Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Movement Disorders

Introduction:
Movement disorders are a group of nervous system (neurological) conditions that cause you to have abnormal voluntary or involuntary movements, or slow, reduced movements.
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Even a simple action such as picking up a pencil engages several different parts of the brain. The conscious thought areas of the brain trigger the motor area to send signals to the muscles of the arm.

As the movement begins, sensors in the arm are activated, sending signals back into different areas of the brain that interpret them and then send further messages to the motor area to fine tune power, speed, coordination and balance.

Given such complexity, problems with the control of movement are understandably widespread. Essential tremor – the most common movement disorder – affects one in 20 people under the age of 40 and one in five people over 65. Up to one in ten people has restless legs syndrome.

Other conditions such as Parkinson’s disease (which affects one in 500 people) are less common, but can severely impair quality of life because they reduce the independence of those affected.

Types:
There are various types of  Movement disorders and that include :

*Ataxia. Ataxia is a neurological condition that affects the part of your brain that controls coordinated movement (cerebellum). Ataxia may cause uncoordinated movements, imbalance and other symptoms.

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*Dystonia. Dystonia is a neurological condition in which your muscles contract involuntarily and may cause twisting and repetitive movements. Dystonia may involve the entire body (generalized dystonia) or one part of the body (focal dystonia).

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*Essential tremor. Essential tremor is a neurological condition that causes involuntary shaking (tremors). Your hands often are affected, but other parts of your body also may be affected.

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*Huntington’s disease. Huntington’s disease is an inherited progressive, neurodegenerative disorder that causes certain nerve cells in your brain to deteriorate. This condition may cause uncontrolled movements, decreased thinking abilities (cognitive abilities), and emotional and mental health disturbances (psychiatric conditions).

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*Multiple system atrophy. Multiple system atrophy is an uncommon, progressive neurological disorder that affects many areas of your brain and nervous system. Multiple system atrophy may cause ataxia or parkinsonism. This condition frequently impairs body systems that modulate your blood pressure, heart rate and bladder function (autonomic function).

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*Myoclonus.:  Myoclonus is a condition in which you have sudden, jerky movements, twitching, or intermittent spasms of a muscle or group of muscles.

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*Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurological disorder that affects your movement and may cause shaking (tremor), muscle stiffness (rigidity), slowing of movement, impaired balance or other symptoms. Parkinsonism describes a group of conditions that has symptoms similar to those of Parkinson’s disease.

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*Progressive supranuclear palsy. Progressive supranuclear palsy is a rare neurological disorder that causes you to have problems with walking, balance and eye movements. It resembles Parkinson’s disease but is a distinct condition.

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*Restless legs syndrome. Restless legs syndrome causes unpleasant, abnormal feelings in your legs while you’re relaxing or lying down. Your symptoms often are relieved by movement.
Tardive dyskinesia. Tardive dyskinesia is a neurological condition caused by long-term use of certain drugs used to treat psychiatric conditions (neuroleptic drugs). Tardive dyskinesia causes repetitive and involuntary movements such as grimacing, eye blinking and other movements.

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*Tourette syndrome. Tourette syndrome is a neurological condition which starts between childhood and teenage years and is associated with repetitive movements (motor tics) and vocal sounds (vocal tics).

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*Wilson’s disease. Wilson’s disease is an inherited (genetic) disorder that causes excessive amounts of copper to build up in your body, causing neurological problems.

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Treatment :Treatment depends upon the underlying disorder

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Movement_disorder
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/movementdisorders1.shtml
http://www.ganeurosurg.org/specialties/movementdisorders.htm
http://www.mayoclinic.org/movement-disorders/

Dystonia


http://wiki.ggc.usg.edu/mediawiki/index.php/Essential_Tremor
http://www.bothbrainsandbeauty.com/academic-discussions/huntingtons-disease-991
http://www.chelationtherapyonline.com/anatomy/p3.htm

http://fisioterapiananeurologia.blogspot.com/2011/05/ataxia-de-friedreich.html

http://www.movementdisorders.org/james_parkinson/early_atypical.html

http://hpathy.com/cause-symptoms-treatment/restless-legs-syndrome/

Tourette’s Syndrome Pictures

http://www.eurowilson.org/en/living/guide/what/index.phtml

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Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Dystonia

Definition:
Dystonia is a syndrome of spasms and sustained contractions of the muscles. These muscle movements are not under voluntary control and they result in repetitive abnormal movements of parts of the body or persistently abnormal postures.

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Dystonia is a movement disorder which causes involuntary contractions of your muscles. These contractions result in twisting and repetitive movements. Sometimes they are painful.

Dystonia can affect just one muscle, a group of muscles or all of your muscles. Symptoms can include tremors, voice problems or a dragging foot. Symptoms often start in childhood. They can also start in the late teens or early adulthood. Some cases worsen over time. Others are mild.

Some people inherit dystonia. Others have it because of another disease. Either way, researchers think that a problem in the part of the brain that handles messages about muscle contractions might cause dystonia. There is no cure. Instead, doctors use medicines, surgery, physical therapy and other treatments to reduce or eliminate muscle spasms and pain.

Dystonia is incurable  thought to affect at least 40,000 people in the UK.

The different types of dystonia include:

•Cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis) affects the neck muscles, causing the head to twist, pull in one direction or shake
Blepharospasm – dystonia of the muscles around the eyes
Oromandibular dystonia – affecting the muscles of the jaw, tongue and mouth
•Laryngeal dystonia – affecting the speech muscles
Writer’s cramp – affecting the ability to write and sometimes other hand-based tasks
There are several types of dystonia that affect more than one area of the body including generalised dystonia, which affects most of the body, frequently involving the legs and back (trunk).

If dystonia develops in childhood, particularly if it starts in the legs, it may spread to other parts of the body and can become generalised. However, when it develops in adults, it usually confines itself to one part of the body (focal dystonia).

Although dystonia is a neurological disorder, it does not lead to problems with other functions of the brain, such as intellect.

It occurs in all parts of the world and affects people of all ages.

Dystonia can affect virtually any single part of the body or several different areas at once.

Classification:

Types of dystonia
*Generalized
*Focal
*Segmental
*Sexual
*Intermediate
*Acute Dystonic Reaction

Generalized dystonias:
*Normal birth history and milestones
*Autosomal dominant
*Childhood onset
*Starts in lower limbs and spreads upwards
*Also known as “idiopathic torsion dystonia” (old terminology “dystonia musculrum deformans”)

Focal dystonias:
These are the most common dystonias and tend to be classified as follows:
*Anismus…. muscles of the rectum……… Causes painful defecation, constipation; may be complicated by encopresis.

*Cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis)…. muscles of the neck…. Causes the head to rotate to one side, to pull down towards the chest, or back, or a combination of these postures.

*Blepharospasm…. muscles around the eyes The sufferer experiences rapid blinking of the eyes or even their forced closure causing effective blindness.

*Oculogyric crisis.. muscles of eye and head….An extreme and sustained (usually) upward deviation of the eyes often with convergence causing diplopia. It is frequently associated with backwards and lateral flexion of the neck and either widely opened mouth or jaw clenching. Frequently a result of antiemetics such as the neuroleptics (e.g., prochlorperazine) or metoclopramide. Also can be caused by Chlorpromazine.

*Oromandibular dystonia….muscles of the jaw and muscles of tongue……Causes distortions of the mouth and tongue.

*Spasmodic dysphonia/Laryngeal dystonia…muscles of larynx…..Causes the voice to sound broken or reducing it to a whisper.

*Focal hand dystonia (also known as musician’s or writer’s cramp)…..single muscle or small group of muscles in the hand…..It interferes with activities such as writing or playing a musical instrument by causing involuntary muscular contractions. The condition is sometimes “task-specific,” meaning that it is generally only apparent during certain activities. Focal hand dystonia is neurological in origin, and is not due to normal fatigue. The loss of precise muscle control and continuous unintentional movement results in painful cramping and abnormal positioning that makes continued use of the affected body parts impossible.
Symptoms:
The progress of dystonia is unpredictable.

The severity of symptoms can vary from day to day, and while there often is an element of overall progression, it is difficult to estimate how long this will last.

Typically, a focal dystonia will progress gradually over a five-year period, and then progress no further.

Symptoms in all dystonic conditions can vary.

For some people, their dystonia may sometimes improve or disappear altogether for no apparent reason.

As with the onset of any long-term medical condition, some people who develop dystonia may go through an initial period of depression, embarrassment and outrage – or relief that there is an explanation for their symptoms.

Causes:
Dystonia is a movement disorder. Although the causes of dystonia are not fully known it is currently thought that the condition results from a malfunction in a part of the brain called the basal ganglia.

The basal ganglia are structures situated deep in the brain. They help to regulate voluntary and involuntary movement by controlling muscle contractions in the body.

The problem may mainly lie in an area of the basal ganglia called the globus pallidus. If this area of the brain is not functioning correctly then the control of another structure in the brain called the thalamus is affected.

The thalamus controls the planning and execution of movement and sends nerves to muscles via the spinal cord. The end result is that muscle co-ordination is not regulated properly. The wrong muscles will contract on movement or all muscles will contract unnecessarily causing abnormal movement and posture.

Muscles positioned around joints usually work in pairs opposite each other, eg the biceps and triceps muscles of the upper arm bend or straighten the elbow respectively. Usually if one muscle of a pair is contracted the other is relaxed. However, in dystonia both muscles in the pair contract at the same time leading to the abnormal movement or posture.

It is thought that in some cases there may be a chemical imbalance or ‘wiring fault’ in the basal ganglia. Chemical transmitters, such as dopamine, convey messages from one nerve cell to another within the basal ganglia. If this balance is upset then incorrect signals will be sent out resulting in loss of regulation of co-ordinated movements.

Supporting this theory is the fact that people with dystonia do not show structural abnormalities of the brain. The ‘wiring fault’ theory is therefore more likely because it works at a much smaller scale.

The fault in the basal ganglia may be caused by an inherited factor or be secondary to another problem such as drugs or toxins, or a separate neurological disease. Recently scanning studies using positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with cervical (neck muscle) dystonia have revealed reduced basal ganglia density of an important dopamine receptor (the D2 receptor).

Genetic risk factors:
Dystonia that develops in childhood is often inherited through one or more affected genes.

Most primary segmental or generalised dystonia is inherited in a dominant manner, which means if a parent has this type of dystonia, there’s a 50% chance of passing the dystonia gene to each child.

However, not everyone who inherits the gene develops dystonia, a phenomenon known as reduced penetrance.

Dystonia which develops in adults may also be inherited.

Diagnosis:
There is no definitive test for dystonia. Diagnosis depends on the presence of characteristic clinical symptoms and signs. The neurologist will perform a full neurological examination and may also perform blood tests or a brain scan to rule out an illness or injury that may be causing the dystonia. If no cause can be found the dystonia is termed ‘idiopathic’.

Treatment:
There is no cure for most forms of dystonia. However, many dystonic conditions can be successfully managed.

Most people manage to develop effective strategies for coping with the challenges their condition brings.

Successful treatments to lessen their symptoms, effective pain control and the acquisition of sensory ‘tricks’ all help to ameliorate social situations.

Various treatments are available for dystonia. These will be determined depending upon the type and severity of the particular condition.

The main options are:
•Botulinum toxin – injections are generally the most effective treatment for dystonia where it affects the muscles of the neck or around the eyes. However, resistance to botulinum toxin can develop in a minority of patients over time.
•Drugs – some work by interfering with neurotransmitters, the chemical substances that carry messages within the brain, while others are designed to relax the muscles, reducing shaking and control muscle spasms. To be effective, they have to be taken continuously.
•Surgery – may be an option where patients have never been or are no longer receptive to other treatments. Treatments include selective denervation and deep brain stimulation (DBS). In the case of the latter, electrodes are planted in the basal ganglia to help rebalance movement and control posture. Recent research has led to a refinement in the placing of electrodes for optimum effect.

Other treatment:
Physical therapies such as physiotherapy with ice, heat or ultrasound, speech therapy for spasmodic dysphonia, acupuncture, osteopathy or chiropractic techniques help some patients. However, treatments involving manipulation of the neck are not recommended for spasmodic torticollis. Relaxation therapies such as hypnosis, behaviour therapy, biofeedback and meditation may also help.

Good advice:
A positive attitude is vital. Dystonia is not life-threatening but can be disabling. Dystonia can have a profound effect both emotionally and functionally. Sufferers should try to continue to lead as normal a life as possible. Counselling and family and social support is helpful.

Many patients with focal dystonias such as torticollis can control the abnormal posture for a short time by using sensory tricks or ‘gestes antagonistiques’. The most common geste is to place a finger or hand against the lower face on the same or opposite side to the direction of movement. Other gestes include sucking a pen or necklace or pulling on the end of the nose or an earlobe. Ambient sound has also been found to relieve dystonia.

Prognosis:
Focal dystonias such as torticollis and blepharospasm may worsen over several years before stabilising. They may improve or disappear for no apparent reason. The likelihood of this has been estimated from anything from 1 in 10 to 1 in 20, but there is no way to predict whether it will happen. In some cases the dystonia will return after a period of remission, but other patients can remain symptom free for the rest of their lives.

Focal dystonias are unlikely to spread to become generalised dystonia. However, some focal dystonias may be associated with each other.

If the dystonia develops in childhood then it usually spreads to other parts of the body and becomes generalised. This type of dystonia is much more disabling than the adult focal type.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/dystonia.shtml
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dystonia
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/dystonia.html#cat5
http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/diseases/facts/dystonia.htm

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Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Dystonia

Definition:
Dystonia is the term used to describe a condition that causes involuntary sustained muscle contractions that lead to abnormal movements and postures.

It is a neurological disorder but does not lead to problems with other functions of the brain such as intellect.It is a neurological movement disorder in which sustained muscle contractions cause twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures. The disorder may be inherited or caused by other factors such as birth-related or other physical trauma, infection, poisoning (eg. lead poisoning) or reaction to drugs.

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Types of Dystonia:

* Generalized
* Segmental
* Intermediate

The Focal Dystonias:

These are the most common dystonias and tend to be classified as follows:

* Cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis). This affects the muscles of the neck, causing the head to rotate to one side, to pull down towards the chest, or back, or a combination of these postures.

* Blepharospasm. This affects the muscles around the eyes. The sufferer experiences rapid blinking of the eyes or even their forced closure causing effective blindness.

* Oculogyric crisis. An extreme and sustained (usually) upward deviation of the eyes often with convergence causing diplopia. It is frequently associated with backwards and lateral flexion of the neck and either widely opened mouth or jaw clenching. Frequently a result of antiemetics such as the neuroleptics (e.g. prochlorperazine) or metoclopramide.

* Oromandibular dystonia. This affects the muscles of the jaw and tongue, causing distortions of the mouth and tongue.

* Spasmodic dysphonia/Laryngeal dystonia. This affects the muscles of the larynx, causing the voice to sound broken or reducing it to a whisper.

* Oromandibular dystonia: Dystonia affecting the muscles of the jaw, tongue and mouth

* Laryngeal dystonia: Dystonia affecting the speech muscles

* Writer’s cramp: Dystonia affecting the ability to write and sometimes other hand-based tasks

There are other types of dystonia that affect more than one area, including generalised dystonia that affects most of the body, frequently involving the legs and back (trunk).

Focal hand dystonia (also known as musician’s or writer’s cramp). This affects a single muscle or small group of muscles in the hand. It interferes with activities such as writing or playing a musical instrument by causing involuntary muscular contractions. The condition is “task-specific,” meaning that it is generally only apparent during certain activities. Focal hand dystonia is neurological in origin, and is not due to fatigue.

The combination of blepharospasmodic contractions and oromandibular dystonia is called cranial dystonia or Meige’s syndrome.

Segmental Dystonias:

Segmental dystonias affect two adjoining parts of the body:

* Hemidystonia. This affects an arm and a leg on one side of the body.

* Multifocal dystonia. This affects many different parts of the body.

* Generalized dystonia. This affects most of the body, frequently involving the legs and back.

Causes:
The cause(s) of dystonia are not yet known or understood; however, they are categorized as follows on a theoretical basis:

Primary dystonia is suspected to be caused by a pathology of the central nervous system, likely originating in those parts of the brain concerned with motor function, such as the basal ganglia, and the GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) producing Purkinje neurons. The precise cause of primary dystonia is unknown. In many cases it may involve some genetic predisposition towards the disorder combined with environmental conditions.

Secondary dystonia refers to dystonia brought on by some identified cause, usually involving brain damage, or by some unidentified cause such as chemical imbalance. Some cases of (particularly focal) dystonia are brought on after trauma, are induced by certain drugs (tardive dystonia), or may be the result of diseases of the nervous system such as Wilson’s disease.

It has been suggested that an imbalance of neurotransmitters (such as dopamine) leads to this defect in control of muscles and movement.

In some cases, damage to the basal ganglia can lead to dystonia.

These are referred to as secondary dystonia and can be due to a variety of causes such as stroke or tumour of the basal ganglia, or the result of certain drugs (especially dopamine blocking drugs used to treat psychiatric disorders) and so on.

In the majority of cases, no underlying cause is found apart from possible genetic factors, and these are called primary or idiopathic dystonia.

Who is affected by dystonia?
Dystonia affects men and women of all ages.

If it develops in childhood, it tends to become generalised.

Dystonia which has its onset in adult life usually remains focal and is more common in those over 40 years of age.

The condition can be difficult to diagnose and many patients remain untreated because their symptoms are unrecognised.

Is it inherited?

Dystonia that develops in childhood is often inherited through one or more affected genes.

Most primary segmental or generalised dystonia is inherited in a dominant manner, which means that if a parent has this type of dystonia, there is a 50% chance of passing the dystonia gene to each child.

However, not everyone who inherits the gene develops dystonia, a phenomenon known as reduced penetrance.

Dystonia which develops in adults may also be inherited.

This is often difficult to identify, since other family members may have only a mild form of the illness. They may have never sought medical advice or perhaps their dystonia was misdiagnosed.

Symptoms:
Symptoms vary according to the kind of dystonia involved. In most cases, dystonia tends to lead to abnormal posturing, particularly on movement. Many sufferers have continuous pain, cramping and relentless muscle spasms due to involuntary muscle movements.

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Early symptoms may include loss of precision muscle coordination (sometimes first manifested in declining penmanship, frequent small injuries to the hands, dropped items and a noticeable increase in dropped or chipped dishes), cramping pain with sustained use and trembling. Significant muscle pain and cramping may result from very minor exertions like holding a book and turning pages. It may become difficult to find a comfortable position for arms and legs with even the minor exertions associated with holding arms crossed causing significant pain similar to restless leg syndrome. Affected persons may notice trembling in the diaphragm while breathing, or the need to place hands in pockets, under legs while sitting or under pillows while sleeping to keep them still and to reduce pain. Trembling in the jaw may be felt and heard while lying down, and the constant movement to avoid pain may result in TMJ-like symptoms and the grinding and wearing down of teeth. The voice may crack frequently or become harsh, triggering frequent throat clearing. Swallowing can become difficult and accompanied by painful cramping.

Electrical sensors (EMG) inserted into affected muscle groups, while painful, can provide a definitive diagnosis by showing pulsating nerve signals being transmitted to the muscles even when they are at rest. The brain appears to signal portions of fibers within the affected muscle groups at a firing speed of about 10 Hz causing them to pulsate, tremble and contort. When called upon to perform an intentional activity, the muscles fatigue very quickly and some portions of the muscle groups do not respond (causing weakness) while other portions over-respond or become rigid (causing micro-tears under load). The symptoms worsen significantly with use, especially in the case of focal dystonia, and a “mirror effect” is often observed in other body parts: use of the right hand may cause pain and cramping in that hand as well as in the other hand and legs that were not being used. Stress, anxiety, lack of sleep, sustained use and cold temperatures can worsen symptoms.

Direct symptoms may be accompanied by secondary effects of the continuous muscle and brain activity, including disturbed sleep patterns, exhaustion, mood swings, mental stress, difficulty concentrating, blurred vision, digestive problems and short temper. People with dystonia may also become depressed and find great difficulty adapting their activities and livelihood to a progressing disability. Side effects from treatment and medications can also present challenges in normal activities.

In some cases, symptoms may progress and then plateau for years, or stop progressing entirely. The progression may be delayed by treatment or adaptive lifestyle changes, while forced continued use may make symptoms progress more rapidly. In others, the symptoms may progress to total disability, making some of the more risky forms of treatment worth considering.

An accurate diagnosis may be difficult because of the way the disorder manifests itself. Sufferers may be diagnosed as having similar and perhaps related disorders including Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor (ET), carpal tunnel syndrome, TMJ, Tourette’s syndrome, or other neuromuscular movement disorders.

Treatment:
Treatment has been limited to minimizing the symptoms of the disorder as there is yet no successful treatment for its cause. Reducing the types of movements that trigger or worsen dystonic symptoms provides some relief, as does reducing stress, getting plenty of rest, moderate exercise, and relaxation techniques. Various treatments focus on sedating brain functions or blocking nerve communications with the muscles via drugs, neuro-suppression or denervation. All current treatments have negative side effects and risks.

Physicians may prescribe a series of different medications on a trial basis in an effort to find a combination that is effective for a specific patient. Not all patients will respond well to the same medications. Drugs that have had positive results in some patients include anti-Parkinsons agents (Trihexyphenidyl), muscle relaxers (Valium), keppra, and beta-blockers including “off-label” uses for some blood pressure medications.

Drugs such as anticholinergics, which act as inhibitors of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, may provide some relief. Clonazepam, an anti-seizure medicine, is also sometimes prescribed. However, for most sufferers their effects are limited and side effects like mental confusion, sedation, mood swings and short-term memory loss occur.

Botulinum toxin injections into affected muscles have proved quite successful in providing some relief for around 3-6 months, depending on the kind of dystonia. Botox injections have the advantage of ready availability (the same form is used for cosmetic surgery) and the effects are not permanent. There is a risk of temporary paralysis of the muscles being injected or the leaking of the toxin into adjacent muscle groups causing weakness or paralysis in them. The injections have to be repeated as the effects wear off and around 15% of recipients will develop immunity to the toxin. There is a Type A and Type B toxin approved for treatment of dystonia; often those that develop resistance to Type A may be able to use Type B.

Surgery, such as the denervation of selected muscles, may also provide some relief; however, the destruction of nerves in the limbs or brain is not reversible and should only be considered in the most extreme cases. Recently, the procedure of deep brain stimulation (DBS) has proved successful in a number of cases of severe generalised dystonia.

One type of dystonia, dopa-responsive dystonia, can be completely treated with regular doses of L-dopa in a form such as Sinemet (carbidopa/levodopa). Although this doesn’t remove the condition, it does alleviate the symptoms most of the time.

A baclofen pump has been used to treat patients of all ages exhibiting muscle spasticity along with dystonia. The pump delivers baclofen via a catheter to the thecal space surrounding the spinal cord. The pump itself is placed in the abdomen. It can be refilled periodically by access through the skin.

Physical therapy can sometimes help with focal dystonia. A structured set of exercises is tailored to help the affected area.

Prognosis:Unfortunately, there is not yet a cure for most forms of dystonia. Nowadays, however, many dystonic conditions can be very successfully managed. In many cases, if dystonia develops in childhood, particularly if it starts in the legs, it may spread to other parts of the body and can become generalised.

However, when it develops in adults, it usually confines itself to one part of the body (focal dystonia). The progress of dystonia is unpredictable.
The severity of symptoms can vary from day to day, and while there often is an element of overall progression, it is difficult to estimate how long this will last.Typically, a focal dystonia will progress very gradually over a five-year period, and then progress no further. Symptoms in all dystonic conditions can vary.
For some people, their dystonia may sometimes improve or disappear altogether for no apparent reason.


Living with Dystonia:

As with the onset of any long-term medical condition, some people who develop dystonia may go through an initial period of depression, embarrassment and outrage – or relief that there is an explanation for their symptoms.

Most people do manage to develop effective strategies for coping with the challenges that their condition brings.

Successful treatments to lessen their symptoms, effective pain control and the acquisition of sensory ‘tricks’ all help to ameliorate social situations.

Development:In the last few years, awareness of dystonia has increased and the outlook for people with dystonia is improving.

The Dystonia Society, a registered charity, works hard to speed up the processes of both research and recognition.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dystonia
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/medical_notes/6237440.stm