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Herbs & Plants

Allium sativum ophioscorodon

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Botanical Name: Allium sativum ophioscorodon
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily:Allioideae
Tribe: Allieae
Genus: Allium
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Common Name: Serpent Garlic

Habitats: Original habitat of Allium sativum ophioscorodon is obscure. It is grown in cultivated bed.
Description:
Allium sativum ophioscorodon is a bulb growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in).
It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to August.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.
Cultivation:
Succeeds in most soils but prefers a sunny position in a moist light well-drained soil. Dislikes very acid soils. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.5 to 8.3. The bulb is liable to rot if grown in a wet soil. Hardy to at least -10°c. The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply. Garlic is widely cultivated in most parts of the world for its edible bulb, which is used mainly as a flavouring in foods. This sub-species differs mainly in forming more bulbils on the flowering head, and this flowering head usually coils into 1- 2 loops before opening. Since it produces these bulbils (which make an excellent garlic, though they are rather on the small side) as well as underground cloves, it can be more productive. We often grow this plant for a number of years before digging it up – it forms larger and larger clumps each year, with an abundance of bulbils. There are a number of named varieties. Bulb formation occurs in response to increasing daylength and temperature. It is also influenced by the temperature at which the cloves were stored prior to planting. Cool storage at temperatures between 0 and 10°c will hasten subsequent bulb formation, storage at above 25°c will delay or prevent bulb formation. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Plant out the cloves in late autumn for an early summer crop[33, 200]. They can also be planted in late winter to early spring though yields may not be so good. Plant the cloves with their noses just below the soil surface[200]. If the bulbs are left in the ground all year, they will often produce tender young leaves in the winter[K]. Bulbils, harvested in late summer, are best sown immediately in pots in a cold greenhouse, planting out in late spring after the last expected frosts. They can also be stored in a cool place over the winter and then be planted outdoors like onion sets. They will not make such a big plant in their first year, however
Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Root; Seed.

Bulb – raw or cooked. Widely used, especially in southern Europe, as a flavouring in a wide range of foods, both raw and cooked. Garlic is a wonderfully nutritious and health giving addition to the diet, but it has a very strong flavour and so is mainly used in very small quantities as a flavouring in salads and cooked foods. A nutritional analysis is available. The bulbs can be up to 6cm in diameter. Bulbils – raw or cooked. An excellent strong garlic flavour, though they are rather small and therefore fiddly to peel. Leaves – raw or cooked. Chopped and used in salads, they are rather milder than the bulbs. The Chinese often cultivate garlic especially for the leaves, these can be produced in the middle of winter in mild winters. The flowering stems are used as a flavouring and are sometimes sold in Chinese shops. The sprouted seed is added to salads.

Medicinal Uses:
Anthelmintic; Antiasthmatic; Anticholesterolemic; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic; Cancer; Cholagogue; Diaphoretic;
Diuretic; Expectorant; Febrifuge; Stimulant; Stings; Stomachic; Tonic;
Vasodilator.

Garlic has a very long folk history of use in a wide range of ailments, particularly ailments such as ringworm, Candida and vaginitis where its fungicidal, antiseptic, tonic and parasiticidal properties have proved of benefit. The plant produces inhibitory effects on gram-negative germs of the typhoid-paratyphoid-enteritis group, indeed it possesses outstanding germicidal properties and can keep amoebic dysentery at bay. It is also said to have anticancer activity. It has also been shown that garlic aids detoxification of chronic lead poisoning. Daily use of garlic in the diet has been shown to have a very beneficial effect on the body, especially the blood system and the heart. For example, demographic studies suggest that garlic is responsible for the low incidence of arteriosclerosis in areas of Italy and Spain where consumption of the bulb is heavy. Recent research has also indicated that garlic reduces glucose metabolism in diabetics, slows the development of arteriosclerosis and lowers the risk of further heart attacks in myocardial infarct patients. Externally, the expressed juice is an excellent antiseptic for treating wounds. The fresh bulb is much more effective medicinally than stored bulbs, extended storage greatly reduces the anti-bacterial action. The bulb is said to be anthelmintic, antiasthmatic, anticholesterolemic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, cholagogue, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, stimulant, stings, stomachic, tonic, vasodilator.
Other Uses:
Adhesive; Fungicide; Repellent.

The juice from the bulb is used as an insect repellent. It has a very strong smell and some people would prefer to be bitten. The juice can also be applied to any stings in order to ease the pain. 3 – 4 tablespoons of chopped garlic and 2 tablespoons of grated soap can be infused in 1 litre of boiling water, allowed to cool and then used as an insecticide. An excellent glue can be made from the juice, when this is spread on glass it enables a person to cut clean holes in the glass, The juice is also used as a glue in mending glass and china. An extract of the plant can be used as a fungicide. It is used in the treatment of blight and mould or fungal diseases of tomatoes and potatoes. If a few cloves of garlic are spread amongst stored fruit, they will act to delay the fruit from rotting. The growing plant is said to repel insects, rabbits and moles.
Known Hazards : There have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals, of this species. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garlic
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+sativum+ophioscorodon

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Herbs & Plants

Calochortus gunnisonii

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Botanical Name ; Calochortus gunnisonii
Family: Liliaceae
Genus: Calochortus
Species: C. gunnisonii
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Liliales

Common Names: Gunnison’s mariposa lily, Lily, Mariposa, Mariposa Lily, Gunnison’s mariposa lily

Habitat : Calochortus gunnisonii is native to the western United States, primarily in the Rocky Mountains and Black Hills: Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, northwestern Nebraska (Sioux County) and eastern Idaho (Fremont County).
It grows on grassy hillsides and open coniferous woods[60]. Found in a variety of habitats from moist meadows and open woods to sandy and rocky hillsides and dry gulches between 1,200 and 3,300 metres.

Description:
Calochortus gunnisonii is a bulb-forming perennial with straight stems up to 55 cm tall.It is a typically large and beautiful member of the genus; its bell-shaped flowers have three broad, rounded white (rarely pink or pale yellow) petals and three thin, shorter, pointed sepals, with a ring of fine greenish-yellow hairs around the center and a circular band of purple. In the middle are six anthers and a three pronged stigma. Flowers are about 2 inches in diameter. The thin, bendy stalks bear a few grass-like leaves, and can branch a few times towards the top. Stem and leaves are hairless. Plants sprout from (edible) bulbs, usually deeply buried.

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 Varieties:
*Calochortus gunnisonii var. gunnisonii – most of species range
*Calochortus gunnisonii var. perpulcher Cockerell – New Mexico

USDA hardiness zone : 3-7 Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.
Cultivation:
Requires a deep very well-drained fertile sandy soil in a sunny position and must be kept dry from mid summer to late autumn. This is a rather difficult plant to cultivate in Britain, it is very cold hardy but is intolerant of wetness especially in the winter. It is easiest to grow in a bulb frame but is worth trying outdoors at the base of a south-facing wall, especially with shrubs that like these conditions. Bulbs can be lifted as soon as the foliage dies down in the summer and stored overwinter in a cool dry place, replanting in the spring. The bulbs must be replanted immediately according to another report. Bulbs frequently divide after flowering, the bulblets taking 2 years to reach flowering size. This species is closely related to C. ambiguus. Hand pollination is necessary if seed is required.
Propagation:
Seed – sow as soon as ripe or early spring in a cold frame in a very sharply draining medium. Stratification may be helpful. Germination usually takes place within 1 – 6 months at 15°c. Leave the seedlings undisturbed for their first two years growth], but give them an occasional liquid feed to ensure they do not become nutrient deficient. It is quite difficult to get the seedlings through their first period of dormancy since it is all too easy either to dry them out completely or keep them too moist when they will rot. After their second year of growth, pot up the dormant bulbs in late summer and grow them on for at least another 2 years in the greenhouse before trying them outside. Seedlings take about 5 – 7 years to come into flower. Division of the bulbs as soon as the foliage dies down. The bulbs can be planted straight out into their permanent positions but in areas with wet winters it might be best to store them overwinter and replant them in the spring. Stem bulbils, harvested from the stems after flowering. They can be stored cool and dry then planted in pots in the cold frame in the spring
Edible Uses :
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Root; Seed.
Edible Uses:

Bulb – raw or cooked. One report says that the raw bulb tastes like a raw new potato. It has a crisp nut-like texture and a pleasant flavour when cooked. The bulb can be dried and ground into a powder for making a sweet porridge, mush etc. Leaves – cooked. It is hard to obtain a sufficient quantity and use of the leaves will weaken the bulbs. Seed – ground into a powder. Flower buds – raw. Added to salads.

Medicinal Uses:
An infusion of the plant has been taken internally to treat rheumatic swellings by the Acoma and Laguna Indians and by the Navajo to ease the delivery of the placenta. Juice of the leaves were applied to pimples.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calochortus_gunnisonii
http://www.americansouthwest.net/plants/wildflowers/calochortus-gunnisonii.html
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Calochortus+gunnisonii