Definition :Nausea is the sensation of having an urge to vomit. Vomiting is forcing the contents of the stomach up through the esophagus and out of the mouth.
Considerations:Your body has a few main ways to respond to an ever-changing, wide variety of invaders and irritants. Sneezing ejects the intruders from the nose, coughing from the lungs and throat, diarrhea from the intestines, and vomiting from the stomach.
Nausea and vomiting are natural, possibly lifesaving, reactions to eating something dangerous or to illness. But occasionally they occur even when there’s no risk to health.
Vomiting is a forceful action accomplished by a fierce, downward contraction of the diaphragm. At the same time, the abdominal muscles tighten against a relaxed stomach with an open sphincter. The contents of the stomach are propelled up and out.
You may have more saliva just before vomiting.
Vomiting is a complex, coordinated reflex orchestrated by the vomiting center of the brain. It responds to signals coming from:
The mouth, stomach, and intestines
The bloodstream, which may contain medicines or infections
The balancing systems in the ear (motion sickness)
The brain itself, including unsettling sights, smells, or thoughts
An amazing variety of stimuli can trigger vomiting, from migraines to kidney stones. Sometimes, just seeing someone else vomit will start you vomiting, in your body’s effort to protect you from possible exposure to the same danger.
Vomiting is common. Almost all children will vomit several times during their childhood. In most cases, it is due to a viral gastrointestinal infection.
Spitting up, the gentle sloshing of stomach contents up and out of the mouth, sometimes with a burp, is an entirely different process. Some spitting up is normal for babies, and usually gets gradually better over time. If spitting up worsens or is more frequent, it might be reflux disease. Discuss this with your child’s doctor.
Most of the time, nausea and vomiting do not require urgent medical attention. However, if the symptoms continue for days, they are severe, or you cannot keep down any food or fluids, you may have a more serious condition.
Dehydration is the main concern with most vomiting. How fast you become dehydrated depends on your size, frequency of vomiting, and whether you also have diarrhea.
Sweating and chills.
The following are possible causes of vomiting:
Seasickness or motion sickness
Morning sickness during pregnancy
Chemotherapy in cancer patients
These are possible causes of vomiting in infants (0 – 6 months):
Congenital pyloric stenosis, a constriction in the outlet from the stomach (the infant vomits forcefully after each feeding but otherwise appears to be healthy)
Food allergies or milk intolerance
Gastroenteritis (infection of the digestive tract that usually causes vomiting with diarrhea)
An inborn error of metabolism
Hole in the bottle nipple may be wrong size, leading to overfeeding
Infection, often accompanied by fever or runny nose
Intestinal obstruction, evidenced by recurring attacks of vomiting and crying or screaming as if in great pain
Accidentally ingesting a drug or poison.
Call the doctor immediately or take the child to an emergency care facility if you suspect poisoning or drug ingestion!
It is important to stay hydrated. Try steady, small amounts of clear liquids, such as electrolyte solutions. Other clear liquids — such as water, ginger ale, or fruit juices — also work unless the vomiting is severe or it is a baby who is vomiting.
For breastfed babies, breastmilk is usually best. Formula-fed babies usually need clear liquids.
Do not drink too much at one time. Stretching the stomach can make nausea and vomiting worse. Avoid solid foods until there has been no vomiting for six hours, and then work slowly back to a normal diet.
An over-the-counter bismuth stomach remedy like Pepto-Bismol is effective for upset stomach, nausea, indigestion, and diarrhea. Because it contains aspirin-like salicylates, it should NOT be used in children or teenagers who might have (or recently had) chickenpox or the flu.
Most vomiting comes from mild viral illnesses. Nevertheless, if you suspect the vomiting is from something serious, the person may need to be seen immediately.
There is currently no treatment that has been approved by the FDA for morning sickness in pregnant women.
The following may help treat motion sickness:
Over-the-counter antihistamines (such as Dramamine)
Scopolamine prescription skin patches (such as Transderm Scop) are useful for extended trips, such as an ocean voyage. Place the patch 4 – 12 hours before setting sail. Scopolamine is effective but may produce dry mouth, blurred vision, and some drowsiness. Scopolamine is for adults only. It should NOT be given to children.
What Else You Can Do
Lie down with a cool cloth on your forehead to relieve nausea. Focus on your breathing to prevent thinking about how you feel.
Dosage: 200 mg every 4 hours as needed.
Comments: Standardized to contain gingerols.
Dosage: 1 enteric-coated capsule 3 times a day.
Comments: Each capsule should contain 0.2 ml peppermint oil.
Dosage: 125 mg standardized extract every 4 hours as needed.
Comments: Don’t use during pregnancy or with high blood pressure.
Simple Home Remedy :
Powdered cinnamon and sliced ginger work by interrupting nausea signals sent from the stomach to the brain. If you are a herbal tea drinker, simply sprinkle powdered cinnamom on the tea and drink. You can also drink ginger-tea to check nausea.
CanTravel – Proven natural healing herbal motion sickness remedy
Motion Sickness Remedy – Home Treatment for Nausea and Vomiting.
Call your health care provider if :
Call if the person has:
Vomiting longer than 24 hours
Blood or bile in the vomit
Severe abdominal pain
Headache and stiff neck
Signs of dehydration
Signs of dehydration include:
Infrequent urination or dark yellow urine
Eyes that appear sunken
Crying without tears
Loss of normal skin elasticity (if you touch or squeeze the skin, it doesn’t bounce back the way it usually does)
You should also call if:
A young child is lethargic or has marked irritability
An infant is vomiting repeatedly
A child is unable to retain any fluids for 8 hours or more
The vomiting is recurrent
An adult is unable to retain any fluids for 12 hours or more
Nausea persists for a prolonged period of time (in a person who is not pregnant)
The following diagnostic tests may be performed:
Blood tests (such as CBC with differential and basic electrolytes)
X-rays of the abdomen
If dehydration is severe, you may need intravenous fluids. This may require hospitalization, although it can often be done in the doctor’s office. The use of antivomiting drugs (anti-emetics) is controversial, and they should be used only in severe cases.
Chewing a couple of cloves while traveling will relieve motion sickness.
A number of medicines are effective at preventing vomiting. Your doctor is unlikely to prescribe these because, in most situations, the vomiting is an important part of getting well. In some situations, however, preventing the vomiting makes life much better.
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.
Source:http:www.nlm.nih.gov and www.rd.com