Tag Archives: LDL

Foods That Cleans Arteries

1.Avocados:
People often think they shouldn’t eat avocado because it is a “fatty” fruit. But this creamy teardrop-shaped fruit contains oleic acid, the same monounsaturated fat found in olive oil and known to lower LDL (bad) cholesterol. A study published in the Archives of Medical Research showed that people with moderately high cholesterol levels who ate a diet high in avocados increased their levels of HDL (good) cholesterol by 11% and decreased their levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol and total cholesterol.http://myhealingkitchen.com/medical-conditions/heart-disease/heart-disease-healing-food/arteries-love-avocado/

2.Whole Grains.
The soluble fiber found in whole grains such as whole-wheat bread, brown rice, and oatmeal binds the cholesterol in your meal and drags it out of your body, Madden says. “And, when your body needs to utilize cholesterol in the future, it draws on your blood cholesterol supply, effectively lowering your total blood cholesterol level and your risk for heart disease.” And oatmeal isn’t just for breakfast; you can enjoy it any time of day with these easy recipes.

3.Olive Oil  :
A 2011 study found that people ages 65 or older who regularly used olive oil (for both cooking and as a dressing) were 41 percent less likely to have a stroke compared to those who never use olive oil in their diet. Use a little olive oil instead of butter or drizzle some over pasta, salad, or veggies to take advantage of its high mono- and polyunsaturated fats, Madden says. “And although it’s a healthier option, remember to use these oils sparingly, as all fats still contain the same number of calories.”

4.Nuts:
Grabbing a handful of nuts is a heart-healthy way to beat the afternoon itch for a cookie, Madden says. “Almonds are very high in heart-healthy monounsaturated fats, vitamin E, and fiber, while walnuts are a great plant-based source of an omega-3 fatty acid called alpha-linolenic acid.” According to the American Heart Association, monounsaturated fats can help reduce levels of bad cholesterol in your blood and lower your risk of heart disease and stroke.

5.Plant Sterols:
Sterols are compounds that compete with the cholesterol in your food for absorption within your digestive tract, Madden says. “Sterols have been shown to lower both total and LDL cholesterol and can be found in certain brands of fortified orange juice, margarine spreads, and milk.” Just be sure to check the label—make sure the margarine is trans fat-free and that “partially hydrogenated oil” does NOT appear on the ingredient list.

6.Salmon (or Other Fatty Fish)
Fatty fish such as mackerel, herring, tuna, and salmon are chock full of omega-3 fatty acids, Madden says. “Eating fish twice a week can reduce your risk of developing heart disease by decreasing inflammation and lowering triglyceride levels, and it may even help boost your HDL levels.” Try any of these heart healthy and delicious salmon recipes for dinner tonight.

7.Asparagus:
Asparagus is one of the best, natural artery-clearing foods around, says Shane Ellison, an organic chemist and author of Over-The-Counter Natural Cures. “Asparagus works within the 100,000 miles of veins and arteries to release pressure, thereby allowing the body to accommodate for inflammation that has accumulated over the years.” It also helps ward off deadly clots, Ellison says. We just love the versatile vegetable’s crunch in this salad recipe.

8.Pomegranate:
Pomegranate contains phytochemicals that act as antioxidants to protect the lining of the arteries from damage, explains Dr. Gregg Schneider, a nutritionally oriented dentist and expert on alternative medicine. A 2005 study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences found that antioxidant-rich pomegranate juice stimulated the body’s production of nitric oxide, which helps keep blood flowing and arteries open.

9.Broccoli:
Broccoli is rich in vitamin K, which is needed for bone formation and helps to keep calcium from damaging the arteries, Dr. Schneider says. Not to mention, broccoli is full of fiber, and studies show a high-fiber diet can also help to lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Enjoy this veggie for dinner tonight with this side dish recipe.

10.Turmeric:
The spice turmeric is a powerful anti-inflammatory,” Dr. Schneider says. “It contains curcumin which lowers inflammation—a major cause of arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries.” A 2009 study found that curcumin helps reduce the fatty deposits in arteries by as much as 26 percent. Sounds like a good reason to try some in this delicious recipe for spicy chicken soup from pop star Rihanna.

11. Persimmons:
Forget the old ‘an apple a day’ adage—it seems eating a daily persimmon is a better way to keep the doctor away. Research shows the polyphenols found in this fruit (which has twice as much fiber and more antioxidants than an apple) can help decrease levels of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides.

12. Orange Juice.
A 2011 study published online in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that drinking two daily cups of 100-percent orange juice can help reduce diastolic (resting) blood pressure. OJ contains an antioxidant that has been found to help improve blood vessel function.

13. Spirulina.
A daily 4,500mg dose of this blue-green algae (usually found in supplement or powder form) can help relax artery walls and normalize blood pressure. It may also help your liver balance your blood fat levels—decreasing your LDL cholesterol by 10 percent and raising HDL cholesterol by 15 percent, according a recent study.

14.Cinnamon.
Just one teaspoon a day of antioxidant-rich cinnamon can help reduce fats in the bloodstream, helping to prevent plaque build up in the arteries and lower bad cholesterol levels by as much as 26 percent, according to recent research. Sprinkle some on your morning coffee or on these delicious crepes.

15.Cranberries.
Research shows that potassium-rich cranberries can help reduce LDL cholesterol levels and help raise the good HDL levels in your body, and regular consumption of the holiday favorite may help reduce your overall risk of heart disease by as much as 40 percent.

16.Coffee.
According to researchers in The Netherlands, people who drank more than two, but no more than four, cups of coffee a day for 13 years had about a 20 percent lower risk of heart disease than people who drank more or less coffee or no coffee at all. Moderation is the key to coffee’s heart-health benefits—the caffeine is a stimulant which can cause a temporary increase in blood pressure, and in excess, can lead to irregular heart beat.

17.Cheese.
Believe it or not, cheese could help lower your blood pressure! A recent study from Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School found that people who eat three servings a day of low-fat dairy have lower (three points less) systolic blood pressure than those who eat less. Here are some tasty, low fat picks to start snacking on today.

18.Green Tea.
Green tea is rich in catechins, compounds that have been shown to decrease cholesterol absorption in your body. Another bonus? It may help prevent cancer and weight gain, too!

19.Watermelon.
Talk about a perfect snack—watermelon is not only a diet-friendly food, but it can help protect your heart too! A Florida State University study found that people given a 4,000mg supplement of L-citrulline (an amino acid found in watermelon) lowered their blood pressure in just six weeks. Researchers say the amino acid helps your body produce nitric oxide, which widens blood vessels.

20.  Cucumber.
The flesh of cucumbers is primarily composed of water but also contains vitamin C and caffeic acid, both of which help soothe skin irritations and reduce swelling—which is why cucumbers are often used to help swollen eyes and sunburn.

Resources: The Times Of India

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Lipid profile or Lipid panel

Definition:
A complete cholesterol test — also called a lipid panel or lipid profile: — It is a blood test that can measure the amount of cholesterol and triglycerides in your blood. A cholesterol test can help determine your risk of atherosclerosis, the buildup of plaques in your arteries that can lead to narrowed or blocked arteries throughout your body. High cholesterol levels usually don’t cause and signs or symptoms, so a cholesterol test is an important tool. High cholesterol levels are a significant risk factor for heart disease.

An extended lipid profile may include very low-density lipoprotein. This is used to identify hyperlipidemia (various disturbances of cholesterol and triglyceride levels), many forms of which are recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease and sometimes pancreatitis.

It is recommended that healthy adults with no other risk factors for heart disease be tested with a fasting lipid profile once every five years. Individuals may also be screened using only a cholesterol test and not a full lipid profile. However, if the cholesterol test result is high, there may be the need to have follow-up testing with a lipid profile.

 

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If there are other risk factors or the individual has had a high cholesterol level in the past, regular testing is needed and the individual should have a full lipid profile.

For children and adolescents at low risk, lipid testing is usually not ordered routinely. However, screening with a lipid profile is recommended for children and youths who are at an increased risk of developing heart disease as adults. Some of the risk factors are similar to those in adults and include a family history of heart disease or health problems such as diabetes, high blood pressure (hypertension), or being overweight. High-risk children should have their first lipid profile between 2 and 10 years old, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics. Children younger than 2 years old are too young to be tested.

A total cholesterol reading can be used to assess an individual’s risk for heart disease, however, it should not be relied upon as the only indicator. The individual components that make up total cholesterol reading –- LDL, HDL, and VLDL –- are also important in measuring risk.

For instance, one’s total cholesterol may be high, but this may be due to very high good (HDL) cholesterol levels –- which can actually help prevent heart disease. So, while a high total cholesterol level may help give an indication that that there is a problem with cholesterol levels, the components that make up total cholesterol should also be measured.

The “lipid profile” is a popular component of master health check ups.There is no ideal age for the first evaluation. Elevated levels have been found in children as young as two if there is a history of adults in the family having elevated lipids or early heart attacks. Genetic studies have consistently shown changes in the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) locus in affected families. But for this gene to express itself, environmental factors like diet, obesity and inactivity also play a part.

If there is no such family history, lipids should be evaluated for the first time at the age of 20. If the results are “desirable”, the next reading can be taken after five years. In an older person (over 45 in men and 55 in women) the values need to be checked every year.

The blood should be taken after a nine-hour fast (water can be consumed). There should be no fever, infection, inflammation or pregnancy as these can alter the values.

Everyone has fat deposits under the skin, where it serves as insulation against heat and cold. Cholesterol is a fat that is produced by the liver and is essential for normal metabolism. It is not soluble in blood, it is transported through the body by LDL (low density lipoproteins), HDL (high density lipoproteins) and VLDL (very low density lipoproteins). Of these HDL is a “good” lipid as it transports excess cholesterol to the liver for excretion. VLDL and LDL transport cholesterol from the liver back into the blood.

As long as blood cholesterol remains in the normal range, the blood circulates freely. When levels are elevated, it precipitates in the blood vessels, forming obstructive deposits called plaques. This eventually leads to high blood pressure, heart attacks and strokes.

TGL or triglycerides are different from cholesterol. They are derived from food when the calorie intake is greater than the requirement. It combines with cholesterol and gets deposited in the blood vessels.

A person with elevated lipids may develop a yellow deposit of cholesterol under the skin, usually around the eyelids. They may also have a crease on the earlobes.

A fat deposit (lipoma) can appear as a painless mobile lump just under the skin anywhere in the body. When multiple, it is a hereditary condition called multiple lipomatosis. These are not markers for elevated lipids. The lumps are not cancerous but may be cosmetically unacceptable. They do not respond to the lipid lowering medications and need to be surgically removed.

An elevated lipid profile can often be reversed by changes in lifestyle. Quit smoking immediately and drink in moderation only — two drinks a day for men and one for women. The much publicised cardio protective actions of alcohol are outweighed by the other problems of regular drinking.

Try to achieve ideal body weight and bring down the BMI (body mass index, which is found by dividing the weight by the height in metre squared) to 23. This can only be achieved with a combination of diet and exercise. Try to stop snacking, especially on fried items and “ready to eat” snacks. Increase the consumption of fruits and vegetables to 4-6 helpings a day. Walnuts, almonds and fish are rich in protective omega -3 fatty acids and Pufa (poly unsaturated fatty acids). Oats contains dietary fibre. Lower oil consumption to 300ml per month per family member. Try to use olive oil. If that is not practical or feasible, use a mixture of equal quantities of rice bran oil, sesame oil, mustard oil and groundnut oil.

Exercise aerobically (walking, running, jogging or swimming) for 60 minutes a day. This need not be done at one stretch but can be split into as many as six 10-minute sessions.

If lipids are still elevated after 3-6 months despite these interventions, speak to your physician about regular medication.

The “statin” group of drugs are very effective. They lower cholesterol, prevent its deposition and stabilise the plaques in the blood vessels. They can be combined with other drugs like ezetimibe (which limit the absorption of cholesterol), or bile acid binding resins, or niacin or fibrates. Natural supplements of fish oil or pure omega-3 fatty acid capsules also help. Lipid lowering medications are usually well tolerated and very effective.

Resources:
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/cholesterol-test/MY00500
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipid_profile
http://www.telegraphindia.com/1120730/jsp/knowhow/story_15788559.jsp

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Exercise Gives More Health Benefits to Women

A long-term study of over 8,700 middle-aged men and women has shown that women experience greater health benefits than men as a result    of exercise.
……………………50 year old woman exercising
The analysis of this large Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study was carried out by Keri Monda and colleagues at North Carolina University (NCU).

They found that over a 12-year period, all individuals who increased their exercise by about 180 metabolic units per week (equivalent to an additional hour of mild or 30 minutes of moderate activity per week) displayed decreased levels of triglycerides and increased levels of the “good” HDL cholesterol.

However, statistically significant decreases in the “bad” LDL cholesterol were only observed in women, with particularly strong effects in menopausal women and African-American women. And total cholesterol levels were only significantly decreased in African-American women, said an NCU release.

The authors speculate that these differences may arise from hormonal differences between the sexes, especially considering the extra effects seen post-menopause. The racial differences observed may stem from genetic variations that require further exploration.

Source: These findings appear in the August issue of Journal of Lipid Research.


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Indian Cooking Oils Unfit

Masala Tea and South Indian Filter Coffee - Ch...

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Trans fat, a known trigger for heart attacks, causing thousands of premature deaths globally every year, has been found in tremendously  high quantities in almost all popular Indian cooking oils.
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Laboratory tests conducted by Delhi-based Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) on seven vanaspati brands, 21 different brands of vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower, groundnut, mustard, coconut, olive, sesame and palm), desi ghee and butter available in Indian markets found that trans fat levels were five to 12 times higher than the world’s recommended standards in all vanaspati brands.

According to the latest recommendations, trans fat in oil should not exceed 2% of the total oil. However, the study found trans fat levels to be as high as 23.7% in the case of Panghat vanaspati brand and 23.31% in the case of Raag vanaspati . Rath vanaspati had 15.9% trans fat, Gagan had 14.8%, Jindal had 13.7% while Gemini had 12.7% trans fat content.

Interestingly, the lowest trans fats level was found in desi ghee and in Amul butter — 5.3% and 3.73% respectively.

Trans fat occurs when liquid oils solidify by partial hydrogenation, a process that stretches food shelf life and changes safe unsaturated fat into a killer. It is known to increase bad LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin levels and reduces beneficial HDL cholesterol. Trans fats also trigger cancer, diabetes, immune dysfunction, obesity and reproductive problems.

In 2005, all restaurants in California went trans fat free voluntarily. In 2008, the US government made it mandatory. The following year, even New York banned trans fat.

Scientists say an increase of 5 gm of trans fat a day is equivalent to a 25% increased risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Shockingly, say CSE researchers, even while Indian food regulators have accepted trans fat as a serious health concern, they are delaying setting the standard, presumably under pressure from the edible oil industry. As a result, India has no regulation to check the content of trans fat in oil.

Sunita Narain, CSE director, said, “If you consider what the Union ministry of health has issued in the name of labelling nutrition facts, you will know how our food is at risk. It literally allows companies to get away with anything — as long as it is on the label. This is just not acceptable.”

In 2004, the health ministry’s oils and fats sub-committee, under the Central Committee for Food Standards, begun discussions on a standard for trans fat. In January 2008, the sub-committee forwarded its recommendations to the central committee for standards. But the central committee is still awaiting more data and information.

“This procrastination means while there are no legal standards, companies are literally getting away with murder,” CSE said.

Instead of standards, in September 2008, the health ministry issued a notification for labelling of trans fat on oil and food. “So today, oil companies get away by giving the composition in a range. Rath vanaspati , for instance, says its package has 8-33% trans fat. This would mean that the product has 15 times higher trans fat than the Danish standard. This makes a complete mockery of the science of food regulations,” Narain said.

Sources: The Times Of India

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White Leadwort

Botanical Name:Plumbago zeylanica
Family:Plumbaginaceae
Parts used: roots, leaves;
Common Names in English:Cape Leadwort, White Plumbago
Common Name: chitra or chitraka, Chitrak, Agnimatha, Chitawa,

Habitat :This herbal plant is found throughout India. It grows wild as a garden plant in East, North and Southern India.

Description:
A much-branched shrub with long and tuberous roots and a striate stem (Plate 48). The leaves are up to 8 cm long, simple, glabrous, alternate, ovate or oblong, with an entire or wavy margin, an acute apex and a short petiole. The flowers are white in terminal spikes, with a tubular calyx, a slender, glandular, hairy corolla tube, with five lobes and five stamens, a slender style and a stigma with five branches. The fruit is a membranous capsule enclosed within the persistent calyx. The dried roots occur as cylindrical pieces of varying length, less than 1.25 cm in width, reddish-brown in colour with a brittle, fairly thick, shrivelled, smooth or irregularly fissured bark. The roots have a short fracture, an acrid and biting taste and disagreeable odour.

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Uses: in Ayurveda, pacifies kapha dosha (pungent, light, dry, sharp), anticancer, antifertility, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, prevention of antibiotic resistance, immunomodulator, anti-coagulant, abortifacient, vesicant, rheumatism, diarrhea, diuretic, skin conditions; precautions: pregnancy.

Medicinal uses:-
in Ayurveda, pacifies kapha dosha (pungent, light, dry, sharp), anticancer, antifertility, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, prevention of antibiotic resistance, immunomodulator, anti-coagulant, abortifacient, vesicant, rheumatism, diarrhea, diuretic, skin conditions; precautions: pregnancy.

In Ayurveda Chitra is used in treatment of various diseases and disorders. The chitrak root contains an acrid crystalline principle called ‘Plumbagin’ that is a powerful irritant and has well marked antiseptic properties. In small doses, the drug is a sudorific;

large doses cause death from respiratory failure. It is suggested that the action is probably due to the direct effect of the drug on the muscles. Chitrak root is also said to increase the digestive power and promote appetite and used in cases of enlarged spleen. A paste made from root is applied to abscesses to open them. Ayurvedic doctors recommend the root of chitrak for dyspepsia, piles, anasarca, diarrhea, skin diseases etc. It is also useful in colic, inflammations, cough, bronchitis, helminthiasis, haemorrhoids, elephantiasis, chronic and intermittent fever, leprosy, leucaderma, ring-worm, scabies, hepatosplenomegaly, amenorrhoea, odontalgia, vitiated conditions of vata and kapha and anaemia. The herb is also used as part of many ayurvedic compound remedies for rubifacient applications.

Anticancer activity: Plumbagin has been reported as having anticancer activity against fibrosarcoma induced by methyl cholanthrene and P388 lymphocytic leukaemia, but not against L1210 lymphoid leukaemia in mice. It is thought to be an inhibitor of mitosis. It has also been evaluated against Dalton’s ascitic lymphoma, where an inhibition of tumour growth and a significant enhancement of mean survival time were observed for treated mice compared to the control group. Peritoneal cell counts were also enhanced. Plumbagin­treated groups were able to reverse the changes in various haematological parameters which are a consequence of tumour inoculation. Studies have shown that plumbagin, when administered orally at a dose of 4 mg/kg body weight, caused tumour regression in rats with 3-methyl-4­dimethyl aminoazobenzene (3MeDAB)-induced hepatoma. It reduced levels of glycolytic enzymes such as hexokinase, phosphoglucoisomerase and aldolase levels, which are increased in hepatoma-bearing rats, and increased levels of gluconeogenic enzymes such as glucose­.6-phosphatase and fructose-I ,6-diphosphatase which are decreased in tumour hosts.

Antifertility activity: In rats, treatment during the first week of pregnancy abolished certain uterine proteins resulting in both pre­implantationary loss and abortion of the foetus. Uterine endopeptidases (cathepsin D, remin and chymotrypsin) were studied after the root powder had induced these effects and cathepsin D and renin activities were found to be decreased whilst chymotrypsin activity was increased. The results indicated that cathepsin D and renin may playa role in maintenance of pregnancy and chymotrypsin may be involved in postabortive involution. Plumbagin, at a dose of I and 2 mg/IOO g body weight, prevented implantation and induced abortion in albino rats without any teratogenic effects, and produced a significant inhibitory effect on copper acetate-induced ovulation in rabbits.

Antiinflammatory activity: A phosphate buffered saline extract of the roots of P. zrylanica stabilised red blood cells subjected to both heat- and hypotonic-induced lyses,A biphasic response and a reduction in the enzymatic activities of alkaline and acid phosphatases were observed and adenosine triphosphate activity was stimulated in liver homogenates of formaldehyde-induced arthritic rats.

Antimicrobial activity: A chloroform extract from P. zeylanica showed significant activity against penicillin- and non-penicillin resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It also showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus mycoides, B. pumilus, B. subtilis, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and others. Eye drops containing 50 llg/ml of plumbagin demonstrated significant antibacterial, antiviral and antichlamydial effects in eye diseases with few side effects. Aqueous, hexane and alcoholic extracts of the plant were found to show interesting antibacterial activity. The alcoholic extract was the most active and showed no toxicity when assayed using fresh sheep erythrocytes.

Antibiotic resistance modification: Plumbagin has been studied for its effect on the development of antibiotic resistance using sensitive strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. When the organisms were inoculated into the antibiotic (streptomycin/rifampicin) medium, some growth was observed due to development of resistance. However, it was completely prevented when plumbagin was added to the medium and this was attributed to prevention of antibiotic resistance.

Antioxidant activity: At a concentration of 1 mM, plumbagin prevented peroxidation in liver and heart homogenates. By a comparison with menadione (which has one hydroxyl group less) it was suggested that plumbagin may prevent NADPH and ascorbate-induced microsomal lipid peroxidation by forming hydroquinones. These may trap free radical species involved in catalysing lipid peroxidation.

Immunomodulatory activity: The effect of plumbagin was studied on peritoneal macro phages of BALB/c mice, evaluated by bactericidal activity, hydrogen peroxide production and superoxide anion release. The bactericidal activity in vivo of plumbagin-treated mouse macrophages was estimated using Staphylococcus aureus and in low doses plumbagin caused a constant increase in bactericidal activity. It was also seen to exert a similar response on oxygen radical release, showing a correlation between oxygen radical release and bactericidal activity. Plumbagin appeared to augment macrophage bactericidal activity at low concentrations by potentiating oxygen radical release, whereas at higher concentrations it had an inhibitory effect.

Hypolipidaemic activity: When administered to hyperlipidaemic rabbits, plumbagin reduced serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol by 53-86% and 61-91 % respectively. It also lowered the cho/esteroV phospholipid ratio and elevated HDL cholesterol significantly. Furthermore, plumbagin treatment prevented the accumulation of cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver and aorta and caused regression of atheromatous plaques of the thoracic and abdominal aorta. The animals treated with plumbagin excreted more faecal cholesterol and phospholipids.

Uterine stimulant activity: The juice extracted from the root was found to have potent activity when tested on rat uterus in vitro, as well as on isolated human
myometrial strips. This ecbolic effect was not blocked by either atropine sulphate or pentolinium bitartrate.

Anticoagulant activity: Plumbagin significantly increased prothrombin time, GPT, total protein and alkaline phosphatase levels in liver tissue and decreased GPT levels in serum. The anti-vitamin K activity was thought to be associated with the hydroxyl group attached to the naphthoquinone ring ofthe compound.

Digestive effects: The roots of Plumbago zeylanica were found to stimulate the proliferation of coliform bacteria in mice and act as an intestinal flora normaliser. This supports claims that the plant is a digestive stimulant.

Safety profile
The LDso of plumbagin is approximately 10 mg/kg body weight (oral and IP) in mice and a 50% alcoholic extract of the root or whole plant has an LD50 of 500 mg/kg body weight when given IP.26 In view of the documented abortifacient activity, it should be avoided at all stages of pregnancy.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/white+leadwort
http://www.india-shopping.net/india-ayurveda-products/Chitrak%20_WhiteLeadwort.htm
http://www.divineremedies.com/plumbago_zeylanica.htm
http://zipcodezoo.com/Plants/P/Plumbago_auriculata_Alba/

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