Peumus boldus Molina

Botanical Name :Peumus boldus Molina
Family : Monimiaceae – Monimia family
Genus : Peumus Molina – peumus
Species : Peumus boldus Molina – boldo
Kingdom : Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom :Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division :Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass: Magnoliidae
Order: Laurales

Synonyms : Boldu boldus. Boldea fragrans. Boldea boldus. Boldu chilanum

Common Name:  Boldu, Boldo

Habitat :Peumus boldus Molina is native to  S. America – Chile  It grows on Dry sunny slopes in lightly wooded country.

Description:
Peumus boldus Molina is an evergreen Tree growing to 6 m (19ft 8in) at a slow rate.

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It is hardy to zone 9. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Aug to September. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is not self-fertile.

Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Cultivation :    
Dislikes soils that are too moist. Prefers a well-drained acid sandy soil in full sun. Hardy in climatic zone 9 (tolerating occasional light frosts), this plant normally requires greenhouse protection in Britain but is capable of withstanding light frosts and might succeed outdoors in the mildest areas of the country, especially if grown against a sunny wall. One report says that the plant succeeds outdoors at Kew Gardens in London, where it often flowers all year round. All parts of the plant are sweetly aromatic. The leaves have a lemon-camphor aroma. Dioecious, male and female plants must be grown if fruit and seed is required.

Propagation:   
Seed – sow spring in a warm greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in early summer and give them some protection from winter cold for at least their first winter or two outdoors. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Grow the cuttings on in the frame or greenhouse for at least their first winter.

 
Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw or cooked. Sweet and aromatic with an agreeable flavour. The fruit is up to 2cm in diameter. The leaves and bark are used as a condiment.

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Constituents:  alkaloids (boldine) and flavonoids, resin, and tannins. essential oil: ascaridole, camphor, cineole, linalool, limonene

Medicinal Uses:
Analgesic;  Antiseptic;  Antispasmodic;  Bitter;  Cholagogue;  Diuretic;  Stimulant;  Tonic.

Boldu is a traditional remedy used by the Araucanian Indians of Chile as a tonic. The plant stimulates liver activity and bile flow and is chiefly valued as a remedy for gallstones and liver or gallbladder pain. It is normally taken for only a few weeks at a time, either as an infusion or as a tincture. It is often combined with other herbs such as Berberis vulgaris or Chionanthus virginicus in the treatment of gallstones. The leaves are analgesic, antiseptic (urinary), bitter, cholagogue, diuretic, stimulant and tonic. They are considered a valuable cure for gonorrhoea in S. America. The plant is taken internally in the treatment of liver disease (though the bark is more effective here), gallstones, urinary tract infections, intestinal parasites and rheumatism. It has been used in the past as a substitute for quinine in the treatment of malaria. The leaves are harvested during the growing season and are dried for later use. Some caution is advised, the plant should not be used by pregnant women. See also the notes above on toxicity. A volatile oil obtained from the plant destroys internal parasites. Alkaloids contained in the bark are a stimulant for the liver. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Peumus boldus for dyspeptic complaints (indigestion)  for critics of commission E).

Boldo is one of the best liver tonics in the world and also has an affinity for kidneys and bladder. Boldo activates the secretion of saliva and stimulates liver activity and bile flow and is chiefly valued as a remedy for gallstones and liver or gallbladder pain. Boldine, one of its constituents, induces the flow of bile as well as the total amount of solids that it excretes. Its protective action over the hepatic cells has been demonstrated “in vitro” and “in vivo”. It is normally taken for a few weeks at a time, either as a tincture or infusion. Boldo is also a mild urinary antiseptic and demulcent, and may be taken for infections such as cystitis. In the Anglo-American tradition, boldo is combined with barberry and fringe tree in the treatment of gallstones. It makes a drinkable tea and combined with goldenseal is excellent for kidney and bladder infections.

Boldo leaves are the subject of a German therapeutic monograph which allows the use for mild gastrointestinal spasms and dyspeptic disorders as well as a subject of a US monograph which shows that boldo causes clinically significant diuresis. The plant is used in homeopathy in the treatment of digestive disorders, as a laxative, choleretic, diuretic, and for hepatic disturbances. The leaves have been used for worms, and Dr. James Duke reports its traditional use for urogenital inflammations like gonorrhea and syphilis, as well as for gout, jaundice, dyspepsia, rheumatism, head colds and earaches. Boldo is rich in phytochemicals including at least 17 known alkaloids. A total of at least 38 phytochemical compounds have been identified. Antioxidant properties of the leaves has also been documented. A recent human study demonstrated that Boldo relaxes smooth muscle and prolongs intestinal transit which validated again its traditional medicinal uses. The average therapeutic dose is reported to be 2-3 grams daily.

Other Uses  
Beads;  Charcoal;  Dye;  Essential;  Repellent;  Tannin.

The bark is a source of tannin and is also used as a dye. A deliciously fragrant essential oil is obtained from the leaves. The dried and powdered leaves are scattered amongst clothes to sweeten them and repel insects. The small fruits are dried and used as beads in necklaces. When warmed by the body or the sun they release the scent of cinnamon. The wood is used for making charcoal.

Known Hazards :   The leaves contain a toxic alkaloid. Boldo volatile oil is one of the most toxic oils. Excessive doses have caused irritation of the kidneys and genitourinary tract. A massive overdose can cause paralysis . Should not use by patients with kidney disease

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Peumus+boldus
http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail223.php
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PEBO5

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_AB.htm

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