Categories
Herbs & Plants

Iris ensata

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Botanical Name: Iris ensata
Family: Iridaceae
Genus: Iris
Subgenus: Limniris
Series: Iris series Laevigatae
Species: I. ensata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms: Iris kaempferi Siebold ex Lem. Iris lactea.

Common Name : Japanese Water Iris

Other common names:
*Japanese flag
*Japanese iris

Habitat : Iris ensata is native to East Asia: —-> China, Japan, Korea, Siberia. It grows in the dry sandy plains near lakes, meadows, clay-solonetz places in steppes and solonetz meadows. Marshes, ditches and wet grassy places.
Description:
Iris ensata is an herbaceous perennial plant growing to 80cm in height at a medium rate, forming a dense clump of erect foliage, with rich violet-purple flowers 10-12cm in width in mid summer, the broad, rounded falls each with a small white or yellow midrib.
It is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to July.

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The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.
Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist or wet soil.

Cultivation: Grow in moist to wet, deep, humus-rich, acid soil; it thrives at the margins of ponds or streams.
Propagation: Propagate by division of rhizomes from midsummer to early autum.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Root.

Root – the source of an edible starch. Some caution is advised, see the notes below on toxicity.
Medicinal Uses:

Alterative; Anthelmintic; Antidote; Appetizer; Depurative; Diuretic; Hepatic; Vermifuge.
The root is alterative, anthelmintic, antidote, appetizer, depurative, diuretic, hepatic and vermifuge.  It is used with other herbs in the treatment of venereal affections, liver complaints and dropsy.
Other Uses:
Basketry; Broom; Fibre; Thatching.

A fibre is obtained from the leaves, a substitute for hemp. It is used for rope and coarse cloth. Also used in thatching and basket making. The root is long and fibrous, it is used for making brooms, brushes etc.

Known Hazards: Many plants in this genus are thought to be poisonous if ingested, so caution is advised. The roots are especially likely to be toxic. Plants can cause skin irritations and allergies in some people.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_ensata
http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Iris+ensata
https://www.rhs.org.uk/Plants/9240/Iris-ensata/Details?returnurl=%2Fplants%2Fsearch-results%3Fs%3Ddesc(plant_merged)%26query%3DIris%2Bensata%26form-mode%3Dfalse%26context%3Db%25253D0%252526hf%25253D10%252526l%25253Den%252526q%25253DIris%25252Bensata%252526s%25253Ddesc%25252528plant_merged%25252529%252526sl%25253Dplants%26page%3D1%26aliaspath%3D%252fplants%252fsearch-results

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Categories
Herbs & Plants

Cinchona micrantha

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Botanical Name: Cinchona micrantha
Family: Rubiaceae/ Zygophyllaceae
Subfamily: Cinchonoideae
Tribe: Cinchoneae
Genus: Cinchona
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Synonyms: Cinchona affinis Wedd.

Common Name : Huannco

Habitat : Cinchona micrantha is native to western S. AmericaBolivia, Ecuador, Peru. It grows well in light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil.
Description:
Cinchona micrantha is an evergreen Tree growing to 8 m (26ft) by 8 m (26ft) at a medium rate. it is relatively thin-textured, usually broad leaves, its expansive multiflowered inflorescences, and its small white flowers with the corolla tube 5-7.5 mm long. This species is similar to Cinchona pubescens, which is more widespread and common. In fruit these can be difficult to separate.

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Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Prefers high humidity and a temperature that does not fall below about 15 degree centigrade . Requires a well-drained, moist soil and a position in full sun or partial shade.

Propagation:
Seed – Nodal softwood cuttings. Cuttings of half-ripe wood in a sandy soil.

Medicinal Uses:
Cinchona micrantha has a long history of native use, especially as a treatment for fevers and malaria. Modern research has shown it to be a very effective treatment for fevers, and especially as a treatment and preventative of malaria. The bark contains various alkaloids, particularly quinine and quinidine. The bark is a bitter, astringent, tonic herb that lowers fevers, relaxes spasms, is antimalarial (the alkaloid quinine) and slows the heart (the alkaloid quinidine). The bark is made into various preparations, such as tablets, liquid extracts, tinctures and powders. It is used internally in the treatment of malaria, neuralgia, muscle cramps and cardiac fibrillation. It is an ingredient in various proprietary cold and influenza remedies. It is also used as a gargle to treat sore throats. Large and too constant doses must be avoided, as they produce headache, giddiness and deafness.

Other Uses:
The powdered bark is often used in tooth-powders, owing to its astringency.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinchona
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Cinchona+micrantha
http://eol.org/pages/1110446/overview

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Ciliosemina pedunculata

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Botanical Name: Ciliosemina pedunculata
Family: Rubiaceae
Subfamily: Cinchonoideae
Tribe: Cinchoneae
Genus: Ciliosemina
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Synonyms: Cinchona pedunculata H.Karst. Ladenbergia pedunculata (H.Karst.) K.Schum. Remijia pedunculata (H.Kar

Common Name: Ciliosemina

Habitat : Ciliosemina pedunculata is native to S. America – northern Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. It grows in light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Description: Ciliosemina pedunculata is an evergreen Shrub growing to 3 m (9ft) by 3 m (9ft). These are woody plants taking the form of shrubs or trees. The white flowers are borne in axillary inflorescences. The fruits are stiff capsules containing winged seeds.

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Cultivation: The plant can be grown in light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.

Propagation: Seeds.

Medicinal Uses:
The bark is a source of quinine. Quinine contains the alkaloids quinine and quinidine. It is a very effective treatment for fevers, and especially as a treatment and preventative of malaria. The bark is a bitter, astringent herb that lowers fevers, relaxes spasms, is antimalarial (the alkaloid quinine) and slows the heart (the alkaloid quinidine). The bark is made into various preparations, such as tablets, liquid extracts, tinctures and powders. It is used internally in the treatment of malaria, neuralgia, muscle cramps and cardiac fibrillation. It is an ingredient in various proprietary cold and influenza remedies. It is also used as a gargle to treat sore throat.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ciliosemina
http://www.wikiwand.com/de/R%C3%B6tegew%C3%A4chse
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ciliosemina+pedunculata

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Carapichea ipecacuanha

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Botanical Name : Carapichea ipecacuanha
Family: Rubiaceae
Subfamily: Rubioideae
Tribe: Psychotrieae
Genus: Carapichea
Species: C. ipecacuanha
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Synonyms:
*Callicocca ipecacuanha
*Cephaelis ipecacuanha
*Evea ipecacuanha
*Psychotria ipecacuanha
*Uragoga ipecacuanha

Common Name: Ipecac, Its common name, ipecacuanha

Habitat: Carapichea ipecacuanha is native to Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama, Colombia, and Brazil. is derived from the Tupi ipega’kwãi, or “road-side sick-making plant”.
Description:
Carapichea ipecacuanha is an evergreen Shrub growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) by 0.5 m (1ft 8in) at a medium rate. It has a slender stem which grows partly underground and is often procumbent at the base, the lower portion being knotted.

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Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid soils.

It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) or semi-shade (light woodland). It prefers moist soil.

Cultivation:
Prefers a minimum temperature in the range of 15 – 18 degree centigrade . Prefers a well-drained humus-rich soil and a shady position. Plants need ample moisture and humidity if they are to thrive.

Propagation:
Seed – Greenwood cuttings in a sandy compost. Root cuttings.

Medicinal Uses:
The roots of ipecac contain a number of medically active constituents including isoquinoline alkaloids, tannins and glycosides. They have a violently irritant action, stimulating the gastric and bronchial systems, lowering fevers and preventing cyst formation in amoebic dysentery. The roots are used internally in the treatment of coughs, bronchitis, whooping cough and amoebic dysentery. One of the surest of emetics, even moderate doses will induce vomiting until the contents of the stomach have been voided making it especially useful in the treatment of drug overdoses. It is used in a syrup to induce vomiting in children who have ingested toxins. Smaller doses are strongly expectorant and it is a common ingredient in patent cough medicines. The plant needs to be used with caution since excess causes severe vomiting and diarrhoea. The roots are harvested, usually when about 3 years old and the plants are in flower, and are dried for later use. The plants are replanted after partial removal of the roots. The plant is used in homeopathy in the treatment of nausea.
Known Hazards: The plant can be toxic in doses larger than recommended for medicinal use.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carapichea_ipecacuanha
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Carapichea+ipecacuanha

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Prunus cocomilia

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Botanical Name : Prunus cocomilia
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Prunus
Species: P. cocomilia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms: P. pseudoarmeniaca Heldr. & Sartori

Common Name: Italian plum

Habitat : Prunus cocomilia is native to Albania, Croatia, Greece, southern Italy (including Sicily), Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and western Turkey. It grows on hedgerows in the mountains of N. Italy and the Balkans.

Description:
Prunus cocomilia is a deciduous Shrub growing to 5 m (16ft 5in).It is in flower in April. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

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Cultivation:
Thrives in a well-drained moisture-retentive loamy soil. Prefers some lime in the soil but is likely to become chlorotic if too much lime is present. Succeeds in sun or partial shade though it fruits better in a sunny position. This species is closely related to P. cerasifera. Most members of this genus are shallow-rooted and will produce suckers if the roots are damaged. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus.
Propagation:
Seed – requires 2 – 3 months cold stratification and is best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Sow stored seed in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. Protect the seed from mice etc. The seed can be rather slow, sometimes taking 18 months to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Grow them on in a greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year. Cuttings of half-ripe wood with a heel, July/August in a frame. Softwood cuttings from strongly growing plants in spring to early summer in a frame. Layering in spring.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Fruit; Seed.

Fruit – raw or cooked. A bitter or sour flavour. The fruit is rarely produced in Britain. The fruit is about 2cm in diameter and contains one large seed. Seed – raw or cooked. Do not eat the seed if it is too bitter – see the notes below on toxicity.
Medicinal Uses:
Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, all members of the genus contain amygdalin and prunasin, substances which break down in water to form hydrocyanic acid (cyanide or prussic acid). In small amounts this exceedingly poisonous compound stimulates respiration, improves digestion and gives a sense of well-being.
Other Uses: Dye……..A green dye can be obtained from the leaves. A dark grey to green dye can be obtained from the fruit.

Known Hazards: Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, it belongs to a genus where most, if not all members of the genus produce hydrogen cyanide, a poison that gives almonds their characteristic flavour. This toxin is found mainly in the leaves and seed and is readily detected by its bitter taste. It is usually present in too small a quantity to do any harm but any very bitter seed or fruit should not be eaten. In small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even death.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prunus_cocomilia
http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Prunus+cocomilia