Tag Archives: List of leaf vegetables

Viola hirta

Botanical Name : Viola hirta
Family: Violaceae
Genus:     Viola
Species: V. hirta
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:     Malpighiales

Synonyms :Viola odorata. Viola hirta subsp. brevifimbriata W. Beck

Common Name:  Sweet Violet

Other Name :Hairy violet.

Habitat : Viola hirta have been found and is confined to the cold Temperate Zone, in Europe, N. and W. Asia, extending as far as N.-W. India. It is absent in Wales from Brecon and Radnor, Pembroke, Cardigan, Merioneth, and from Mid Lancs, and the Isle of Man, but elsewhere it is universal. In Scotland it does not occur in Roxburgh, Berwick, Haddington, Edinburgh, Fife, Forfar, Kincardine. From Forfar it ranges to the south of England, and is found at a height of 1000 ft. in Yorks. it occurs also in Ireland.It is found growing on dry banks, and in woods, preferring drier conditions. It may be found in damper areas in woods in low-lying situations. This species has a less wide range than Sweet Violet (Viola odorata). Note it is considered by some sources to be the same species as Viola odorata.

Description:
Viola hirta is an evergreen Perennial plant growing to 0.1 m (0ft 4in) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in).It does not have erect stem, the leaves arising from the rootstock directly. The leaves are likewise heart-shaped, but in this case the stoles or trailing stems with buds are absent or very short, and the bracts are below the middle of the flower-stalk. Moreover, the whole plant is hairy, or roughly hairy, giving it a greyer, less green, appearance when dry.
It is  is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Feb to April, and the seeds ripen from Apr to June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, Cleistogamous.The plant is self-fertile….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:   
Succeeds in most soils but prefers a cool moist well-drained humus-rich soil in partial or dappled shade and protection from scorching winds. When grown in the open it prefers a moderately heavy rich soil. Plants have done very well in a hot dry sunny position on our Cornish trial grounds. Tolerates sandstone and limestone soils. Plants are hardy to about -20°c. Sweet violets are very ornamental plants, there are many named varieties. They produce their delicately scented flowers in late winter and early spring – these are designed for fertilisation by bees and since there are few bees around at this time of year these flowers seldom set seed. However, the plants also produce a second type of flower later in the year. These never open, but seed is produced within them by self-fertilization. The plants will often self-sow freely when well-sited. They can also spread fairly rapidly at the roots when they are growing well. Responds well to an annual replanting in rich loose leafy soils. All members of this genus have more or less edible leaves and flower buds, though those species with yellow flowers can cause diarrhoea if eaten in large quantities.

Propagation:          
Seed – best sown in the autumn in a cold frame. The seed requires a period of cold stratification and the germination of stored seed can be erratic. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer. Division in the autumn or just after flowering. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions, though we have found that it is best to pot up smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a greenhouse or cold frame until they are growing away well. Plant them out in the summer or the following spring.

Edible Uses: Condiment;  Tea.

Young leaves and flower buds are eaten raw or cooked. Usually available all through the winter. The leaves have a very mild flavour, though they soon become quite tough as they grow older. They make a very good salad, their mild flavour enabling them to be used in bulk whilst other stronger-tasting leaves can then be added to give more flavour[K]. When added to soup they thicken it in much the same way as okra. Also used as a flavouring in puddings etc. A tea can be made from the leaves. Flowers – raw. Used to decorate salads and desserts. A sweet mild flavour with a delicate perfume, the flowers are an especially welcome decoration for the salad bowl since they are available in late winter. The flowers are also used fresh to flavour and colour confectionery. A soothing tea can be made from the leaves and flowers. A leaf extract is used to flavour sweets, baked goods and ice cream

Medicinal Uses:
Viola hirta has a long and proven history of folk use, especially in the treatment of cancer and whooping cough. It also contains salicylic acid, which is used to make aspirin. It is therefore effective in the treatment of headaches, migraine and insomnia. The whole plant is anti-inflammatory, diaphoretic, diuretic, emollient, expectorant, and laxative. It is taken internally in the treatment of bronchitis, respiratory catarrh, coughs, asthma, and cancer of the breast, lungs or digestive tract. Externally, it is used to treat mouth and throat infections. The plant can either be used fresh, or harvested when it comes into flower and then be dried for later use. The flowers are demulcent and emollient. They are used in the treatment of biliousness and lung troubles. The petals are made into a syrup and used in the treatment of infantile disorders. The roots is a much stronger expectorant than other parts of the plant but they also contain the alkaloid violine which at higher doses is strongly emetic and purgative. They are gathered in the autumn and dried for later use. The seeds are diuretic and purgative. They have been used in the treatment of urinary complaints are considered to be a good remedy for gravel. A homeopathic remedy is made from the whole fresh plant. It is considered useful in the treatment of spasmodic coughs and rheumatism of the wrist. An essential oil from the flowers is used in aromatherapy in the treatment of bronchial complaints, exhaustion and skin complaints.

Other Uses:
Essential;  Litmus.

An essential oil from the flowers and leaves is used in perfumery. 1000kg of leaves produces about 300 – 400g absolute. The flowers are used to flavour breath fresheners. A pigment extracted from the flowers is used as a litmus to test for acids and alkalines. Plants can be grown as a ground cover when spaced about 30cm apart each way. They make an effective weed-excluding cover

Known Hazards:     May cause vomiting for some persons. Possible additive effect with laxatives.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/v/viohai11.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viola_hirta
http://pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Viola+odorata

Penthorum sedoides

Botanical Name : Penthorum sedoides
Family:    Penthoraceae
Genus:    Penthorum
Species:P. sedoides
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:    Saxifragales

Synonyms: Penthorum.

Common Names: Virginian Stonecrop ,Ditch Stonecrop

Habitat :Penthorum sedoides is  native to America. It is widely distributed in the United States and Canada.It grows on low wet ground. Ditches and swamps.

Description:
Penthorum sedoides is a biennial plant, with stems about a foot high, on which the leaves are placed on alternate sides, on short stalks. They are oblong, 2 to 3 inches long and about a third as broad, smooth and thin, the apex pointed and the margins finely toothed. The flowers are small and greenish, on short flower-stalks, in rows along the upper sides of the branches of the terminal cyme: there are five very small petals and five sepals, and the ovary is five-cleft and five-celled, surrounded by ten stamens with filaments twice as long as the calyx. The genus Penthorum differs from the genus Sedum, in having no nectaries in its flowers.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Edible Uses: Leaves – cooked. Used as a potherb.

Medicinal Uses:
A tincture of the plant is somewhat astringent, demulcent, laxative and tonic. The plant is noted for its effectiveness in treating catarrhal problems of many kinds and has also been used successfully in treating diarrhoea, haemorrhoids and infantile cholera. The seeds have been used in making cough syrups.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/s/stonec91.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penthorum_sedoides
http://www.naturalmedicinalherbs.net/herbs/p/penthorum-sedoides=virginian-stonecrop.php

Sedum telephium

Botanical Name: Sedum telephium
Family:    Crassulaceae
Genus:    Hylotelephium
Species:H. telephium
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:    Saxifragales

Synonyms: Live Long. Life Everlasting. , (French) Herbe aux charpentiers. Sedum carpathicum. Sedum fabaria. Sedum purpurascens. Hylotelephium telephium. (L.)H.Ohba.

Common Names:Orpine, livelong, frog’s-stomach, harping Johnny, life-everlasting, live-forever, Midsummer-men, Orphan John, Witch’s Moneybags

Habitat: Sedum telephium  is native to Europe, incl Britain, south and east from Scandanavia to the Pyrenees, temperate Asia, N. America.It grows on hedge banks and the shady sides of damp woods

Description:
Sedum telephium is a perennial plant, growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) by 0.3 m (1ft). The root-stock is  large and fleshy, producing small parsnip-shaped tubers, with a whitish-grey rind, containing a considerable store of nourishment. The stalks are numerous, erect, unbranched, round and solid, generally of a reddish tint, spotted and streaked with a deeper red above. The flat, fleshy leaves, bluish-green in colour, are numerous, placed alternately on the stem at very short intervals, and coarsely toothed. The upper leaves are rounded at their bases and without foot-stalks, the lower ones taper at the base to a short stalk, being almost wedge-shaped; they are largest and closest together about the middle of the stem, where they are 1 1/2 to 3 inches long.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
The flowers are in compact heads at the top of the stems, forming a brilliant mass of crimson, in most cases, though sometimes whitish, suffused with dull purplish rose. They are spreading and acutely pointed, three times as long as the calyx. In their centre are ten conspicuous stamens, with reddish anthers, and the ovaries they surround are also reddish.

The whole plant is smooth and somewhat shiny. It flowers in July and seeds in August.

Cultivation:       
Succeeds in most soils but prefers a fertile well-drained soil that is not too dry. Tolerates poor soils. Succeeds in most soils and is tolerant of quite deep shade. Established plants are drought tolerant, they grow well in dry soils and can be grown in crevices on walls. Hardy to about -20°c. This species has pink to red flowers. All members of this genus are said to have edible leaves, though those species that have yellow flowers can cause stomach upsets if they are eaten in quantity. Polymorphic, intergrading with S. caucasicum where their ranges meet. Plants in this genus seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits.

Propagation:    
Seed – surface sow in spring in well-drained soil in a sunny position in a greenhouse. Do not allow the soil to dry out. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. If sufficient growth is made, it is possible to plant them out during the summer, otherwise keep them in a cold-frame or greenhouse for their first winter and plant them out in early summer of the following year[K]. Division is very easy and can be carried out at almost any time in the growing season, though is probably best done in spring or early summer. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found it best to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in a lightly shaded position in a cold frame, planting them out once they are well established in the summer. Cuttings can be taken at almost any time in the growing season, though early in the season is probably best.

Edible Uses: The leaves are eaten  raw or cooked. They have occasionally been used in salads. Sometimes the root is cooked and eaten as soups, stews etc
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Medicinal Uses:
The whole plant is astringent and cytostatic. It is a popular remedy for diarrhoea, stimulates the kidneys and has a reputation in the treatment of cancer. A poultice of the crushed leaves has been used in the treatment of boils and carbuncles.

Other Uses:  .The plant is noted for attracting wildlife.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Sedum+telephium
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hylotelephium_telephium
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/s/stonec91.html

Sedum reflexum

Botanical Name : Sedum reflexum
Family:    Crassulaceae
Genus:    Sedum
Species:S. reflexum
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:    Saxifragales

Synonym: Stonecrop Houseleek.

Common Names: Sedum reflexum or Sedum rupestre, also known as reflexed stonecrop, blue stonecrop, Jenny’s stonecrop and prick-madam, The Stonecrop Houseleek of the old herbalists goes now by the name of Crooked Yellow Stonecrop.

Habitat: Sedum reflexum is native to northern, central, and southwestern Europe.It grows on Walls, shingle and warm grassy places on sandy soils. Avoids acid soils.

Description:
Sedum reflexum is an evergreen Perennial growing to 0.1 m (0ft 4in) by 0.3 m (1ft) with sprawling stems and stiff foliage resembling spruce branches, with softer tissue. The leaves are frequently blue-gray to gray but range to light greens and yellows; the flowers are yellow. Like most other Sedum species, it has a prostrate, spreading habit.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
It is hardy to zone (UK) 7 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to August, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, lepidoptera, self.The plant is self-fertile.

Cultivation: 
Succeeds in most soils but prefers a fertile well-drained soil. Requires a sunny position. The plant flowers best when grown in a sunny position, though it also succeeds in semi-shade. Established plants are very drought tolerant, they grow well in dry soils and can also be grown in a crevice on a wall. This species is hardy to about -15°c. A mat forming plant, it spreads rapidly and it is not suitable for the rockery. All members of this genus are said to have edible leaves, though those species, such as this one, that have yellow flowers can cause stomach upsets if they are eaten in quantity. Plants in this genus seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits.

Propagation:
Seed – surface sow in spring in well-drained soil in a sunny position in a greenhouse. Do not allow the soil to dry out. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. If sufficient growth is made, it is possible to plant them out during the summer, otherwise keep them in a cold-frame or greenhouse for their first winter and plant them out in early summer of the following year[K]. Division is very easy and can be carried out at almost any time in the growing season, though is probably best done in spring or early summer. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found it best to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in a lightly shaded position in a cold frame, planting them out once they are well established in the summe

Edible Uses:  
Leaves – raw or cooked. A slightly astringent sour taste makes this plant a useful addition to a green tossed salad and it can also be added to soups or used as a vegetable. Used in salads, it has a fine relish.

Medicinal Uses:
Culpepper considered that as ‘it is more frequent than the white stonecrop, flowering at the same time, it may very well supply its place.’ He goes on to tell us that the Houseleek, ‘though not given inwardly, yet is recommended by some to quench thirst in fever.’ Mixed with posset drink, 3 OZ. of the juice of this and Persicaria maculata, boiled to the consistence of a julep, are recommended to allay the heat of inflammation.

Other Uses:
Sedum reflexum is a popular ornamental plant, grown in gardens, containers, and as houseplants. It is drought-tolerant. There are named cultivars with variegated (multi-colored) leaves.

A good ground cover plant for a sunny position. The somewhat open growth habit makes it suitable for growing with larger bulbs such as some lilies.

Known Hazards:  Although not poisonous, if large quantities of this plant are eaten it can cause a stomach upset.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sedum_reflexum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Sedum+reflexum
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/s/stonec91.html

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Sedum acre

Botanical Name :Sedum acre
Family: Crassulaceae
Genus:Sedum
Species:S. acre
Kingdom:Plantae
Order:Saxifragales

Synonyms: Biting Stonecrop. Wallpepper. Golden Moss. Wall Ginger. Bird Bread. Prick Madam. Gold Chain. Creeping Tom. Mousetail. Jack-of-the-Buttery.
(French) Pain d’oiseau.
Common Names:  Goldmoss stonecrop, Mossy stonecrop, Goldmoss sedum, Biting stonecrop, and wallpepper

Habitat :Sedum acre is native to Europe, but also naturalised in North America and New Zealand.It is a low-growing plant that cannot compete with more vigorous, fast-growing species. It is specially adapted for growing on thin dry soils and can be found on shingle, beaches, drystone walls, dry banks, seashore rocks, roadside verges, wasteland and in sandy meadows near the sea.

Description:     Sedum acre is a tufted perennial herb that forms mat-like stands some 5 to 12 cm (2 to 5 in) tall. Much of the year the stems are short, semi prostrate and densely clad in leaves. At the flowering time in June and July, the stems lengthen and are erect, somewhat limp and often pinkish-brown with the leaves further apart. The leaves are alternate, fleshy and shortly cylindrical with a rounded tip. They are also sometimes tinged with red. The starry flowers form a three to six-flowered cyme. The calyx has five fleshy sepals fused at the base, the corolla consists of five regular bright yellow petals, there are ten stamens, a separate gynoecium and five pistils. The fruit is five united, many-seeded follicles. The leaves contain an acrid fluid that can cause skin rashes...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
A very easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils but prefers a sunny position in a fertile well-drained soil. Established plants are drought tolerant. Grows well on walls. Plants can be very aggressive and invasive, spreading freely at the roots. If clearing the plant from an area it is quite important to try and remove every part of the plant since even a small part of the stem, if left in the ground, can form roots and develop into a new plant. All members of this genus are said to have edible leaves, though those species, such as this one, that have yellow flowers can cause stomach upsets if they are eaten in quantity. Plants in this genus seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits.

Propagation:
Seed – surface sow in spring in well-drained soil in a sunny position in a greenhouse. Do not allow the soil to dry out. It can also be sown in the autumn in a cold frame, some seed germinates immediately whilst others germinate in the spring. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. If sufficient growth is made, it is possible to plant them out during the summer, otherwise keep them in a cold-frame or greenhouse for their first winter and plant them out in early summer of the following year. Division is very easy and can be carried out at almost any time in the growing season, though is probably best done in spring or early summer. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found it best to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in a lightly shad.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Leaves.

Leaves – raw or cooked. Rich in vitamin C, but it has a bitter acrid taste. The main interest in the edible qualities of this plant is as a survival food, since it grows wild in the driest deserts as well as in arctic conditions. Large quantities can cause stomach upsets. It is best to dry the leaves (which can be difficult because they are very fleshy) and then powder them and use them to add a peppery taste to foods. The leaves are dried and ground into a powder to make a spicy seasoning.

Medicinal Uses:
Astringent; Foot care; Hypotensive; Laxative; Rubefacient; Vermifuge; Vulnerary.

The herb is astringent, hypotensive, laxative, rubefacient, vermifuge and vulnerary. It is considered to be a useful medicinal plant by some herbalists, though others do not use it because of the violence of its operation when taken internally. One of its best uses is as an effective and harmless corn-remover, it can also be used to bring boils to a head, though this can also cause some local irritation. The bruised fresh plant is applied as a poultice to wounds and minor burns, though some care should be exercised because the plant can cause blisters or skin irritations. The herb is difficult to dry and so is best used when fresh, it can be gathered at any time during the spring and summer. A homeopathic remedy is made from the plant. It is used in the treatment of piles and anal irritations.

The bruised leaves, fresh or in ointments, are soothing for wounds, abcesses, bruises and minor burns.  Taken internally, the plant, or its expressed juice, has an emeto-cathartic action, and was recommended in scrofulous affections, malarial fevers, and even in epilepsy; however, it is rarely employed at the present day, except, occasionally, as a local application to glandular enlargements, to scrofulous ulcers, and to some chronic cutaneous maladies—the fresh leaves only (bruised) being used—thus applied to warts, corns, or similar growths, it is said to ultimately effect their removal. It is said to relieve “the extreme sensitiveness associated with disorders of the reproductive function” It has been considered useful in intermittent fever and in dropsy. In large doses it is emetic and cathartic, and applied externally will sometimes produce blisters.  Traditionally known as an abortive.  In Scotland, this plant was used in the past as a vermifuge, as a cure for  scurvy and scrofula (tuberculosis of the lymph glands in the neck).  The plant contains an acrid juice, and this has been used in the treatment of cancer, acts as an emetic, and has been used to cure dropsy. An old recipe against dropsy proposes boiling an ounce of the plant in twelve ounces of ale, the resultant infusion to be taken over the period of a day in four doses.  In Poland, as a treatment for a sore throat, it was scalded and applied to the throat.  The juice from the leaves, crushed and applied to cancerous ulcers as a poultice, brought relief and healing if changed frequently.  Rinsing the mouth with a decoction of the herb strengthened the gums and decreased the damage caused by scurvy.  Fried with an equal amount of thyme in unsalted fat, it made a salve for wounds.
Other Uses:
The plant spreads aggressively and can be used for ground cover in a sunny position amongst plants tall enough not to be overrun by it. Many species of the stronger-growing bulbs such as lilies can grow successfully through it.

Known Hazards: The sap can irritate the skin of some people. Other reports suggest that no members of this genus are poisonous. The flowers are yellow which suggests that in quantity the leaves can cause stomach upsets.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider
Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sedum_acre
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?latinname=Sedum+acre
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/s/stonec91.html

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