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Amelanchier humilis

 
Botanical Name : Amelanchier humilis
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Amelanchier
Species: A. humilis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Common Name : Low serviceberry

Habitat : Amelanchier humilis is native to Eastern N. America – Vermont to Alberta and south to New York and Iowa. It grows on the rocky or sandy shores and banks, often calcareous.

Description:

Amelanchier humilis is a deciduous Shrub growing to 1.8 m (6ft) by 3 m (9ft). The fruit, which is a pome, is very dark, almost black. It is edible and can be eaten raw or cooked. The fruit has a sweet taste, with slight apple flavor. The leaves are egg-shaped, up to 5 cm (2 inches) long.

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It is not frost tender. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile.
Cultivation:
Prefers a rich loamy soil in a sunny position or semi-shade but thrives in any soil that is not too dry or water-logged. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are often found growing on calcareous soils in the wild. Hardy to about -25°c. All members of this genus have edible fruits and, whilst this is dry and uninteresting in some species, in many others it is sweet and juicy. Many of the species have potential for use in the garden as edible ornamentals. The main draw-back to this genus is that birds adore the fruit and will often completely strip a tree before it is fully ripe. This species produces suckers freely, forming thickets. Closely related to A. stolonifera. Hybridizes with A. stolonifera, A. arborea and A. bartramiana. Grafting onto seedlings of A. lamarckii or Sorbus aucuparia is sometimes practised in order to avoid the potential problem of hybridizing.
Propagation:
Seed – it is best harvested ‘green’, when the seed is fully formed but before the seed coat has hardened, and then sown immediately in pots outdoors or in a cold frame. If stored seed is obtained early enough in the autumn, it can be given 4 weeks warm stratification before being left out in the winter and it should then germinate in the spring. Otherwise seed can be very slow to germinate, perhaps taking 18 months or more. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a sheltered outdoor position, planting them out once they are 20cm or more tall. If there is sufficient seed it is best to sow it thinly in an outdoor seedbed. Grow the seedlings on for two years in the seedbed before planting them out into their permanent positions during the winter. Layering in spring – takes 18 months. Division of suckers in late winter. The suckers need to have been growing for 2 years before you dig them up, otherwise they will not have formed roots. They can be planted out straight into their permanent positions if required.

Edible Uses:
Edible fruit – raw or cooked. Sweet. A very pleasant flavour, the fruit is juicy with a hint of apple in the taste and contains a few small seeds at the centre. The fruit is rich in iron and copper.

Medicinal Uses:
Not yet known.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amelanchier_humilis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Amelanchier+humilis

Allium cupanii

Botanical Name : Allium cupanii
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily:Allioideae
Genus: Allium
Species:A. moschatum
Division:Vascular plants
Kingdom:plants
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms : Allium moschatum

Common Names:

Habitat : Allium cupanii is native to S. Europe – Mediterranean to W. Asia.( with a range extending from Spain to Iran.) It grows on the pinus nigra forest, amongst Quercus parygana, alpine and grey steppe rocky places on limestone, serpentine and schist, to 2200 metres in Turkey….CLICK &  SEE THE PICTURES

Description:
Allium moschatum is a bulb-forming perennial. Flowers are born in umbels on top of thin, wiry scapes rarely more than 15 cm tall; tepals white with a thin but prominent purple midvein.. It is in flower in August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects.

The species is divided into the following species:
*A. c. Cupani
*A. c. Cyprium
Cultivation:
Requires a sunny position in a light well-drained soil. Only hardy in the milder areas of the country, tolerating temperatures down to between -5 and -10°c. The bulbs show some summer dormancy and so are best grown in a bulb frame, water being withheld in late summer. The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply. Most members of this genus are intolerant of competition from other growing plants. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when
Seed – so they are large enough to handle – if you want to produce clumps more quickly then put three plants in each pot. Grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter and plant them out into their permanent positions in spring once they are growing vigorously and are large enough. Division in spring. The plants divide successfully at any time in the growing season, pot up the divisions in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are growing well and then plant them out into their permanent positions.

Edible Uses: Bulb – raw or cooked. The bulb is up to 15mm in diameter. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.

Medicinal Uses:
Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.

Other Uses: The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent. The whole plant is said to repel insects and moles.

Known Hazards: Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals, of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allium_moschatum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+cupanii

Allium carinatum

Botanical Name : Allium carinatum
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily:Allioideae
Genus: Allium
Species:A. carinatum
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Common Names: Keeled garlic, Witch’s garlic

Habitat:Allium carinatum is considered native to the Mediterranean Region from Spain to Turkey, north to Sweden and the Baltic Republics. It is naturalized in the British Isles. It grows in the dry grassy places and open woods.

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Description:

Allium carinatum produces a single small bulb rarely more than 15 mm long, flat leaves, and an umbel of purple to reddish-purple flowers. The flowers are on long pedicels and often nodding (hanging downwards] It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects…..CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Varieties
Numerous botanical names have been coined within the species at the varietal level, but only two are recognized:

*Allium carinatum subsp. carinatum – most of species range
*Allium carinatum subsp. pulchellum (G.Don) Bonnier & Layens – central Europe + Balkans
Cultivation:
Prefers a sunny position in a light well-drained soil. Succeeds in clay soils. The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply. Most members of this genus are intolerant of competition from other growing plants. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. A good plant for the wild garden. This species can become very invasive by means of its bulbils. The sub-species A. carinatum pulchellum Bonnier.&Layens. is much better behaved and makes a good garden plant. Closely allied to A. oleraceum. Produces new growth in early autumn. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle – if you want to produce clumps more quickly then put three plants in each pot. Grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter and plant them out into their permanent positions in spring once they are growing vigorously and are large enough. Division in spring. Very easy, the plants divide successfully at any time in the growing season and the divisions can be planted straight out into their permanent positions if required. Bulbils are harvested in late summer and can be planted out immediately in situ or stored and planted out in spring.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Root.
Bulb – raw or cooked. The bulb is very small, about 15mm tall and 10mm in diameter. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Bulbils – raw or cooked. Rather small and fiddly to use, but they have a fairly pleasant onion/garlic flavour.
Medicinal Uses:
Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.

Other Uses: The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent. The whole plant is said to repel insects and moles. It is cultivated in many places as an ornamental and also for its potently aromatic bulbs used as a food flavoring.
Known Hazards: Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals, of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allium_carinatum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+carinatum

Allium akaka

Botanical Name : Allium akaka
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Genus: Allium
Species:A. akaka
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms : A. latifolium.

Habitat :Allium akaka is native to W. Asia – Turkey, N. Iran, Russia. It grows on the dry stony places, screes etc, 1600 metres to 3000 metres

Description:
Allium akaka (Onion). This species of bulbous perennial, growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in) by 0.1 m (0ft 4in).It produces wide grey-green leaves that are oblong to elliptic. The flowers are produced in umbels of star-shaped flowers in either punk-purple, purple or off-white, which are borne in the spring.It is not frost tender. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects. The bulbs are almost spherical.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Prefers a sunny position in a light well-drained dry to moist soil. Bulbs are not hardy in all parts of Britain, they probably tolerate temperatures down to between -5 and -10°c but because of their need for a very well-drained dry to moist soil are probably best grown in a bulb frame. The plants need a dry period in late summer when they are dormant in order to fully ripen the bulb. The bulbs should be planted fairly deeply. Most members of this genus are intolerant of competition from other growing plants. Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but it inhibits the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. This species is a cultivated crop in Iran, where it is sold in the bazaars of Teheran. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle – if you want to produce clumps more quickly then put three plants in each pot. Grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter and plant them out into their permanent positions in spring once they are growing vigorously and are large enough. Division in spring. The plants divide successfully at any time in the growing season, pot up the divisions in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are growing well and then plant them out into their permanent positions.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Root.

Bulb – raw or cooked. Used as an onion substitute. The whole of the young plant is said to be a great delicacy and is used as an addition to rice in a pilau. The bulb is 15 – 30mm wide. Leaves – raw or cooked. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads.

Medicinal Uses:
Although no specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavour) and when added to the diet on a regular basis they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system and also tonify the circulatory system.

Other Uses:..Repellent….The growing plant is said to repel insects and moles.

Known Hazards : Although no individual reports regarding this species have been seen, there have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals, of certain members of this genus. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allium_akaka
https://www.greenplantswap.co.uk/plants/696
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+akaka

Onion (Allium cepa)

Botanical Name: Allium cepa
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. cepa
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms : Allium angolense, Allium aobanum, Allium ascalonicum, Cepa esculenta

Common Names: Onion, Garden onion , Bulb onion or Common onion

Habitat: Onion is believed to be native to W. Asia – Iran. The original habitat is obscure. It is unknown in the wild but has been grown and selectively bred in cultivation for at least 7,000 years.Now it is cultivated and grown through out the world and treated as vegetable.
Description:
The common onion is a biennial plant but is usually grown as an annual. Modern varieties typically grow to a height of 15 to 45 cm (6 to 18 in). The leaves are yellowish-green and grow alternately in a flattened, fan-shaped swathe. They are fleshy, hollow and cylindrical, with one flattened side. They are at their broadest about a quarter of the way up beyond which they taper towards a blunt tip. The base of each leaf is a flattened, usually white sheath that grows out of a basal disc. From the underside of the disc, a bundle of fibrous roots extends for a short way into the soil. As the onion matures, food reserves begin to accumulate in the leaf bases and the bulb of the onion swells…....CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES…> ....(1)......(2)…..

In the autumn the leaves die back and the outer scales of the bulb become dry and brittle, and this is the time at which the crop is normally harvested. If left in the soil over winter, the growing point in the middle of the bulb begins to develop in the spring. New leaves appear and a long, stout, hollow stem expands, topped by a bract protecting a developing inflorescence.It is in flower from Jun to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, insects. The inflorescence takes the form of a globular umbel of white flowers with parts in sixes. The seeds are glossy black and triangular in cross section.
Cultivation:
Prefers a sunny sheltered position in a rich light well-drained soil. Prefers a pH of at least 6.5. Plants tolerate a pH in the range of 4.5 to 8.3. Onions are best grown in a Mediterranean climate, the hot dry summers ensuring that the bulbs are ripened fully. For best growth, however, cool weather is desirable at the early stages of growth. Plants are frost-tolerant but prolonged temperatures below 10°c cause the bulb to flower. Optimum growth takes place at temperatures between 20 and 25°c. Bulb formation takes place in response to long-day conditions. Plants are perennial but the cultivated forms often die after flowering in their second year though they can perennate by means of off-sets. The onion was one of the first plants to be cultivated for food and medicine. It is very widely cultivated in most parts of the world for its edible bulb and leaves, there are many named varieties capable of supplying bulbs all the year round. This species was derived in cultivation from A. oschaninii. Most forms are grown mainly for their edible bulbs but a number of varieties, the spring onions and everlasting onions, have been selected for their edible leaves. There are several sub-species:- Allium cepa ‘Perutile’ is the everlasting onion with a growth habit similar to chives, it is usually evergreen and can supply fresh leaves all winter. Allium cepa aggregatum includes the shallot and the potato onion. These are true perennials, the bulb growing at or just below the surface of the ground and increasing by division. Plants can be divided annually when they die down in the summer to provide bulbs for eating and propagation. Allium cepa proliferum is the tree onion, it produces bulbils instead of flowers in the inflorescence. These bulbils have a nice strong onion flavour and can be used raw, cooked or pickled. Onions grow well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile, but they inhibit the growth of legumes. This plant is a bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation :
Seed. Early sowings can be made in February in a greenhouse to be planted out in late spring. The main sowing is made in March or April in an outdoor seedbed, this bed must be very well prepared. A sowing can also be made in an outdoor seedbed in August of winter hardy varieties (the Japanese onions are very popular for this). These overwinter and provide an early crop of onion bulbs in June of the following year. Onion sets can be planted in March or April. Sets are produced by sowing seed rather thickly in an outdoor seedbed in May or June. The soil should not be too rich and the seedlings will not grow very large in their first year. The plants will produce a small bulb about 1 – 2cm in diameter, this is harvested in late summer, stored in a cool frost-free place over winter and then planted out in April. A proportion of the bulbs will run quickly to seed but most should grow on to produce good sized bulbs.
Edible Uses:
Bulb – raw or cooked. A very versatile food, the bulb can be 10cm or more in diameter and is widely used in most countries of the world. Eaten raw, it can be sliced up and used in salads, sandwich fillings etc, it can be baked or boiled as a vegetable in its own right and is also commonly used as a flavouring in soups, stews and many other cooked dishes. Some cultivars have been selected for their smaller and often hotter bulbs and these are used for making pickles. Leaves – raw or cooked. There are some cultivars, the spring onions, that have been selected for their leaves and are used in salads whilst still young and actively growing – the bulb is much smaller than in other cultivars and is usually eaten with the leaves. By successional sowing, they can be available at any time of the year. Flowers – raw. Used as a garnish on salads. The flowers are somewhat dry and are less pleasant than many other species. The seeds are sprouted and eaten. They have a delicious onion flavour….CLICK & SEE ...

Constituents:
Composition :
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.
Root (Fresh weight)

* 72 Calories per 100g
* Water : 79.8%
* Protein: 2.5g; Fat: 0.1g; Carbohydrate: 16.8g; Fibre: 0.7g; Ash: 0.8g;
* Minerals – Calcium: 37mg; Phosphorus: 60mg; Iron: 1.2mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 12mg; Potassium: 334mg; Zinc: 0mg;
* Vitamins – A: 0mg; Thiamine (B1): 0.06mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0.02mg; Niacin: 0.2mg; B6: 0mg; C: 8mg;

Medicinal Uses;
Anthelmintic; Antiinflammatory; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic; Appetizer; Carminative; Diuretic; Expectorant; Febrifuge; Homeopathy; Hypoglycaemic;
Hypotensive; Lithontripic; Skin; Stings; Stomachic; Tonic.

Although rarely used specifically as a medicinal herb, the onion has a wide range of beneficial actions on the body and when eaten (especially raw) on a regular basis will promote the general health of the body. The bulb is anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, hypoglycaemic, hypotensive, lithontripic, stomachic and tonic. When used regularly in the diet it offsets tendencies towards angina, arteriosclerosis and heart attack. It is also useful in preventing oral infection and tooth decay. Baked onions can be used as a poultice to remove pus from sores. Fresh onion juice is a very useful first aid treatment for bee and wasp stings, bites, grazes or fungal skin complaints. When warmed the juice can be dropped into the ear to treat earache. It also aids the formation of scar tissue on wounds, thus speeding up the healing process, and has been used as a cosmetic to remove freckles. Bulbs of red cultivars are harvested when mature in the summer and used to make a homeopathic remedy. This is used particularly in the treatment of people whose symptoms include running eyes and nose. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Allium cepa Onion for appetite loss, arteriosclerosis, dyspeptic complaints, fevers & colds, cough/bronchitis, hypertension, tendency to infection, inflammation of mouth and pharynx, common cold for critics of commission

Other Uses :
Cosmetic; Dye; Hair; Polish; Repellent; Rust.

The juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent and can also be rubbed onto the skin to repel insects. The plant juice can be used as a rust preventative on metals and as a polish for copper and glass. A yellow-brown dye is obtained from the skins of the bulbs. Onion juice rubbed into the skin is said to promote the growth of hair and to be a remedy for baldness. It is also used as a cosmetic to get rid of freckles. The growing plant is said to repel insects and moles. A spray made by pouring enough boiling water to cover 1kg of chopped unpeeled onions is said to increase the resistance of other plants to diseases and parasites.

Known Hazards:  There have been cases of poisoning caused by the consumption, in large quantities and by some mammals, of this plant. Dogs seem to be particularly susceptible. Hand eczema may occur with frequent handling. May interfere with drug control of blood sugar

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onion
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/o/onion-07.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+cepa