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Aconitum heterophyllum

Botanical Name : Aconitum heterophyllum
Family: Ranunculaceae
Tribe: Delphinieae
Genus: Aconitum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales

Synonyms:
Aruna, Ardra, Upavisa, Kasaya Krsna, Ghuna Vallabha, Candri, Pita Vallabha, Prati Visa, Bhangura, Madhya-deastha, Mahausadha, Madri, Mrdvi, Rakta, Visva, Visama, Visa,sisubhaisajya, Suka Kanda, Sukla Kanda, Srngika, Syama Kanda, sveta, Sveta Kanda, sveta vaca

Common Names:
Names in different languages:

Marathi……..Ati Vish
Persian………Vajjcturki
Punjabi……..Atis
Tamil…………Ati Vidayam
Telugu……….Ati Vasa
Bengali……..Ataich
English……….Indian Atees
Gujarati………Ativakhani Kali.
Hindi…………..Atis, Atvika
Kannada………Ati Visha
Malayalam…….Ati Vidayam

Habitat : Aconitum heterophyllum is native to E. Asia – W. Himalayas. Usually found on humus-rich soils in the alpine and subalpine zones, and in forests, 2300 – 2900 metres.
Description:
Aconitum heterophyllum is a perennial plant growing to 1.5 m (5ft). Roots, biennial, paired, tuberous; conical or cylindrical 4-10 cm long, 0.75-3 cm thick.Stem erect.Roots biennial, paired, tuberous; whitish or grey. Stem erect, simple or branched, from 15-20 cm high. glabrous below, finely crispo-pubescent in the upper part.

Leaves heteromorphous, glabrous: lowest on long petioles (13cm); blade orbicular- cordate or ovate-cordate in outline with a usually narrow sinus (1-1.5 cm deep); usually 5- lobed to the middle, amplexicaul.

Inflorescence slender raceme or a lax, leafy panicle, crispo-pubescent; Sepals bluish or violet (rarely whitish); navicular obliquely erect, shortly or obscurely beaked, 18-20 mm high, 8-9 mm wide. Carpels 5, elliptic-oblong. Follicles contagious, linear-oblong, straight, 16-18 mm long.

Seeds pyramidal, 3-4 mm long, blackish brown.

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It is in flower from Aug to September, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October. and are pollinated by Bees.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
Thrives in most soils and in the light shade of trees. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers a moist soil in sun or semi-shade. Prefers a calcareous soil. Grows well in open woodlands. The roots of this plant are extensively collected from the wild for medicinal use and the species is becoming much rarer in many areas of its range. Members of this genus seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits and deer. A greedy plant, inhibiting the growth of nearby species, especially legumes.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. The seed can be stratified and sown in spring but will then be slow to germinate. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer. Division – best done in spring but it can also be done in autumn. Another report says that division is best carried out in the autumn or late winter because the plants come into growth very early in the year

Edible Uses: Leaves and root – cooked. This report should be treated with great distrust due to the poisonous nature of the genus, but see the notes  below on known hazards.

Chemical Constituents:
Atidine , hetisine, heteratisine ,Diterpene alkaloids , heterophylline, heterophylline ,heterophyllidine heterophyllisine, hetidine, atidine & ,Atisenol, a new entatisene diterpenoid lactone from roots.

F-dishydrçatisine, hetidine, hetisinone, heteratisine, hetisine, benzylleteratisine, beta —sitosterol, carotene and 3— isoatisine from rhizomes.

Medicinal Uses:
Analgesic; Antiinflammatory; Antiperiodic; Aphrodisiac; Astringent; Cholagogue; Febrifuge; Tonic.

The dried root is analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiperiodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, cholagogue, febrifuge and tonic. It is used in India in the treatment of dyspepsia, diarrhoea and coughs. It is also used in Tibetan medicine, where it is said to have a bitter taste and a cooling potency. It is used to treat poisoning from scorpion or snake bites, the fevers of contagious diseases and inflammation of the intestines. The root is best harvested in the autumn as soon as the plant dies down and is dried for later use. This is a very poisonous plant and should only be used with extreme caution and under the supervision of a qualified practitioner.

External uses:

The crushed eaves, mixed with saindhav are applied focally. The seeds crushed in honey are applied locally on throat, in tonsillitis. Nasal insufflations of roots is beneficial in headache (especially migraine).

Internal uses:

Respiratory system : The juice of roots along with milk is an expectorant Root powder is given orally in cervical lymphadenitis.

Digestive system : Seed and root are used in ascites. Seeds are laxative.

Urinary system : The seeds are diuretic, the root decoction reduces burning of urinary tract. It increases volume of urine,

Reproductive system : Root is used in sperrnatorrhoea. The decoction of roots is also used in burning of vagina.

Circulatory system : The juice of leaves along with juice of zingier reduce perspiration.

Known Hazards:  The whole plant is highly toxic – simple skin contact has caused numbness in some people. One report says that this plant does not contain the toxic alkaloid aconitine, and so is not poisonous. It does, however, still contain an intensely bitter alkaloid.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aconitum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Aconitum+heterophyllum
http://www.indianmedicinalplants.info/d2/Aconitum-heterophyllum(Ativisa%20).html

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Lavandula angustifolia

Botanical Name : Lavandula angustifolia
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Lavandula
Species: L. angustifolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Synonyms: L. officinale. L. spica. pro parte. L. vera. (not of gardens)

Common Names: Lavender or English lavender, Common lavender, True lavender, Narrow-leaved lavender

Habitat :Lavandula angustifolia is native to Europe – Mediterranean. It grows in dry grassy slopes amongst rocks, in exposed, usually parched, hot rocky situations often on calcareous soils.

Description:
Lavandula angustifolia is a strongly aromatic shrub growing as high as 1 to 2 metres (3.3 to 6.6 ft) tall. The leaves are evergreen, 2–6 centimetres (0.79–2.36 in) long, and 4–6 millimetres (0.16–0.24 in) broad. The flowers are pinkish-purple (lavender-coloured), produced on spikes 2–8 cm (0.79–3.15 in) long at the top of slender, leafless stems 10–30 cm (3.9–11.8 in) long. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Jul to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, lepidoptera.It is noted for attracting wildlife…….CLICK &  SEE THE PICTUR

Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Alpine garden, Border, Container, Ground cover, Massing, Rock garden, Seashore, Specimen. Succeeds in almost any soil so long as it is well-drained and not too acid. Prefers a sunny position in a neutral to alkaline soil. Prefers a light warm dry soil. When grown in rich soils the plants tend to produce more leaves but less essential oils. Established plants are drought tolerant. Plants are very tolerant of salt wind exposure. When growing for maximum essential oil content, the plant must be given a very warm sunny position and will do best in a light sandy soil, the fragrance being especially pronounced in a chalky soil. Plants are hardy to between -10 and -15°c. Lavender is a very ornamental plant that is often grown in the herb garden and is also grown commercially for its essential oil. There are several named varieties. Not a very long-lived plant, it can be trimmed to keep it tidy but is probably best replaced every 10 years. Any trimming is best done in spring and should not be done in the autumn since this can encourage new growth that will not be very cold-hardy. A good bee plant, also attracting butterflies and moths. Lavender makes a good companion for most plants, growing especially well with cabbages. Special Features: Attractive foliage, Fragrant foliage, Not North American native, Attracts butterflies, Suitable for cut flowers, Suitable for dried flowers, Fragrant flowers, Attractive flowers or blooms.

Propagation :
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse and only just cover the seed. It usually germinates in 1 – 3 months at 15°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter, planting them out in late spring after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood 7 – 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Usually very east, a high percentage will root within a few weeks. Grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter and plant them out in late spring after the last expected frosts. Cuttings 7cm with a heel succeed at almost any time of the year. Layering.

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Edible Uses:
Edible Uses: Condiment; Tea.

Leaves, petals and flowering tips – raw. Used as a condiment in salads, soups, stews etc[2, 15, 183]. They provide a very aromatic flavour[7] and are too strong to be used in any quantity[K]. The fresh or dried flowers are used as a tea[183]. The fresh flowers are also crystallized or added to jams, ice-creams, vinegars etc as a flavouring[238]. An essential oil from the flowers is used as a food flavouring

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Medicinal Uses:
Antianxiety; Antihalitosis; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic; Appetizer; Aromatherapy; Aromatic; Carminative; Cholagogue; Diuretic; Nervine;   Sedative; Stimulant; Stomachic; Tonic.

Lavender is a commonly used household herb, though it is better known for its sweet-scented aroma than for its medicinal qualities. However, it is an important relaxing herb, having a soothing and relaxing affect upon the nervous system. The flowering spikes can be dried and used internally in a tincture, though the extracted essential oil is more commonly used. The essential oil is much more gentle in its action than most other essential oils and can be safely applied direct to the skin as an antiseptic to help heal wounds, burns etc. An essential oil obtained from the flowers is antihalitosis, powerfully antiseptic, antispasmodic, aromatic, carminative, cholagogue, diuretic, nervine, sedative, stimulant, stomachic and tonic. It is not often used internally, though it is a useful carminative and nervine. It is mainly used externally where it is an excellent restorative and tonic – when rubbed into the temples, for example, it can cure a nervous headache, and it is a delightful addition to the bath-water. Its powerful antiseptic properties are able to kill many of the common bacteria such as typhoid, diphtheria, streptococcus and Pneumococcus, as well as being a powerful antidote to some snake venoms. It is very useful in the treatment of burns, sunburn, scalds, bites, vaginal discharge, anal fissure etc, where it also soothes the affected part of the body and can prevent the formation of permanent scar tissue. The essential oil is used in aromatherapy. Its keyword is ‘Immune system’. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Lavandula angustifolia for loss of appetite, nervousness and insomnia, circulatory disorders, dyspeptic complaints .The oil is strongly antiseptic and used to heal wounds.

Other Uses:

Essential; Hedge; Incense; Pot-pourri; Repellent.

The essential oil that is obtained from the flowers is exquisitely scented and has a very wide range of applications, both in the home and commercially. It is commonly used in soap making, in making high quality perfumes (it is also used in ‘Eau de Cologne’), it is also used as a detergent and cleaning agent, a food flavouring etc and as an insect repellent. When growing the plant for its essential oil content, it is best to harvest the flowering stems as soon as the flowers have faded. Yields of 0.8 – 1% of the oil are obtained. The aromatic leaves and flowers are used in pot-pourri and as an insect repellent in the linen cupboard etc. They have been used in the past as a strewing herb in order to impart a sweet smell to rooms and to deter insects. The leaves are also added to bath water for their fragrance and therapeutic properties. They are also said to repel mice. The flowering stems, once the flowers have been removed for use in pot-pourri etc, can be tied in small bundles and burnt as incense sticks. Lavender can be grown as a low hedge, responding well to trimming. There are several varieties, such as ‘Hidcote Variety’, ‘Loddon Pink’ and ‘Folgate Blue’ that are suitable for using as dwarf hedges 30 – 50cm tall.

Lavare is the Latin verb “to wash”. The Romans used the fragrance of the blossoms in their bath water hence the origin of the name lavendula. In the Middle Ages, it was used alone or in combination with other herbs to treat insomnia, anxiety states, migraine headaches and depression. The fragrance is relaxing hence the dry blossoms were stuffed in pillows and given to agitated patients to produce sedation.

Known Hazards : The volatile oil may rarely cause sensitization

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lavandula_angustifolia
http://www.piam.com/mms_garden/plants.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Lavandula+angustifolia

First aid In Fever

Fever is one of your body’s reactions to infection. What’s normal for you may be a little higher or lower than the average temperature of 98.6 F (37 C). That’s why it’s hard to say just what a fever is. But a “significant” fever is usually defined as an oral or ear temperature of 102 F or a rectal temperature of 103 F. For very young children and infants, however, even slightly elevated temperatures may indicate a serious infection. In newborns, a subnormal temperature   rather than a fever   also may be a sign of serious illness.

Don’t treat fevers below 101 F with any medications unless advised to do so by your doctor. If you have a fever of 101 F or higher, your doctor may suggest taking over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others). Adults may also use aspirin. But don’t give aspirin to children. It may trigger a rare, but potentially fatal, disorder known as   Reye’s syndrome.

How to take a temperature
You can choose from several types of thermometers. Today most have digital readouts. Some take the temperature quickly from the ear canal and can be especially useful for young children and older adults. Other thermometers can be used rectally, orally or under the arm. If you use a digital thermometer, be sure to read the instructions, so you know what the beeps mean and when to read the thermometer. Under normal circumstances, temperatures tend to be highest around 4 p.m. and lowest around 4 a.m.

Because of the potential for mercury exposure or ingestion, glass mercury thermometers have been phased out and are no longer recommended.

Rectally (for infants)
To take your child’s temperature rectally:

* Place a dab of petroleum jelly or other lubricant on the bulb.
* Lay your child on his or her stomach.
* Carefully insert the bulb one-half inch to one inch into the rectum.
* Hold the bulb and child still for three minutes. To avoid injury, don’t let go of the thermometer while it’s inside your child.
* Remove and read the temperature as recommended by the manufacturer.
* A rectal temperature reading is generally 1 degree F higher than an oral reading.

Orally
To take your temperature orally:

* Place the bulb under your tongue.
* Close your mouth for the recommended amount of time, usually three minutes.
* If you’re using a nondigital thermometer, remove it from your mouth and rotate it slowly until you can read the temperature accurately.

Under the arm (axillary)
Although it’s not the most accurate way to take a temperature, you can also use an oral thermometer for an armpit reading:

* Place the thermometer under your arm with your arm down.
* Hold your arms across your chest.
* Wait five minutes or as recommended by your thermometer’s manufacturer. Then remove the thermometer and read the temperature.
* An axillary reading is generally 1 degree F less than an oral reading

Get medical help for a fever in these cases:

* If a baby is younger than 2 months of age and has a rectal temperature of 100.4 F or higher. Even if your baby doesn’t have other signs or symptoms, call your doctor just to be safe.
* If a baby is older than 2 months of age and has a temperature of 102 F or higher.
* If a newborn has a lower-than-normal temperature — less than 95 F rectally.
* If a child younger than age 2 has a fever for longer than one day, or a child age 2 or older has a fever for longer than three days. If your child has a fever after being left in a very hot car, seek medical care immediately.
* If an adult has a temperature of more than 104 F or has had a fever for more than three days.

Call your doctor immediately if any of these signs or symptoms accompanies a fever:

* A severe headache
* Severe swelling of the throat
* Unusual skin rash
* Unusual eye sensitivity to bright light
* A stiff neck and pain when the head is bent forward
* Mental confusion
* Persistent vomiting
* Difficulty breathing or chest pain
* Extreme listlessness or irritability
* Abdominal pain or pain when urinating
* Any other unexplained symptoms

Source:MayoClinic.Com