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Herbs & Plants

Rumex hymenosepalus

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Botanical Name :Rumex hymenosepalus
Family: Polygonaceae
Genus: Rumex
Species: R. hymenosepalus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Caryophyllales

Synonyms :Rumex arizonicus Britton,Rumex salinus A.Nelson,Rumex hymenosepalus var. salinus (A. Nelson) Rech.,Rumex saxei Kellogg

Common Name : Canaigre dock,  Canaigre or Wild Rhubarb,

Habitat : Rumex hymenosepalus  is native to the United States and  it is found on sandy roadsides and fields at lower to middle elevations.It has been cultivated in the southwestern United States.  It grows in dry sandy places below 1500 metres in California

Description:
Rumex hymenosepalus is a perennial flowering plant with tall reddish colored stems .Rumex hymenosepalus grows very large basal leaves early in the spring.  The leaves are elliptic, thick, and wider than those of Rumex crispus.  The leaves can be wavy at the margin, but usually not as much as with Rumex crispus.A tall, stout flower stalk follows with tiny green/red/yellow flowers that are replaced by showy pink/red/brown seed pods.  Early leaves of this and related Rumex species are palatable as a potherb, giving rise to the “Wild Rhubarb” common name.  Leaves persist through the summer but toughen with age.  A number of species of Rumex are found in Canyon Country and were probably a common food for the Anasazi.
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The reproductive panicles are thickly packed  . Typically, Rumex hymenosepalus leaves are among the first early signs of spring in the lower parts of the Gila. The stems are reddish with an interior that is somewhat spongy with airspaces.
Cultivation : Succeeds in most soils but prefers a deep fertile moderately heavy soil that is humus-rich, moisture-retentive but well-drained and a position in full-sun or part shade. Judging by its native range, this plant should succeed in dry soils. Extensively cultivated for the tannin contained in its root.

Propagation : Seed – sow spring in situ. Division in spring.

Edible Uses: 
Edible Parts: Leaves; Root; Seed; Stem.
Edible Uses: Drink.

Young leaves – cooked as a pot-herb. They are usually cooked in several changes of water to remove the bitter-tasting tannin. Leaf stems – cooked. Crisp and tart, they are excellent when used in pies like rhubarb. They are often cooked with sugar, or can be baked and the central portion eaten. The stems, harvested before the flowers open, have been boiled to make a drink. Seed – raw or cooked. It can be ground into a powder, cooked with water to the consistency of a thick gravy and eaten as a mush. The powder can also be mixed with water, shaped into cakes and baked. Root. Eaten raw by children in early spring.

Medicinal Uses:
The use of cañaigre root in folk medicine has been as an astringent, prepared as a tea for diarrhea and as a garble for sore throat.  These uses are probably effective, owing to the plant’s high tannin content.  Herbalists have traditionally relied upon cañaigre as an astringent.  They used its large tuberous roots to make a tea for treating diarrhea and a gargle for easing sore throat.  One herbal suggests using the boiled root extract to stop bleeding from minor scrapes and cuts.  For sunburn, the root can be grated fresh on the burned skin, allowed to dry and a poultice of the inner pith of the cactus placed over or the juice rubbed in.  An infusion of the stems and leaves has been used as a wash for sores, ant bites and infected cuts.  The root has been chewed in the treatment of coughs and colds. The dried, powdered roots have been used as a dusting powder and dressing on burns and sores. A tea made from this plant is used to treat colds. The dried root combined with water is used as a mouthwash for pyorrhea and gum inflammations.  Sucking on a slice tightens the teeth.  The tea is used as a wash for acne and other moist or greasy skin problems.

Other Uses:
The roots are a good source of tannin, for use in leather tanning.  It is also a source of a mustard-colored dye.

Known Hazards : Plants can contain quite high levels of oxalic acid, which is what gives the leaves of many members of this genus an acid-lemon flavour. Perfectly alright in small quantities, the leaves should not be eaten in large amounts since the oxalic acid can lock-up other nutrients in the food, especially calcium, thus causing mineral deficiencies. The oxalic acid content will be reduced if the plant is cooked. People with a tendency to rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidney stones or hyperacidity should take especial caution if including this plant in their diet since it can aggravate their condition.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rumex_hymenosepalus
http://www.swcoloradowildflowers.com/Brown%20Green%20Enlarged%20Photo%20Pages/rumex%20hymenosepalus.htm
http://www.wnmu.edu/academic/nspages/gilaflora/rumex_hymenosepalus.html

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Rumex+hymenosepalus

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Suppliments our body needs

Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE)

chemical structure of dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE)
Image via Wikipedia

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Definition:
Dimethylaminoethenol (DMAE) is a metabolite, a product produced by the body’s metabolic process of procaine. It is a central nervous system stimulant that has a mild impact. It’s effect is similar to an amphetamine, but it is not such a drug. The term DMAE is actually an abbreviation for dimethylaminoethanol, a naturally occurring chemical produced by the human brain. It is a choline molecule that has one methyl group missing from the nitrogen, and it may be for this reason that it can cross the blood-brain barrier more easily than choline. While choline is known to be the precursor of acetylcholine, a recognized neurotransmitter, DMAE may prove to offer a more direct approach to this function by moving into the brain, being acted on by an enzyme (methylation), and thereby undergoing conversion into choline directly where it is needed.

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Although free-radicals are a natural result of the human body’s activity, the human equilibrium may be upset because of modern diet and environmental conditions that add further stressors to the system. These conditions cause a need for additional antioxidants in order for the body to cope with industrialized life. Antioxidants seem to reinforce one another, and for this reason it seems prudent to combine the use of several rather than to rely on only one type.

Dimethylaminoethanol, also known as DMAE or dimethylethanolamine, is an organic compound. This compound also goes by the names of N,N-dimethyl-2-aminoethanol, beta-dimethylaminoethyl alcohol, beta-hydroxyethyldimethylamine and Deanol. It is a liquid with a color that ranges from clear to pale yellow.

DMAE is known chemically as dimethyl-amino-ethanol. DMAE has been known in Europe by the product name Deanol for more than three decades. DMAE has two methyl groups and is chemically similar to choline. DMAE has been popular for many years in those interested in improving mental alertness and clarity of thinking.

Industrial uses
Dimethylaminoethanol is used as a curing agent for polyurethanes and epoxy resins. It is also used in mass quantities for water treatment, and to some extent in the coatings industry. It is used in the synthesis of dyestuffs, textile auxiliaries, pharmaceuticals, emulsifiers, and corrosion inhibitors. It is also an additive to paint removers, boiler water and amino resins.

Biochemical precursor
Dimethylaminoethanol is related to choline and is a biochemical precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and found naturally in fish like sardines and anchovies. It is reported to have nootropic effects, although research on this chemical has found both positive and negative potential results.

It is believed that dimethylaminoethanol is methylated to produce choline in the brain[1]. It is known that dimethylaminoethanol is processed by the liver into choline; however, the choline molecule is charged and cannot pass the blood-brain barrier.

Research
Short term studies have shown an increase in vigilance and alertness, with a positive influence on mood. Long term studies are equivocal. Some showed dimethylaminoethanol to increase the lifespan of animals in which it was tested, while others indicate a possible reduction in the average life span of quail.  With the uncertainty of whether this could be extrapolated to humans, dimethylaminoethanol supplementation is not generally recommended. It is possible that dose is a major determining factor in the overall effects of dimethylaminoethanol – a high dose could produce effects opposite to those sought and contribute to life-shortening.

DMAE Research for Alzheimer’s, memory loss, age related mental decline
Studies with DMAE go back to the 1950s. One double blind, placebo-controlled trial performed in twenty-seven patients with severe Alzheimer’s disease did not show significant benefits (Fisman 1981). Another study on twenty-one patients with memory deficits was also discouraging since no improvement was found in memory (Caffarra 1980). However, DMAE was found helpful in patients with age related mental decline. DMAE was given for four weeks to fourteen older patients (Ferris 1977). Ten patients improved and four were unchanged. The patients on DMAE had reduced depression, less anxiety, and increased motivation, but they had no improvement in memory. The researchers say, “the results thus suggest that although DMAE may not improve memory, it may produce positive behavioral changes in some senile patients.” Dementia is a term that is now substituted for senility and is sometimes used to denote a severe case of age related cognitive decline.

DMAE has been touted as an anti-aging nutrient but there have not been any human studies evaluating the claim that DMAE slows aging.

DMAE Positive effects – Benefit of DMAE – DMAE Enhances Mood and Alertness
Most people notice being more alert and focused within a couple of hours after taking DMAE. The DMAE benefit of alertness and focus can last most of the day. A few report a higher sense of wellbeing. DMAE is recommended to be taken in the early part of the day. I also like the mind boosting effect of Acetyl-l-carnitine, but my favorite is a combination of several nutrients and herbs, including DMAE bitartrate, found in Mind Power Rx.

There are dozens of herbs and nutrients available in health food stores that influence mental function. One that has been popular for many years is DMAE, which stands for dimethyl-amino-ethanol. A recent German study evaluated the brain’s electrical reaction during presentation of videoclips of 7 minute duration in 80 subjects with borderline emotional disturbance. The researchers recorded the different emotional states by having the subjects watch these film excerpts. Half of the subjects were then started on a daily dose of DMAE and the testing was repeated after 6 and 12 weeks. The testing included showing the videoclips, filling out mood questionnaires, and also evaluating the brain’s electrical reaction through EEGs (electrodes placed on the scalp that measure brain activity) . The results showed that those who took the DMAE daily had a decrease in theta and alpha1 brain electrical activity indicating that they were more alert. Furthermore, the questionnaires revealed that those on DMAE had a better mood. The researchers conclude, “DMAE can be interpreted to induce a psychophysiological state of better feeling of wellbeing on both levels of analysis mood and electrical pattern of brain activity in subjects suffering from borderline emotional disturbance.”

Dr Sahelian says: Most people notice being more alert and focused within a couple of hours after taking DMAE. DMAE is available in dosages ranging from 100 to 400 mg. It is best to start with a low dose, such as 50 to 150 mg of actual DMAE since high doses can cause anxiety, restlessness, and muscle tenseness in the neck and shoulders. DMAE taken late in the day may cause insomnia.

Efficacy of dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) containing vitamin-mineral drug combination on EEG patterns in the presence of different emotional states. Dimpfel W. Forschung und Entwicklung -, Kurt-Schumacher-Str. 9, D-35440 Linden, Germany. Eur J Med Res. 2003 May 30;8(5):183-91.

The psychophysiological model of provoking different emotional states by watching film excerpts with various emotional contents was used to characterize drug action in 80 subjects (male /f emale = 50%) with threshold emotional disturbance within a randomized, group-parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Analyzing the brain’s electrical reaction during presentation of 5 videoclips of 7 min duration followed by 3 minutes pause revealed a content specific representation of topographical frequency changes. This procedure was repeated after 6 and 12 weeks of daily intake of a vitamin-mineral drug combination containing dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) or placebo. Subjects taking DMAE supplement for 3 months developed significant less theta and alpha1 power in sensomotoric areas of the cortex. Since decreases in theta and alpha1 electrical power have been associated with increased vigilance and attention, subjects taking DMAE combination obviously were more active and felt better. Therefore the vitamin-mineral combination containing DMAE can be interpreted to induce a psychophysiological state of better feeling of wellbeing on both levels of analysis mood and electrical pattern of brain activity in subjects suffering from borderline emotional disturbance.

DMAE Side effects
DMAE is available in varying dosages. It is best to start with a low dose, such as 50 to 150 mg of actual DMAE to avoid DMAE side effects. High doses can cause anxiety, restlessness, and muscle tenseness or stiffness in the neck, jaw, and shoulders. DMAE taken late in the day may cause insomnia. Other DMAE side effects on high dosages include irritability, headache, and overstimulation.

DMAE Availability
DMAE is usually sold by the name of DMAE bitartrate. A 350 mg pill of DMAE bitartrate yields 130 mg of actual DMAE. It is also available as DMAE liquid. One product contains 35 mg of DMAE per drop. Most users notice an effect from 50 to 150 mg of actual DMAE or 150 to 350 mg of DMAE bitartrate.

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DMAE Summary
DMAE can be helpful in the elderly who have cognitive decline. This nutrient can also be taken by an adult of any age who needs to be more focused and alert.

DMAE and Skin
A recent study shows DMAE cream is able to increase firmness of skin. Perhaps DMAE cream has anti-wrinkle potential. See below for the abstract.

The role of dimethylaminoethanol in cosmetic dermatology.
Am J Clin Dermatol. 2005;6(1):39-47. Grossman R.
Johnson and Johnson Consumer Products Worldwide, Skillman, NJ 08558
Skincare formulations for the improvement of aging skin are increasingly important consumer products. Here, we review available data on one such agent – 2-dimethylaminoethanol ( DMAE ) or deanol – that has recently been evaluated in a placebo-controlled trial. DMAE is an analog of the B vitamin choline and is a precursor of acetylcholine. Although the role of acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter is well known, growing evidence points to acetylcholine as a ubiquitous cytokine-like molecule that regulates basic cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, locomotion, and secretion in a paracrine and autocrine fashion. Indeed, this modulatory role may contribute to the cutaneous activity of DMAE. In a randomized clinical study, 3% DMAE facial gel applied daily for 16 weeks has been shown to be safe and efficacious in the mitigation of forehead lines and periorbital fine wrinkles, and in improving lip shape and fullness and the overall appearance of aging skin. Conclusions: Thus, the benefits of DMAE in dermatology include a potential anti-inflammatory effect and a documented increase in skin firmness with possible improvement in underlying facial muscle tone. Studies are needed to evaluate the relative efficacy of DMAE compared with other skin-care regimens (e.g., topical antioxidant creams, alpha-hydroxy acids).

Split face study on the cutaneous tensile effect of 2-dimethylaminoethanol (dmae) gel.
Skin Res Technol 2002 Aug;8(3):164-7
Beyond subjective assessments, the effect of skin tensors is difficult to assess. The present 2-phase randomized double-blind split face study was designed to compare the effect of a gel containing 3% 2-dimethylaminoethanol (deanol, DMAE) with the same formulation without DMAE. METHODS: In a first pilot study, sensorial assessments and measures of the skin distension under suction were performed in eight volunteers. In a second study conducted in 30 volunteers, shear wave propagation was measured. RESULTS: Large interindividual variations precluded any significant finding in the first study. The DMAE formulation showed, however, a significant effect characterized by increased shear wave velocity in the direction where the mechanical anisotropy of skin showed looseness. The DMAE formulation under investigation increased skin firmness.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimethylethanolamine
http://www.raysahelian.com/dmae.html
http://www.dmae.org/

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Ailmemts & Remedies News on Health & Science

Getting in Motion

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Each year more than two million people visit a doctor for dizziness. And, an untold number suffer from motion sickness, which is the most common medical problem associated with travel.

Description
Motion sickness is a disturbance of the sense of balance and equilibrium as a result of different kinds of motion. Seasickness, carsickness and airsickness are all types of motion sickness. Nausea is the most common symptom. Children are particularly prone to motion sickness. Medications are available for the prevention and treatment of motion sickness, which is usually a mild, temporary
condition.

What causes motion sickness?
Motion sickness relates to the body’s sense of balance and equilibrium, or spatial orientation. We receive inputs about our movement and position in space from the following sensory receptors: Inner ear: monitors direction of motion and spatial position.

Eyes: observe where the body is in space and also the directions of motion. Skin pressure and muscle and joint sensory receptors: sense which parts of the body are touching the ground or moving, and where they are in relation to each other and force of gravity.

The central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) processes the information received from the above receptors. Motion sickness occurs when the central nervous system receives conflicting messages from the different sensory receptors. For example, if you are sitting in a moving car reading a book, your inner ear detects the motion of your travel, but your eyes see only the stationary pages of your book. This confuses your central nervous system and makes you feel
nauseous.

Who gets motion sickness and who is at risk?
Motion sickness is very common, and most people experience it at some time in their lives. It is especially common in young children, but most outgrow severe problems with motion sickness. Particular sensitivity of the equilibrium centre in the inner ear appears to be inherited, as some families suffer from motion sickness more than others do. If you tend to get motion sickness under one set of circumstances (e.g. you often get carsick), it is likely that you will also be prone to motion sickness generally.

What are the symptoms and signs of motion sickness?

Symptoms of motion sickness may include: nausea vomiting dizziness sweating malaise (a general feeling of discomfort and not feeling well), pallor (looking pale), feeling cold and clammy

How is motion sickness treated?
Antihistamine medications are commonly used to treat and prevent motion sickness, by reducing stimulation of the inner ear. These medications are only really effective if taken before motion sickness begins. Meclizine (e.g. Dramamine) is an antihistamine often used to treat motion sickness. Belladonna is another medication used, one formulation of which is the scopalamine medicated skin patch. It may be helpful to lie down and sip water until your stomach settles. Going to sleep, if you can, may also help. Some people find ginger (available in capsule form) and peppermints or mint-flavoured sweets useful in alleviating nausea caused by motion sickness, although these preparations will not prevent motion sickness itself.

What is the outcome of motion sickness?
Motion sickness is usually only a minor, temporary inconvenience. Some travellers, however, can find the condition incapacitating. The symptoms of motion sickness usually abate when the movement causing the problem ceases, and should disappear in about four hours. A few people suffer symptoms for a few days after the trip (called “mal d’embarquement” syndrome).

Can motion sickness be prevented?
If you are prone to motion sickness or if you are suffering from it, try the following: Position yourself where your eyes will see the same motion that your body and inner ears feel — In a car, sit in the front seat and look at distant scenery through the front window, not at objects passing on the side. On a ship, go on deck and watch the horizon. In a plane, choose a window seat and look outside.

Position yourself for the least amount of movement: Ask the driver of a bus or car to slow down. Sit near the middle of a boat or aeroplane (over the wings). Don’t read or do other close work. Don’t sit facing opposite the direction of movement. Don’t watch or talk to another person who is experiencing motion sickness. Try to get fresh air, for example, keep the car window open; go on deck on a ship. Avoid spicy or greasy foods, alcohol and carbonated foods during your trip and 24 hours before. Eat light meals before or during travel. A light meal consisting mainly of carbohydrate helps settle the stomach. Get sufficient sleep the night before your trip, and avoid travelling if you are not feeling well and rested. Avoid sea travel. Avoid amusement park rides, especially those that spin. Take motion sickness medication before travelling, as recommended by your doctor or pharmacist.

When to call the doctor
Most cases of motion sickness are mild and self-treatable-. However, if you or your child experience a very severe case of motion sickness or one that becomes progressively worse, you should consult a doctor.

Source:The Times Of India