Tag Archives: Hypercholesterolemia

Lipid profile or Lipid panel

Definition:
A complete cholesterol test — also called a lipid panel or lipid profile: — It is a blood test that can measure the amount of cholesterol and triglycerides in your blood. A cholesterol test can help determine your risk of atherosclerosis, the buildup of plaques in your arteries that can lead to narrowed or blocked arteries throughout your body. High cholesterol levels usually don’t cause and signs or symptoms, so a cholesterol test is an important tool. High cholesterol levels are a significant risk factor for heart disease.

An extended lipid profile may include very low-density lipoprotein. This is used to identify hyperlipidemia (various disturbances of cholesterol and triglyceride levels), many forms of which are recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease and sometimes pancreatitis.

It is recommended that healthy adults with no other risk factors for heart disease be tested with a fasting lipid profile once every five years. Individuals may also be screened using only a cholesterol test and not a full lipid profile. However, if the cholesterol test result is high, there may be the need to have follow-up testing with a lipid profile.

 

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If there are other risk factors or the individual has had a high cholesterol level in the past, regular testing is needed and the individual should have a full lipid profile.

For children and adolescents at low risk, lipid testing is usually not ordered routinely. However, screening with a lipid profile is recommended for children and youths who are at an increased risk of developing heart disease as adults. Some of the risk factors are similar to those in adults and include a family history of heart disease or health problems such as diabetes, high blood pressure (hypertension), or being overweight. High-risk children should have their first lipid profile between 2 and 10 years old, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics. Children younger than 2 years old are too young to be tested.

A total cholesterol reading can be used to assess an individual’s risk for heart disease, however, it should not be relied upon as the only indicator. The individual components that make up total cholesterol reading –- LDL, HDL, and VLDL –- are also important in measuring risk.

For instance, one’s total cholesterol may be high, but this may be due to very high good (HDL) cholesterol levels –- which can actually help prevent heart disease. So, while a high total cholesterol level may help give an indication that that there is a problem with cholesterol levels, the components that make up total cholesterol should also be measured.

The “lipid profile” is a popular component of master health check ups.There is no ideal age for the first evaluation. Elevated levels have been found in children as young as two if there is a history of adults in the family having elevated lipids or early heart attacks. Genetic studies have consistently shown changes in the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) locus in affected families. But for this gene to express itself, environmental factors like diet, obesity and inactivity also play a part.

If there is no such family history, lipids should be evaluated for the first time at the age of 20. If the results are “desirable”, the next reading can be taken after five years. In an older person (over 45 in men and 55 in women) the values need to be checked every year.

The blood should be taken after a nine-hour fast (water can be consumed). There should be no fever, infection, inflammation or pregnancy as these can alter the values.

Everyone has fat deposits under the skin, where it serves as insulation against heat and cold. Cholesterol is a fat that is produced by the liver and is essential for normal metabolism. It is not soluble in blood, it is transported through the body by LDL (low density lipoproteins), HDL (high density lipoproteins) and VLDL (very low density lipoproteins). Of these HDL is a “good” lipid as it transports excess cholesterol to the liver for excretion. VLDL and LDL transport cholesterol from the liver back into the blood.

As long as blood cholesterol remains in the normal range, the blood circulates freely. When levels are elevated, it precipitates in the blood vessels, forming obstructive deposits called plaques. This eventually leads to high blood pressure, heart attacks and strokes.

TGL or triglycerides are different from cholesterol. They are derived from food when the calorie intake is greater than the requirement. It combines with cholesterol and gets deposited in the blood vessels.

A person with elevated lipids may develop a yellow deposit of cholesterol under the skin, usually around the eyelids. They may also have a crease on the earlobes.

A fat deposit (lipoma) can appear as a painless mobile lump just under the skin anywhere in the body. When multiple, it is a hereditary condition called multiple lipomatosis. These are not markers for elevated lipids. The lumps are not cancerous but may be cosmetically unacceptable. They do not respond to the lipid lowering medications and need to be surgically removed.

An elevated lipid profile can often be reversed by changes in lifestyle. Quit smoking immediately and drink in moderation only — two drinks a day for men and one for women. The much publicised cardio protective actions of alcohol are outweighed by the other problems of regular drinking.

Try to achieve ideal body weight and bring down the BMI (body mass index, which is found by dividing the weight by the height in metre squared) to 23. This can only be achieved with a combination of diet and exercise. Try to stop snacking, especially on fried items and “ready to eat” snacks. Increase the consumption of fruits and vegetables to 4-6 helpings a day. Walnuts, almonds and fish are rich in protective omega -3 fatty acids and Pufa (poly unsaturated fatty acids). Oats contains dietary fibre. Lower oil consumption to 300ml per month per family member. Try to use olive oil. If that is not practical or feasible, use a mixture of equal quantities of rice bran oil, sesame oil, mustard oil and groundnut oil.

Exercise aerobically (walking, running, jogging or swimming) for 60 minutes a day. This need not be done at one stretch but can be split into as many as six 10-minute sessions.

If lipids are still elevated after 3-6 months despite these interventions, speak to your physician about regular medication.

The “statin” group of drugs are very effective. They lower cholesterol, prevent its deposition and stabilise the plaques in the blood vessels. They can be combined with other drugs like ezetimibe (which limit the absorption of cholesterol), or bile acid binding resins, or niacin or fibrates. Natural supplements of fish oil or pure omega-3 fatty acid capsules also help. Lipid lowering medications are usually well tolerated and very effective.

Resources:
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/cholesterol-test/MY00500
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipid_profile
http://www.telegraphindia.com/1120730/jsp/knowhow/story_15788559.jsp

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Oat Fiber

 OAT FIBER is good for gas and upset stomach; helps prevent heart disease by reducing cholesterol; good source of VITAMIN B; good for skin and hemorrhoids – the extract has a calming effect on the body…..CLICK & SEE

OAT formulas relieve pain of the liver and gall bladder which may occur after excessive ingestion of fatty foods, alcohol or coffee. Such are useful when a person has been exposed to aromatic hydrocarbons including solvents and paints. This type of formula stimulates enzyme production, white blood cell cleaning and increases blood supply to the liver.

OATS are an effective cholesterol fighter. OATS also contain cancer-battling SELENIUM, and POTASSIUM, B VITAMINS and IRON). PUFFED WHEAT and OATMEAL are high in ZINC.

The correct diet should have fiber in it to help to regulate blood glucose levels, aid in lowering cholesterol, and help in the removal of toxins. Oat Fiber is a convenient method of adding beneficial Fiber to your daily diet. More concentrated than oat bran, oat fiber is about 90% dietary fiber by weight.

Heart disease is the number one killer in America. No wonder Americans are more concerned about having a healthy diet. Oats are high in soluble dietary fiber. Soluble dietary fiber helps lower blood cholesterol, therefore, reducing the risk of heart disease. Oat fiber contains more soluble dietary fiber than oats or even oat bran.

Oat fiber also serves as an excellent addition to low carbohydrate recipes. 100% Oat fiber. 0 net carbs. Oat fiber, which is an ingredient low in available carbohydrates, absorbs up to seven times its weight in water making it useful for the bakery and snacks, dairy and meat industries. When added to bakery products, oat fiber allows for the production of low carbohydrate breads, pastries, muffins, bagels, tacos and tortillas.

From the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition (BMD, KPD, RCH, and CLM) and the Department of Health and Exercise Science (KPD, SDB, and LRD), Colorado State University, Fort Collins.

Background: No studies have examined whether increased consumption of oat cereal, rich in soluble fiber, favorably alters lipoprotein particle size and number.

Objective: Examined the effects of large servings of either oat or wheat cereal on plasma lipids, lipoprotein subclasses, lipoprotein particle diameters, and LDL particle number.

Design: Thirty-six overweight men aged 50–75 y were randomly assigned to consume daily for 12 wk either oat or wheat cereal providing 14 g dietary fiber/d. Before and after the intervention, plasma lipid and lipoprotein subclasses were measured with proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and whole-body insulin sensitivity was estimated with the frequently sampled intravenous-glucose-tolerance test.

Results: Time-by-treatment interactions (P < 0.05) for LDL cholesterol (oat: -2.5%; wheat: 8.0%), small LDL cholesterol (oat: -17.3%; wheat: 60.4%), LDL particle number (oat: -5.0%; wheat: 14.2%), and LDL:HDL cholesterol (oat: -6.3%; wheat: 14.2%) were observed. Time-by-treatment interactions were nearly significant for total cholesterol (oat: -2.5%; wheat: 6.3%; P = 0.08), triacylglycerol (oat: -6.6%; wheat: 22.0%; P = 0.07), and VLDL triacylglycerol (oat: -7.6%; wheat: 2.7%; P = 0.08). No significant time-by-treatment interactions were observed for HDL cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol subclasses, or LDL, HDL, and VLDL particle diameters. Insulin sensitivity did not change significantly with either intervention.

Conclusions: The oat compared with the wheat cereal produced lower concentrations of small, dense LDL cholesterol and LDL particle number without producing adverse changes in blood triacylglycerol or HDL-cholesterol concentrations. These beneficial alterations may contribute to the cardioprotective effect of oat fiber.

Help taken from:Dr.Yang’s Herbs & Gems for Health and American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,

 

MEN WITH MIGRAINES

A study of 1,449 men who reported having migraines found that they had a significant 24 percent increased risk of major cardiovascular disease and a 42 percent increased risk of heart attack. It’s not clear exactly why migraines affect the cardiovascular system, but studies of women with migraines have shown a similar increased risk of cardiovascular problems. Researchers from Harvard Medical School say that people with migraines should be aware of all their potential risk factors for heart disease, including high blood pressure and high cholesterol, diabetes and obesity, and try to reduce them as much as possible. These findings were presented this week at the 2006 American Heart Association Meeting in Chicago.

Source:ABC News