Tag Archives: Institute of Medicine

Vitamin D Deficiency Doubles Risk Of Stroke in Whites

Low levels of vitamin D, the essential nutrient obtained from milk, fortified cereals and exposure to sunlight, doubles the risk of stroke in whites, but not in blacks, according to a new report by researchers at Johns Hopkins.

…………..

Stroke is the nation’s third leading cause of death, killing more than 140,000 Americans annually and temporarily or permanently disabling over half a million when there is a loss of blood flow to the brain.

Researchers say their findings back up evidence from earlier work at Johns Hopkins linking vitamin D deficiency to higher rates of death, heart disease and peripheral artery disease in adults.

The Hopkins team says its results fail to explain why African Americans, who are more likely to be vitamin D deficient due to their darker skin pigmentation’s ability to block the sun’s rays, also suffer from higher rates of stroke. Of the 176 study participants known to have died from stroke within a 14-year period, 116 were white and 60 were black. Still, African Americans had a 65 percent greater likelihood of suffering such a severe bleeding in or interruption of blood flow to the brain than whites, when age, other risk factors for stroke, and vitamin D deficiency were factored into their analysis.

“Higher numbers for hypertension and diabetes definitely explain some of the excess risk for stroke in blacks compared to whites, but not this much risk,” says study co-lead investigator and preventive cardiologist Erin Michos, M.D., M.H.S., an assistant professor at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and its Heart and Vascular Institute. “Something else is surely behind this problem. However, don’t blame vitamin D deficits for the higher number of strokes in blacks.”

Nearly 8,000 initially healthy men and women of both races were involved in the latest analysis, part of a larger, ongoing national health survey, in which the researchers compared the risk of death from stroke between those with the lowest blood levels of vitamin D to those with higher amounts. Among them, 6.6 percent of whites and 32.3 percent of blacks had severely low blood levels of vitamin D, which the experts say is less than 15 nanograms per milliliter.

“It may be that blacks have adapted over the generations to vitamin D deficiency, so we are not going to see any compounding effects with stroke,” says Michos, who notes that African Americans have adapted elsewhere to low levels of the bone-strengthening vitamin, with fewer incidents of bone fracture and greater overall bone density than seen in Caucasians.

“In blacks, we may not need to raise vitamin D levels to the same level as in whites to minimize their risk of stroke” says Michos, who emphasizes that clinical trials are needed to verify that supplements actually do prevent heart attacks and stroke. In her practice, she says, she monitors her patients’ levels of the key nutrient as part of routine blood work while also testing for other known risk factors for heart disease and stroke, including blood pressure, glucose and lipid levels.

Michos cautions that the number of fatal strokes recorded in blacks may not have been statistically sufficient to find a relationship with vitamin D deficits. And she points out that the study only assessed information on deaths from stroke, not the more common “brain incidents” of stroke, which are usually non-fatal, or even mini-strokes, whose symptoms typically dissipate in a day or so. She says the team’s next steps will be to evaluate cognitive brain function as well as non-fatal and transient strokes and any possible tie-ins to nutrient deficiency.

Besides helping to keep bones healthy, vitamin D plays an essential role in preventing abnormal cell growth, and in bolstering the body’s immune system. The hormone-like nutrient also controls blood levels of calcium and phosphorus, essential chemicals in the body. Shortages of vitamin D have also been tied to increased rates of breast cancer and depression in the elderly.

Michos recommends that people maintain good vitamin D levels by eating diets rich in such fish as salmon and tuna, consuming vitamin-D fortified dairy products, and taking vitamin D supplements. She also promotes brief exposure daily to the sun’s vitamin D-producing ultraviolet light. And to those concerned about the cancer risks linked to too much time spent in the sun, she says as little as 10 to 15 minutes of daily exposure is enough during the summer months.

If vitamin supplements are used, Michos says that daily doses between 1,000 and 2,000 international units are generally safe and beneficial for most people, but that people with the severe vitamin D deficits may need higher doses under close supervision by their physician to avoid possible risk of toxicity.

The U.S. Institute of Medicine (IOM) previously suggested that an adequate daily intake of vitamin D is between 200 and 600 international units. However, Michos argues that this may be woefully inadequate for most people to raise their vitamin D blood levels to a healthy 30 nanograms per milliliter. The IOM has set up an expert panel to review its vitamin D guidelines, with new recommendations expected by the end of the year. Previous results from the same nationwide survey showed that 41 percent of men and 53 percent of women have unhealthy amounts of vitamin D, with nutrient levels below 28 nanograms per milliliter.

Source
:Elements4Health

Enhanced by Zemanta
Advertisements

Soda Consumption at an Early Age Indicator of Unhealthy Childhood Diet

Young girls who drink soda have less healthy diets through adolescence than their peers who do not drink soda, according to a Penn State study.
The ten-year study showed that girls who drank soda at age five had diets that were less likely to meet nutritional standards for the duration of the study, which ended at age 15.Girls who did not drink soda at age five did not meet certain nutritional requirements, but their diets were healthier.

The difference between the two groups in nutrient intake is “not just because of what they are consuming, but because of what they are not consuming,” said Laura Fiorito, postdoctoral fellow in Penn State’s Center for Child Obesity Research.

Milk intake differed greatly between the two groups — soda drinkers drank far less milk than non-soda drinkers — and milk has all of the nutrients that differed between the groups except fiber. At age five, non-soda drinkers consumed 10 to 11 ounces of milk daily, while soda drinkers had less than seven ounces.

“Adequate nutrient intake is important for optimal health and growth,” the researchers reported in a recent issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association.

For example, low calcium intake is associated with increased risk of bone fractures and higher added sugar is associated with dental problems and the development of several chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes.

The Institute of Medicine, part of the National Academy of Sciences, recommends that girls between age 14 and 18 receive at least 65 milligrams of vitamin C daily. In this study, soda drinkers fell short at just 55 milligrams daily, while non-soda drinkers exceeded the recommendation at 70.5 milligrams daily.

Although soda drinkers had less healthy diets, both groups failed to meet recommendations for certain nutrients. The Institute recommends that girls age 14 to 18 receive at least 1,300 milligrams of calcium daily. At age 15, soda drinkers in the study averaged 767 milligrams a day, while non-soda drinkers had slightly higher intakes at 851 milligrams a day, but were still deficient.

The researchers also found that both groups increased their soda consumption by age 15. However, soda drinkers were consuming nearly twice as much soda at age 15 than their counterparts — 6.6 ounces a day versus 3.4 ounces a day.

Although the study has considerable implications on how beverages impact diet, Fiorito believes children may already have developed drinking preferences and patterns by age five.

“We think that the patterns develop when they are younger. Some studies show that children already drinking soda or carbonated beverages at age two,” said Fiorito.

The study followed 170 girls for 10 years, documenting meals three times every two years. Girls classified as “soda drinkers” — those who drank roughly four ounces of soda daily at age five — showed much lower intakes of fiber, protein, vitamin C, vitamin D, calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, and potassium throughout the study than “non-soda drinkers” — those who had no soda intake at age five. Also, the soda drinkers had much higher intake of added sugars. The study did not distinguish between diet and regular soda because the “soda drinkers” drank both types, but diet soda intake was very low at age five.

Parents of soda drinkers in the study had higher body mass indexes than non-soda drinkers’ parents. Fiorito believes this suggests that “parents model consumption patterns for their children,” and that the parents’ unhealthy eating habits not only contributed to an increased BMI, but influenced children.

There have been other studies on the effects of soda on dieting, but this is the first study to track the consumption of multiple beverages over a ten-year period. Included in the study were coffee/tea, soda, milk, 100 percent fruit juice, and fruit drinks – any fruit-flavored drinks with less than 100 percent fruit juice.

Other beverages have come under scrutiny in recent years for their possible negative health consequences. For example, the American Academy of Pediatrics issued a formal statement in 2001 that recommended limits on children’s fruit juice intake. The Academy has not issued any formal statement on soda, but this study provides a clear link showing that soda can prevent people from maintaining a healthy diet.

You may click to see:-

*Vitamin D Deficiency Can Affect 36 Organs
*Yakult for Irritable Bowel Syndrome?
*Rye and Barley Facilitate Blood Glucose and Appetite Regulation
*Study Reveals the Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Virgin Olive Oil


Source:
Elements4Health :June8.2010

Reblog this post [with Zemanta]

Updated Guidelines for Pregnancy and Weight Gain areLargely Unchanged

The long-awaited revision of the 1990 recommendations puts a cap on the amount an obese mother should gain and places more emphasis on exercise. Some doctors wanted to see a lot more.
………….

Panel members said women and their doctors must try harder to help the women reach a normal weight before pregnancy and avoid excessive weight gain during pregnancy.

.

More than 60% of U.S. women of childbearing age are overweight or obese — a significant increase from 20 years ago. And recent studies strongly suggest that either too much or too little nutrition in utero can increase a fetus’ chance of becoming an overweight child and overweight adult.

Such data on the increasing girth of pregnant women and the growing rates of obesity in children led to pressure on the Institute of Medicine to revise a set of 1990 guidelines that were written primarily to prevent excessively low infant birth weights. Numerous medical journal articles in recent years have called the guidelines irrelevant to today’s obstetrics patients.

On Thursday, the institute’s advisory committee — a task force of doctors and researchers — issued the updated recommendations. But with few exceptions, such as putting a limit on how much weight obese women should gain, the new guidelines are the old guidelines wrapped up in a lecture.

The panel said that the existing guidelines were essentially fine. It’s women and their doctors, the members said, who need to try harder — often much harder — to help the women reach a normal weight before pregnancy and avoid excessive weight gain during pregnancy.

Although not dramatically different, fully implementing the guidelines will represent a change in the care provided to women of childbearing age,” said Kathleen Rasmussen, chairwoman of the committee and a professor of nutrition at Cornell University.

The report was requested by six major health organizations so that doctors could better advise and care for their patients. Although nothing in the report is mandatory, healthcare professionals are expected to acknowledge and implement at least some of the panel’s recommendations.

But several leading experts on maternal obesity and child health expressed disappointment with the document. A growing contingent of doctors says that obese women — which includes one in every five pregnant women — should gain little or no weight.

“In my opinion, the Institute of Medicine is missing an opportunity to address the issue of the obesity epidemic and the contribution that pregnancy makes to that epidemic,” said Dr. Raul Artal, chairman of the department of obstetrics, gynecology and women’s health at St. Louis University.

The recommendations call for a gestational weight gain of 28-40 pounds for underweight women, 25-35 pounds for women of normal weight, 15-25 pounds for overweight women and 11-20 pounds for obese women. The only change is for obese women, who were previously advised to gain at least 15 pounds, with no upper limit.

The problem is not the guidelines, but the failure to adhere to them and to address obesity in reproductive-age women, said Dr. Maxine Hayes, state health officer for the Washington State Department of Health and chairwoman of a 2006 panel that urged a reexamination of the guidelines. “If we wait for every woman to be advised about weight gain after they become pregnant, it’s too late. It puts women and their babies on a trajectory that is unhealthy.”

During the two-year process of reexamining the guidelines, committee members tried to balance the health needs of the fetus with the health needs of the mother, Rasmussen said, ultimately deciding that the recommendations were largely up-to-date already.

Not all experts in maternal-fetal health are convinced.

“We have been doing this same recommendation for 19 years, and it has been very unsuccessful,” said Susan Y. Chu, a senior epidemiologist at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention who has studied gestational weight gain. “But they did what was most critical, which was to put a cap on the obese category.”

Several studies suggest that obese women may require little weight gain as long as it’s clear that the fetus is growing.

“We have determined that overweight and obese women can benefit and have better pregnancy outcomes if they limit their weight gain,” said Artal, the author of several studies on obese pregnant women. “The committee was cautious. They were concerned they might cause harm. But by maintaining the status quo, I think that may cause more harm.”

A study in the June issue of the Journal of the National Medical Assn. found that obese pregnant women who followed well-balanced diets and gained little or no weight had better outcomes — as did their babies — than women who gained more weight.

That study’s lead author, Dr. Yvonne S. Thornton, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at New York Medical College, said the committee may have feared an increase in births of underweight infants if more pregnant women were placed on restricted diets. “This is a litigious society,” she said. “If we did restrict calories and there was an untoward outcome, people might say, ‘Well, you didn’t feed me enough.’ ”

The suggested weight range of 11 to 20 pounds for obese women is aimed at women in the lower ranges of the obesity category, defined by a body mass index of 30 to 35, Rasmussen said. There is little data to guide recommendations for women in the higher ranges of obesity, she said. About 8% of women of childbearing age are morbidly obese, with a BMI of 40 or more.

Some doctors criticized the report’s call for diet and exercise counseling as unrealistic. Few health insurance plans pay for such counseling, and doctors do not have the time to provide it, Hayes said.

However, the report was praised for its emphasis on exercise. “One can’t look at diet alone,” Artal said. “Exercise is very much a part of a healthy lifestyle during pregnancy.”

The committee also called for more studies on gestational weight gain, including asking states to adopt a birth certificate that gathers information on weight before and during pregnancy.

Sources: Los Angeles Times

Reblog this post [with Zemanta]

Intestinal Adhesions

Other Name: Abdominal Adhesions
It is a Digestive Disease

Intestinal adhesions are bands of fibrous tissue that can connect the loops of the intestines to each other, or the intestines to other abdominal organs, or the intestines to the abdominal wall. These bands can pull sections of the intestines out of place and may block passage of food. Adhesions are a major cause of intestinal obstruction.

click to see the pictures

Adhesions may be present at birth (congenital) or may form after abdominal surgery or inflammation. Most form after surgery. They are more common after procedures on the colon, appendix, or uterus than after surgery on the stomach, gall bladder, or pancreas. The risk of developing adhesions increases with the passage of time after the surgery.

Symptoms
Some adhesions will cause no symptoms. If the adhesions cause partial or complete obstruction of the intestines, the symptoms one would feel would depend on the degree and the location of the obstruction. They include crampy abdominal pain, vomiting, bloating, an inability to pass gas, and constipation.

..CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURE

Diagnosis
X rays (computed tomography) or barium contrast studies may be used to locate the obstruction. Exploratory surgery can also locate the adhesions and the source of pain.

Treatment
Some adhesions will cause no symptoms and go away by themselves. For people whose intestines are only partially blocked, a diet low in fiber, called a low-residue diet, allows food to move more easily through the affected area. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the adhesions, reposition the intestine, and relieve symptoms. But the risk of developing more adhesions increases with each additional surgery.

Some adhesions will cause no symptoms and no need to treat. For people whose intestines are only partially blocked, a diet low in fiber, called a low-residue diet, allows food to move more easily through the affected area. GI is often used to reduce pressure of intestine.In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the adhesions, reposition the intestine, and relieve symptoms. But the risk of developing more adhesions increases with each additional surgery.

Intestinal Adhesions(Abdominal Adhesions) can be treated, but they can be a recurring problem. Because surgery is both the cause and the treatment, the problem can keep returning. For example, when surgery is done to remove an intestinal obstruction caused by adhesions, adhesions form again and create a new obstruction in 11% to 21% of cases.

In China,doctors usually use Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM) to treat patients and achieve good effect.

Abdominal Adhesions: Prevention and Treatment

Ayurvedic medicines.………………...(A)..………….(B)
YOGA POINT – Cleansing Process or Shudhikriyas.…Yoga Exercise may give very good result

Prevention
Methods to prevent adhesions include using biodegradable membranes or gels to separate organs at the end of surgery or performing laparoscopic (keyhole) surgery, which reduces the size of the incision and the handling of the organs.

Recommendation
Magnetic TCM plaster(special for intestinal adhesions and abdominal adhesions) is strongly recommended by us–a professional special TCM supplier.It can promote intestinal peristalsis and eliminate local edema.

Magnetic TCM plaster(special for intestinal adhesions and abdominal adhesions) is a green and nature treatment that it can remove symptoms of intestinal adhesions(abdominal adhesions)rapidly without any side effect.It is a outstanding representation of TCM.
Additional Information on Intestinal Adhesions
The National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse collects resource information on digestive diseases for National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Reference Collection. This database provides titles, abstracts, and availability information for health information and health education resources. The NIDDK Reference Collection is a service of the National Institutes of Health.

To provide you with the most up-to-date resources, information specialists at the clearinghouse created an automatic search of the NIDDK Reference Collection. To obtain this information, you may view the results of the automatic search on Intestinal Adhesions.

If you wish to perform your own search of the database, you may access and search the NIDDK Reference Collection database online.

National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse
——————————————————————

2 Information Way
Bethesda, MD 208923570
Phone: 18008915389
Fax: 703738–4929
Email: nddic@info.niddk.nih.gov
Internet: www.digestive.niddk.nih.gov

The National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC) is a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). The NIDDK is part of the National Institutes of Health of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Established in 1980, the Clearinghouse provides information about digestive diseases to people with digestive disorders and to their families, health care professionals, and the public. The NDDIC answers inquiries, develops and distributes publications, and works closely with professional and patient organizations and Government agencies to coordinate resources about digestive diseases.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies

Resources:
http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/intestinaladhesions/index.htm
http://www.abdominal-adhesions.com/

Enhanced by Zemanta

Homeopathy Can Help in Losing Weight

Be a Loser and Win.
During your pregnancy, you ate right, took supplements and exercised faithfully. Once your baby arrived, your priorities shifted from your health care to your child’s care. As your baby grows bigger each day, you may notice that those pregnancy pounds aren’t budging.

click & see

Even more horrifying, could you actually be gaining weight? The only thing you want to grow bigger after the baby, is the baby.

Unfortunately the Institute of Medicine calculates that having a baby will add an average of 1kg of weight a year after giving birth.

Post partum weight gain may not be entirely physiological. It could also be due to medical causes such as thyroid dysfunction, birth control pills, stress and so on.

Recent research shows that when you are stressed, your body releases hormones that can contribute to weight gain. Not only can stress cause weight gain but conventional medicines like anti depressants and anti psychotic drugs given to cope with post partum depression or post partum psychosis can lead to further weight gain.

Weight loss programmes may cause side effects. Homeopathy on the other hand offers a safe, long lasting and holistic solution. Composed of natural elements in minuscule doses, homeopathy has absolutely no side effects.

Instead it goes to the very root of the problem, is gentle on the body and takes into account the emotional and psychological aspects of a patient. International research has shown that certain homeopathic medicines are extremely effective in reducing weight as they help to burn calories faster by speeding up the metabolic rate.

One such 100-year-old homeopathic remedy prepared from an extract of sea-kelp has been researched and accepted by UK’s Medicines Control Agency.

We had a case once of a 35 yr old female who came to us with an eight kg weight gain after delivery. She had tried various diet plans and weight loss programmes with hardly any success.

She suffered from depression due to weight gain. We advised a thyroid function test which turned out to be positive for hypothyroidism. We prescribed her a homeopathic medicine – Calcarea Carb 200. Our in house nutritionist drew up a specific diet.

Her weight was regularly and continuously tracked through a ‘Body Composition Monitor’ which not only measured her weight but also body fat, bone mass, visceral fat, muscle mass, basal metabolic rate, total body water content and metabolic age. With a combination of homeopathic treatment, an individualised diet plan and scientific monitoring of her weight, she not only shook off her extra weight but also her depression.

Losing weight is no longer about looking good but being healthy. Homeopathy helps in doing so safely, surely and systematically so that the weight that comes off, stays off. Enjoy your baby, your food and your new life together!

Homeopathic medicines that help to reduce weight are:

Fucus Vesiculosus 6C …… Reduces weight by speeding up the process of burning of fat tissues.

Phytolacca mother tincture ….. Reduces weight by increasing the metabolic rate .

Source:The Times Of India

Enhanced by Zemanta