-50. The ability to focus on near objects declines throughout life, from an accommodation of about 20 dioptres (ability to focus at 50 mm away) in a child to 10 dioptres at 25 (100 mm) and leveling off at 0.5 to 1 dioptre at age 60 (ability to focus down to 1-2 meters only).

Symptoms
The first symptoms most people notice are difficulty reading fine print, particularly in low light conditions, eyestrain when reading for long periods, blur at near or momentarily blurred vision when transitioning between viewing distances. Many advanced presbyopes complain that their arms have become “too short” to hold reading material at a comfortable distance.

Presbyopia, like other focus defects, becomes much less noticeable in bright sunlight. This is a result of the iris closing to a smaller diameter. As with any lens, increasing the focal ratio of the lens increases depth of field by reducing the level of blur of out-of-focus objects (compare the effect of aperture on depth of field in photography).

A delayed onset of seeking correction for presbyopia has been found among those with certain professions and those with miotic pupils. In particular, farmers and housewives seek correction later, whereas service workers and construction workers seek eyesight correction earlier.

Focusing mechanism of the eye:
In optics, the closest point at which an object can be brought into focus by the eye is called the eye’s near point. A standard near point distance of 25 cm is typically assumed in the design of optical instruments, and in characterizing optical devices such as magnifying glasses.

There is some confusion in articles and even textbooks over how the focusing mechanism of the eye actually works. In the classic book, ‘Eye and Brain’ by Gregory, for example, the lens is said to be suspended by a membrane, the ‘zonula’, which holds it under tension. The tension is released, by contraction of the ciliary muscle, to allow the lens to fatten, for close vision. This would seem to imply that the ciliary muscle, which is outside the zonula must be circumferential, contracting like a sphincter, to slacken the tension of the zonula pulling outwards on the lens. This is consistent with the fact that our eyes seem to be in the ‘relaxed’ state when focusing at infinity, and also explains why no amount of effort seems to enable a myopic person to see further away. Many texts, though, describe the ‘ciliary muscles’ (which seem more likely to be just elastic ligaments and not under any form of nervous control) as pulling the lens taut in order to focus at close range. This has the counterintuitive effect of steepening the lens centrally (increasing its power) and flattening peripherally.

Presbyopia and the ‘payoff’ for the nearsighted
Many people with myopia are able to read comfortably without eyeglasses or contact lenses even after age 40. However, their myopia does not disappear and the long-distance visual challenges will remain. Myopes with astigmatism will find near vision better though not perfect without glasses or contact lenses once presbyopia sets in, but the greater the amount of astigmatism the poorer their uncorrected near vision. Myopes considering refractive surgery are advised that surgically correcting their nearsightedness may actually be a disadvantage after the age of 40 when the eyes become presbyopic and lose their ability to accommodate or change focus because they will then need to use glasses for reading. A surgical technique offered is to create a “reading eye” and a “distance vision eye”, a technique commonly used in contact lens practice, known as monovision. Monovision can be created with contact lenses or spectacles so candidates for this procedure can determine if they are prepared to have their corneas reshaped by surgery to cause this effect permanently.

Causes:
Presbyopia is caused by an age-related process. This is different from astigmatism, nearsightedness and farsightedness, which are related to the shape of the eyeball and caused by genetic factors, disease or trauma. Presbyopia is generally believed to stem from a gradual loss of flexibility in the natural lens inside your eye.

These age-related changes occur within the proteins in the lens, making the lens harder and less elastic with the years. Age-related changes also take place in the muscle fibers surrounding the lens. With less elasticity, the eye has a harder time focusing up close. Other, less popular theories exist as well.

Most experts agree that presbyopia is caused by a hardening of your lens, which in turn develops with aging. As your lens becomes less flexible, it can no longer change shape, and close-up images appear out of focus.

Tests and diagnosis:
Presbyopia is diagnosed by a basic eye exam. This exam is generally administered by either an ophthalmologist or an optometrist. An ophthalmologist, who has a doctor of medicine (M.D.) degree, is a specialist trained to diagnose and manage eye disorders, including those that may require either medical or surgical treatment. An optometrist, who has a doctor of optometry (O.D.) degree, can perform many of the same services as an ophthalmologist, such as evaluating your vision, prescribing corrective lenses and diagnosing common eye disorders. In some states, optometrists also treat selected eye disorders with drugs. However, an optometrist may refer you to an ophthalmologist for more complex eye problems and for surgical procedures.

A complete eye examination involves a series of tests. Your eye doctor may use odd-looking instruments, aim bright lights directly at your eyes and request that you look through an array of lenses. Each test is necessary and allows your doctor to evaluate a different aspect of your vision.

According to the American Academy of Ophthalmology, if you don’t wear glasses or contacts, have no symptoms of eye trouble and are at a low risk of developing eye disease, you should have your eyes examined at the following intervals:

*Every five to 10 years under age 40
*Every two to four years between ages 40 and 64
*Every one to two years beginning at age 65

However, if you wear glasses or contacts, have your eyes checked more often. And if you notice any problems with your vision, schedule an appointment with your eye doctor as soon as possible, even if you’ve recently had an eye exam. Blurred vision may suggest you need a prescription change or have another eye problem that may need evaluation and treatment.

Treatment:
Presbyopia is not routinely curable – though tentative steps toward a possible cure suggest that this may be possible – but the loss of focusing ability can be compensated for by corrective lenses including eyeglasses or contact lenses. In subjects with other refractory problems, convex lenses are used. In some cases, the addition of bifocals to an existing lens prescription is sufficient. As the ability to change focus worsens, the prescription needs to be changed accordingly.

In order to reduce the need for bifocals or reading glasses, some people choose contact lenses to correct one eye for near and one eye for far with a method called “monovision”. Monovision sometimes interferes with depth perception. There are also newer bifocal or multifocal contact lenses that attempt to correct both near and far vision with the same lens.

Controversially, eye exercises have been quoted as a way to delay the onset of presbyopia, but there is no evidence that they work.

Nutrition
At least one scientific study reported that taking lutein supplements or otherwise increasing the amount of lutein in the diet resulted in an improvement in visual acuity, while another study suggested that lutein supplementation might slow aging of the lens. Lutein is found naturally in both the lens of the eye and the macula, the central area of the retina.

The goal of treatment is to compensate for the inability of your eyes to focus on nearby objects. Treatment options include wearing corrective lenses, undergoing refractive surgery or getting lens implants.

Corrective lenses
If you had good, uncorrected vision before developing presbyopia, you may be able to use nonprescription reading glasses. But check with your eye doctor about what’s right for you.

Reading glasses sold over-the-counter are labeled on a scale that corresponds to the degree of magnification (power). The least powerful are labeled +1.00, and the most powerful +3.00. When purchasing reading glasses, try out a few different powers until you find the magnification that allows you to read comfortably. Test each pair on printed material held about 14 to 16 inches in front of your face.

You’ll need prescription lenses for presbyopia if over-the-counter glasses are inadequate or if you already wear corrective lenses for nearsightedness, farsightedness or astigmatism. Your choices include:

Prescription reading glasses. If you have no other vision problems, you can have prescription lenses for reading only.

Bifocals. These glasses come in two styles — those with a visible horizontal line and those without a line (progressive bifocals). When you look through progressive bifocals at eye level, the lenses correct your distance vision. This correction gradually changes to reading correction at the bottom.

Trifocals. These glasses have corrections for close work, middle-distance vision — such as for computer screens — and distance vision. Trifocals can have visible lines or progressive lenses.

Bifocal contacts. Bifocal contact lenses, like bifocal glasses, provide distance and close-up correction on each contact. The bottom, reading portion of the lens is weighted to keep the lens correctly positioned on your eye. These are frequently difficult to fit and often do not provide altogether satisfactory visual results.

Monovision contacts. With monovision contacts, you wear a contact lens for distance vision in your dominant eye and a contact lens for close-up vision in your nondominant eye. Your dominant eye is generally the one you use when you’re aiming a camera to take a picture.

Modified monovision. With this option, you wear a bifocal contact lens in your nondominant eye and a contact lens set for distance in your dominant eye. You use both eyes for distance and one eye for reading. Your brain learns which lens to favor — depending on whether you’re viewing things close up or far away — so you don’t have to consciously make the choice of which eye to use.

Refractive surgery:-
Refractive surgery changes the shape of your cornea. For presbyopia, this treatment — equivalent to wearing monovision contact lenses — may be used to improve close-up vision in the nondominant eye. The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommends that people try monovision contacts to determine if they can adjust to this kind of correction before considering refractive surgery.

Most refractive surgical procedures were developed to correct nearsightedness, farsightedness and astigmatism. Few studies have been published about the long-term effectiveness of monovision refractive surgery for people with presbyopia, but some evidence suggests that the surgery may help some people with presbyopia reduce their dependence on corrective lenses. Eventually, though, many people who have had refractive surgery will still need corrective lenses for reading.

Refractive surgical procedures include the following:

Conductive keratoplasty (CK). This procedure uses radio frequency energy to apply heat to very tiny spots around the cornea. The degree of change in the cornea’s curvature depends on the number and spacing of the spots, as well as the way in which the corneal tissue heals after the treatment. The results of CK are variable and unstable in many people.

New surgical options to treat presbyopia are being researched and are already available in many countries. One example is Refractec Inc.’s conductive keratoplasty, or NearVision CK treatment, which uses radio waves to create more curvature in the cornea for a higher “plus” prescription to improve near vision. The method was FDA-approved for the temporary reduction of presbyopia in April 2004. (In 2002 it had been approved for mild farsightedness.) Click to read more about how CK works.
…………………….CLICK & SEE

The eye’s lens stiffens with age, so it is less able to focus when you view something up close. The result is blurred near vision. (Illustration: Varilux).
A highly experimental treatment is a soft, elastic polymer gel that researchers say would be injected into the capsular bag, the cavity that contains the natural lens. In theory, the gel would replace the natural lens and serve as a new, more elastic lens. Experiments also have centered on laser treatment of the eye’s hardened lens to increase flexibility and improve focus.

With the recent introduction of presbyopia-correcting intraocular lenses, some people undergoing cataract surgery may be able to achieve clear vision at all distances. Also, an elective procedure known as refractive lens exchange may enable you to replace your eye’s natural lens with an artificial one using presbyopia-correcting lenses.

Other methods are being researched as well. Click to read more about surgical options for presbyopia.

Laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK). With this procedure, your eye surgeon uses a laser or an instrument called a keratome to make a thin, hinged flap in your cornea. Your surgeon then uses an excimer laser to remove inner layers of your cornea to steepen its domed shape. An excimer laser differs from other lasers in that it doesn’t produce heat.

Laser epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK). Instead of creating a flap in the cornea, the surgeon creates a flap only in the cornea’s thin protective cover (epithelium). Your surgeon will use an excimer laser to reshape the cornea’s outer layers and steepen its curvature and then reposition the epithelial flap.

Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). This procedure is similar to LASEK, except the surgeon removes the epithelium. It will grow back naturally, conforming to your cornea’s new shape.

Lens implants
Another procedure used by some ophthalmologists involves removal of your clear natural lens and replacement with a synthetic lens inside your eye (intraocular lens implant). The synthetic lens implant is designed to allow your eye to see things both near and at a distance. However, synthetic lens implants haven’t been entirely satisfactory; recipients have experienced problems with glare and blurring. In addition, this surgery carries with it the same risks associated with cataract surgery, such as inflammation, infection, bleeding and glaucoma.

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Lifestyle modification and home remedies:
Although you can’t prevent presbyopia, you can help protect your eyes and your vision. Follow these steps:

Have your eyes checked. Regardless of how well you see, have your eyes checked regularly for problems.
Control chronic health conditions. Certain conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure, can affect your vision if you don’t receive proper treatment.

Recognize symptoms. Sudden loss of vision in one eye, sudden hazy or blurred vision, flashes of light, black spots, or halos or rainbows around lights may signal a serious medical problem, such as acute glaucoma or stroke, or some other treatable retinal condition, such as a retinal tear or retinal detachment. Talk to your doctor if you experience any of these symptoms.

Protect your eyes from the sun. Wear sunglasses that block ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This is especially important if you spend long hours in the sun or are taking a prescription medication that increases your sensitivity to UV radiation.

Eat healthy foods. Try to eat plenty of fruits and leafy greens and other vegetables; these foods generally contain high levels of antioxidants as well as vitamin A and beta carotene. They’re also vital to maintaining healthy vision.
Use the right glasses. The right glasses optimize your vision. Having regular exams will ensure that your eyeglass prescription is correct.
Use good lighting. Turn up the light for better vision.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.
Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presbyopia
http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/presbyopia.htm
MayoClinic.com

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News on Health & Science

Glasses that Change With Eye Power

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A British scientist has designed a unique pair of glasses that can be adjusted by a wearer without any optician’s help, and one million pairs of which will soon be distributed in India.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Professor Joshua Silver is hopeful that his self-adjusting glasses could enable a billion people in the developing world to receive spectacles for the first time within just over a decade.

Silver, a retired Oxford University physics professor, is even preparing to launch an ambitious scheme in India to distribute one million pairs in a year. He revealed that he came up with the idea in what he describes as a “glimpse of the obvious”, reports the Telegraph.

The adaptive glasses are designed in such a way that they can be “tuned” by the wearer to suit their eyes, and that too without the need for a prescription. In fact, the spectacles can help both short-sighted and long-sighted people.

After 20 years’ of research he has finally come up with a design which can be made cheaply on a large scale. He focussed on the principle that thicker lenses are more powerful than thin ones. Using this principle he designed spectacles that can be adjusted by injecting tiny quantities of fluid.

The tough plastic glasses have thin sacs of liquid in the centre of each lens. They come with small syringes attached to each arm with a dial for the wearer to add or remove fluid from the lens. After adjusting the lenses, the syringes are removed and the spectacles can be worn just like a prescription pair. The invention would provide spectacles for the first time to millions of people in poorer parts of the world, where opticians are in short supply


Sources
: The Times Of India

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Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Eye Injuries

 

a small piece of iron has lodged near the marg...Image via Wikipedia

It’s common for a speck of dirt to get blown into your eye, for soap to wash into your eye, or for you to accidentally bump your eye. For these types of minor eye injuries, home treatment is usually all that is needed.

click to see the pictures

Some sports and recreational activities increase the risk of eye injuries.
*Very high-risk sports include boxing, wrestling, and martial arts.

*High-risk sports include baseball, football, tennis, fencing, and squash.

*Low-risk sports include swimming and gymnastics (no body contact or use of a ball, bat, or racquet).

Blows to the eye:-
Direct blows to the eye can damage the skin and other tissues around the eye, the eyeball, or the bones of the eye socket. Blows to the eye often cause bruising around the eye (black eye) or cuts to the eyelid. If a blow to the eye or a cut to the eyelid occurred during an accident, be sure to check for injuries to the eyeball itself and for other injuries, especially to the head or face. Concern about an eye injury may cause you to miss other injuries that need attention.

Burns to the eye:-
Burns to the eye may be caused by chemicals, fumes, hot air or steam, sunlight, tanning lamps, electric hair curlers or dryers, or welding equipment. Bursts of flames or flash fires from stoves or explosives can also burn the face and eyes.

*Chemical burns can occur if a solid chemical, liquid chemical, or chemical fumes get into the eye. Many substances will not cause damage if they are flushed out of the eye quickly. Acids and alkali substances can damage the eye. It may take 24 hours after the burn to determine the seriousness of an eye burn. Chemical fumes and vapors can also irritate the eyes.

*Bright sunlight (especially when the sun is reflecting off snow or water) can burn your eyes if you do not wear sunglasses that filter out ultraviolet (UV) light. Eyes that are not protected by a mask can be burned by exposure to the high-intensity light of a welder’s equipment (torch or arc). The eyes also may be injured by other bright lights, such as from tanning booths or sunlamps.

For more information, you may click to see :-> Burns to the Eye.

Foreign objects in the eye:-
A foreign particle  in the eye, such as dirt, an eyelash, a contact lens, or makeup, can cause eye symptoms.

*Objects may scratch the surface of the eye (cornea) or become stuck on the eye. If the cornea is scratched, it can be hard to tell whether the object has been removed, because a scratched cornea may feel painful and as though something is still in the eye. Most corneal scratches are minor and heal on their own in 1 or 2 days.

*Small or sharp objects traveling at high speeds can cause serious injury to many parts of the eyeball. Objects flying from a lawn mower, grinding wheel, or any tool may strike the eye and possibly puncture the eyeball. Injury may cause bleeding between the iris and cornea (hyphema), a change in the size or shape of the pupil, or damage to the structures inside the eyeball. These objects may be deep in the eye and may require medical treatment.

In the case of a car air bag inflating, all three types of eye injuries can occur. The force of impact can cause a blow to the eye, foreign objects may enter the eye, and chemicals in the air bag can burn the eye.
Eye injuries can be prevented by using protective eyewear. Wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields when working with power tools or chemicals or doing any activity that might cause an object or substance to get into your eyes. Some professions, such as health care and construction, may require workers to use protective eyewear to reduce the risk of foreign objects or substances or body fluids getting in the eyes.

After an eye injury, you need to watch for vision changes and symptoms of an infection. Most minor eye injuries can be treated at home. You may click to See :->the Home Treatment.

EMERGENCIES:-
Call emergency services immediately!

Do you have any of the following symptoms that require emergency treatment? Call 911 or other emergency services immediately.

*An object has punctured and penetrated the eye. Note: Do not bandage or put any pressure on the eye. If an object has penetrated the eyeball, hold the object in place to prevent further movement and injury to the eye.
*An eyeball is bulging out of its socket or looks abnormal after an injury.
*Sudden partial or complete vision loss has occurred in one or both eyes. Note: Treatment is needed within 90 minutes to save vision.


*Severe pain continues after 30 minutes of flushing a chemical from the eye.
*Normal vision is limited to one functional eye.

PREVENTION:-

The following tips may help prevent eye injuries.

*Wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields when you hammer nails or metal, work with power tools or chemicals, or do any activity that might cause a burn to your eyes. If you work with hazardous chemicals that could splash into your eyes, know how to flush chemicals out, and know the location of the nearest shower or sink.

*If you are welding or near someone else who is welding, wear a mask or goggles designed for welding.

*Wear protective eyewear during sports such as hockey, racquetball, or paintball that involve the risk of a blow to the eye. Baseball is the most common sport to cause eye injuries. Fishhook injuries are another common cause of eye injuries.
Protective eyewear can prevent sports-related eye injuries more than 90% of the time. An eye examination may be helpful in determining what type of protective eyewear is needed.

*Injuries from ultraviolet (UV) light can be prevented by wearing sunglasses that block ultraviolet (UV) rays and by wearing broad-brimmed hats. Be aware that the eye can be injured from sun glare while boating, sunbathing, or skiing. Use eye protection while you are under tanning lamps or using tanning booths. Laser pointers have not been shown to cause eye injury.

*Wear your seat belt when in a motor vehicle. Use child car seats.

Prevention tips for children:-
Eye injuries are common in children, and many can be prevented. Most eye injuries happen in older children. They happen more often in boys than in girls. Toys—from crayons to toy guns—are a major source of injury, so check all toys for sharp or pointed parts. Household items, such as elastic cords, can also strike the eye and cause injury.

Teach your children about eye safety. :-

*Be a good role model—always wear proper eye protection.

*Get protective eyewear for your children and help them use it properly.

*Teach children that flying toys should never be pointed at another person.

*Teach children how to carry sharp or pointed objects properly.

*Teach children that any kind of missile, projectile, or BB gun is not a toy.

*Use safety measures near fires and explosives, such as campfires and fireworks.

Any eye injury that appears unusual for a child’s age should be evaluated as possible child abuse.

Sources: MSN Health & Fitness

 

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Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Objects in the Eye

Introduction:It’s not uncommon for a speck of dirt or a small object, such as an eyelash or makeup, to get in your eye. Usually your natural tears will wash the object out. Objects may scratch the surface of the eye or may become stuck on the eye. If the cornea is scratched, it can be hard to tell when you have gotten the object out, because a scratched cornea may feel painful and as though something is still in the eye. Most corneal scratches are minor and heal on their own in 1 or 2 days.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Small objects traveling at high speed or sharp objects traveling at any speed can cause serious injury to many parts of the eyeball. Injury may cause bleeding, a change in the size or shape of the pupil, a film over the eye lens, or damage to the inside of the eyeball. These objects may become embedded deep in the eye and may require medical treatment.

Objects in the eye can be prevented by using protective eyewear. Wear safety glasses, goggles, or face shields when working with power tools or chemicals or doing any activity that might cause an object or substance to get into your eyes. Some professions, such as health care and construction, may require workers to use protective eyewear to reduce the risk of foreign objects or substances or body fluids getting in the eyes.

CHECK THE SYMPTOMS:

Review health risks that may increase the seriousness of your symptoms.

If you have any of the following symptoms, evaluate those symptoms first.


Do you have an object in your eye? If the object hit your eye at high speed or is a piece of metal, do not try to remove it.
Do you think you have an infection after an eye injury?Call your health professional immediately .
Call your health professional immediately if you answer “Yes” to any of the following questions.
  • Did an object hit your eye at high speed? Note: This increases your risk of serious injury to your eye. Even if symptoms appear minor, your eye should be evaluated by a doctor.
  • Do you have a loss of vision that is more than mild blurring?

Call your health professional immediately if you answer “Yes” to any of the following questions.

  • Do you have a piece of metal on the surface of your eye?
  • Do you have mild blurred vision that does not clear by blinking your eye?
  • Is your eye still painful or scratchy for 12 hours or longer after removing an object and using home treatment? Note: Put on dark glasses. Do not bandage or put pressure on the eye. Do not use any nonprescription eyedrops in the eye.
  • Are you unable to remove an object from the surface of your eye with home treatment measures?
  • Have you had pain in or around your eye, tearing, and swelling for longer than 30 minutes?
  • Do you have a feeling that something is in your eye (foreign body sensation) or a feeling of sand in your eye when you blink?

You may wait to see if the symptoms improve over the next 24 hours (or specified time period) if you answer “Yes” to any of the following questions.

  • Have you had pain, redness, swelling, sensitivity to light, or a change in vision for 24 hours or longer after removing an object from your eye?
    Note:

    If you are not 100% better 24 hours after an object has been removed from your eye, an evaluation by a doctor is needed.

  • Have you been unable to remove a contact lens for 24 hours?
Call your health professional immediately if you answer “Yes” to any of the following questions.

 

  • Do you have diabetes?
  • Do you have a disease or take medicine that causes problems with your immune system ?

Call your health professional today if you answer “Yes” to any of the following questions.

  • Do you have pain in your eye?
  • Do you feel like you have something in your eye (foreign body sensation)?
  • Are your eyes very sensitive to light ( photo phobia)?
  • Do you have a yellow, green, bloody, or watery discharge from your eye?
  • Is redness of your eye or eyelids getting worse?
  • Do you have a gray or white sore on your eye?
  • Do you know or think you have a fever?
  • Do you have blurred or decreased vision?

You may wait to see if the symptoms improve over the next 24 hours (or specified time period) if you answer “Yes” to the following question.

  • Do you have a small to moderate amount of discharge after 24 hours of home treatment?
Other Symptoms to Watch For

Do you have any of the following symptoms?

  • An eye injury other than an object in the eye:
  • An eye problem without an eye injury, such as pain, blurred vision, or blood in the eye:

Eye Problems, Noninjury.

Common types of eye problems include:

* Drainage from the eyes.
* Eyestrain or vision changes.
* Misaligned eyes or strabismus.
* Blood in the white of the eye (subconjunctival hemorrhage).
* Eyelid problems.
* Contact lens problems.
* Color blindness.
* Night blindness.
* Glaucoma.
* Cataracts.
* Retinal problems, such as diabetic retinopathy.
* Red eyes that may be caused by infection, inflammation, or tumors.
* Uveitis.
* Macular degeneration.

It is common for the eyes to be irritated or have a scratchy feeling. Pain is not a common eye problem unless there has been an injury. It is not unusual for the eyes to be slightly sensitive to light. However, sudden, painful sensitivity to light is a serious problem that may indicate glaucoma or inflammation of the muscles that control the pupil (iritis) and should be evaluated by your doctor.

Sudden problems such as new vision changes, pain in the eye, or increased drainage are often more serious and need to be evaluated by a doctor. Eye symptoms that are new or that occur suddenly may be evaluated by an emergency medicine specialist. Ongoing (chronic) eye problems that may be worsening are usually evaluated by an eye doctor (ophthalmologist).

Some children may have special risks for eye problems. Vision screening is recommended for infants who were either born at or before 30 weeks, whose birth weight was below 1500 g (3.3 lb) , or who have serious medical conditions. Most vision problems are noticed first by the parents. See tips for spotting eye problems in your child. The first screening is recommended between 4 and 7 weeks after birth.1

Review the Emergencies and Check Your Symptoms sections to determine if and when you need to see a doctor.

  • Pinkeye:

Pinkeye (also called conjunctivitis) is redness and swelling of the conjunctiva, the mucous membrane that lines the eyelid and eye surface. The lining of the eye is usually clear. If irritation or infection occurs, the lining becomes red and swollen.

Pinkeye is very common. It usually is not serious and goes away in 7 to 10 days without medical treatment.Common symptoms of pinkeye are:

* Eye redness (hyperemia).
* Swollen, red eyelids.
* More tearing than usual.
* Feeling as if something is in the eye (foreign-body sensation or keratoconjunctivitis).
* An itching or burning feeling.
* Mild sensitivity to light (photophobia).
* Drainage from the eye.

Most cases of pinkeye are caused by:

* Infections caused by viruses or bacteria.
* Dry eyes from lack of tears or exposure to wind and sun.
* Chemicals, fumes, or smoke (chemical conjunctivitis).
* Allergies.

Viral and bacterial pinkeye are contagious and spread very easily. Since most pinkeye is caused by viruses for which there is usually no medical treatment, preventing its spread is important. Poor hand-washing is the main cause of the spread of pinkeye. Sharing an object, such as a washcloth or towel, with a person who has pinkeye can spread the infection. For tips on how to prevent the spread of pinkeye, see the Prevention section of this topic.

People with infectious pinkeye should not go to school or day care, or go to work until symptoms improve.

* If the pinkeye is caused by a virus, the person can usually return to day care, school, or work when symptoms begin to improve, typically in 3 to 5 days. Medicines are not usually used to treat viral pinkeye, so it is important to prevent the spread of the infection. Pinkeye caused by a herpes virus, which is rare, can be treated with an antiviral medicine. Home treatment of viral pinkeye symptoms can help you feel more comfortable while the infection goes away.
* If the pinkeye is caused by bacteria, the person can usually return to day care, school, or work 24 hours after an antibiotic has been started if symptoms have improved. Prescription antibiotic treatment usually kills the bacteria that cause pinkeye.

Pinkeye may be more serious if you:

* Have a condition that decreases your body’s ability to fight infection (impaired immune system).
* Have vision in only one eye.
* Wear contact lenses.

Red eye

Red eye is a more general term that includes not only pinkeye but also many other problems that cause redness on or around the eye, not just the lining. Pinkeye is the main cause of red eye. Red eye has other causes, including:

* Foreign bodies, such as metal or insects. For more information, go to the topic Objects in the Eye.
* Scrapes, sores, or injury to or infection of deeper parts of the eye (for example, uveitis, iritis, or keratitis). For more information, go to the topic Eye Injuries.
* Glaucoma. For more information, go to the topics Eye Problems, Noninjury or Glaucoma.
* Infection of the eye socket and areas around the eye. For more information, go to the topic Eye Problems, Noninjury.

Swollen, red eyelids may also be caused by styes, a lump called a chalazion, inflammation of the eyelid (blepharitis), or lack of tears (dry eyes). For more information, go to the topics Styes and Chalazia or Eyelid Problems (Blepharitis).

Review the Check Your Symptoms section to determine if and when you need to see a doctor.If a visit to a health professional is not needed immediately, see the Home Treatment section for self-care information.

EMERGENCIES:

Do you have any of the following symptoms that require emergency treatment? Call 911 or other emergency services immediately.
  • An object has punctured and penetrated the eye. Note: Do not bandage or put any pressure on the eye. If an object has penetrated the eyeball, hold the object in place to prevent further movement and injury to the eye.
  • An eyeball is bulging out of its socket after an injury.
  • Sudden partial or complete vision loss has occurred after an injury. Note: Treatment is needed within 90 minutes to save vision.
HOME TREATMENT:

First aid for objects in the eye

  • Don’t rub your eye, because this could scratch the outer surface(cornea) of the eye. You may have to keep small children from rubbing their eyes.
  • Wash your hands before touching your eye.
  • If you wear contact lenses, take the contacts out before trying to remove the object or flush your eye.
  • If an object is over the dark center (pupil) of the eye or over the colored part (iris) of the eye, you may try to gently flush it out with water. If the object does not come out with flushing, put on dark glasses, and call your doctor. Do not put any pressure on the eye
  • If the object is on the white part (sclera) of the eye or inside the lower lid, wet a cotton swab or the tip of a twisted piece of tissue and touch the end to the object. The object should cling to the swab or tissue. Some minor irritation is common after you have removed the object in this way.
  • Gently flush the eye with cool water. A clean eyedropper may help. Many times the object will be under the upper eyelid and can be removed by lifting the upper lid away and flushing gently.
  • Do not try to remove a piece of metal, an object that has punctured the eye, or an object stuck on the eye after flushing with water.
  • Never use tweezers, toothpicks, or other hard items to remove any object. Using these items could cause eye damage.

If your eye symptoms are not 100% better after 24 hours of home treatment, an evaluation by a doctor is needed.

Eye injury in a child

Applying first aid measures for an eye injury in a child may be difficult depending on the child’s age, size, and ability to cooperate. Having another adult help you treat the child is helpful. Stay calm and talk in a soothing voice. Use slow, gentle movements to help the child remain calm and cooperative. A struggling child may need to be held strongly so that first aid can be started and the seriousness of the eye injury assessed.

Medicine you can buy without a prescription
Try a nonprescription medicine to help treat your fever or pain:
  • Acetaminophen, such as Tylenol or Panadol
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

    • Ibuprofen, such as Advil or Motrin
    • Naproxen, such as Aleve or Naprosyn
  • Aspirin(also a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug), such as Bayer or Bufferin
Safety tips
Be sure to follow these safety tips when you use a nonprescription medicine:
  • Carefully read and follow all directions on the medicine bottle and box.
  • Do not take more than the recommended dose.
  • Do not take a medicine if you have had an allergic reaction to it in the past.
  • If you have been told to avoid a medicine, call your doctor before you take it.
  • If you are or could be pregnant, do not take any medicine other than acetaminophen unless your doctor has told you to.
  • Do not give aspirin to anyone younger than 20 unless your doctor tells you to.

Symptoms to Watch For During Home Treatment

Use the Check Your Symptoms section to evaluate your symptoms if any of the following occur during home treatment:

  • Decreased, double, or blurred vision doesn’t clear with blinking.
  • Pain increases or continues for more than 24 hours.
  • Blood develops over the colored part (iris) of the eye.
  • Sensitivity to light (Photo phobia) develops.
  • Sign of Infection develop.
  • Symptoms become more severe or more frequent.
PREVENTION:

The following tips may help prevent eye injuries.

  • Wear safety glasses,goggles, or face shields when you work with power tools or chemicals or do any activity that might cause an object or substance to get into your eyes. Some professions, such as health care and construction, may require workers to use protective eyewear to reduce the risk of foreign objects or substances or body fluids getting in the eyes.
  • If you are welding or near someone else who is welding, wear a mask or goggles designed for welding.
  • Wear protective eyewear during sports such as baseball, hockey, racquetball, or paintball that involve the risk of a blow to the eye. Fishhook injuries are another common cause of eye injuries. Protective eyewear can prevent sports-related eye injuries more than 90% of the time. An eye examination may be helpful in determining what type of protective eyewear is needed.

Eye injuries are common in children, and many can be prevented. Most eye injuries happen in older children. They occur more often in boys than in girls. Toys—from crayons to toy guns—are a major source of injury, so check all toys for sharp or pointed parts.

Teach children about eye safety:

  • Be a good role model—always wear eye protection.
  • Get protective eyewear for your children and help them use it properly.
  • Teach children that toys that fly should not be pointed at another person.
  • Teach children how to properly carry sharp or pointed objects.
  • Teach children that any kind of missile, projectile, or BB gun is not a toy.
  • Use safety measures near fires and explosives, such as camp fires and fireworks.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

.Sources:http://health.msn.com/health-topics/first-aid/articlepage.aspx?cp-documentid=100102186

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